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Compare now the two following: ‘She is the sweetesttempered, honestest, worthiest, young creature'. (Fielding.) 'Dare any soul breathe a word against the sweetest, the tenderest, the most angelical of young women?' (Thackeray.) Mätzner accounts for the repetition in the second instance thus : 'The reason is to bring the object emphatically forward after its different qualifications'. A good example of the same emphasis occurs in Macaulay: ‘Of these pamphlets, the longest, the bitterest, and the ablest was commonly ascribed to Ferguson’. One pamphlet is spoken of.
They possessed both the civil and criminal jurisdiction'. (Hume.) Say 'both the civil and the criminal jurisdiction', giving the article to each subject. So the civil and the ecclesiastical administration'. (Macaulay.)
• The lunatic, the lover, and the poet,
Are of imagination all compact'.
• Alike the busy and the gay
In fortune’s varying colours drest'. . The pursuers and pursued entered the gates together'. The contrast requires the repetition of the article: the pursuers and 'the' pursued.
Again—'James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy, a tyrant, a murderer, and a usurper'. We cannot be mistaken here; there are several predicates for the same subject • James'. The case would be different if one were to sayThey found a mortal and bloody enemy, a tyrant, &c. The hearer would certainly suppose that the writer meant more than one person.
· The elder and younger son gentleman and lady in the weather-box, never at home together'. (Thackeray.) Properly: the elder and 'the younger son; the gentleman and the’lady.
A loyal gentry and priesthood'. (Macaulay.) Except for great emphasis, we should scarcely say 'a loyal gentry and a loyal priesthood'. Otherwise, 'a gentry and priesthood both loyal'.
were, like the
'On the white corner square marked 64 place a rook or castle'. The article is not repeated, 'rook' and 'castle' being names, not of different things, but of the same thing.
So, ‘On the distant mainland is seen the town or village of Stromness'.
“What is the use and object of building pinnacles?' (Helps.)
'The Æmilian and Flaminian highways’ is allowable in the sense of “The Æmilian highway and the Flaminian highway': a considerable shortening of the expression, Similarly, the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ', 'the Danish and Saxon tongues', 'the thirteenth and fourteenth Iliads’. Macaulay expresses the same meaning otherwise, in 'The hereditary and the elective branch of the Legislature'. According to the foregoing instances, he right have written' The hereditary and elective branches'. Had he given ' The hereditary and the elective branches', this would have implied a plurality both of hereditary branches and of elective branches.
As a rule the Article precedes another adjective joined to the same noun: as a good man', 'the wisest man'. But there are a few adjectives that precede the article: 'What a pity !' 'What a grace was seated on this brow!' 'What a precious puppy!''Such an act'; such a deed';
on such a tranquil night as this'. Many a man’; 'full many a gem'; “how does your honour for this many a day ?' 'Half an hour'; 'half a pound'.
When the other adjective is modified by certain adverbs of degree, it goes before the article: '80 excellent a king', '80 difficult a task ', 'so hopeless an undertaking '; ' how serious a case', 'how beautiful a river', how strongly fortified a town it is '; 'too severe a sentence', 'too long a sermon’; all the mountains', . all the ills of life', 'all the wisdom of the ancients'; 'both the hands', 'both the steamers were injured'; 'half, double, triple the number', or 'the quantity'.
For the singular we say many a man', which gives the plural 'many men'. But the form a many men' occurs; more frequently, however, in older than in recent compositions. Some have suggested that many' is not an adjec
tive here, but a noun; yet, in a a few Celtic, and a still fewer Latin, words’ (Freeman), we see a like construction, and 'few' seems to be accepted as an adjective. “A great many objections' is common enough; Thackeray uses pretty many': 'the Catholic gentry, of whom there were a pretty many in the country and neighbouring city' 'A many parties ', in the mouth of Mrs. Toosypegs (Verdant Green); 'a many things' in the mouth of Mrs. Poyser (Adam Bede); and similar instances from Mrs. Holt (Felix Holt), and the turnkey's daughter (Thackeray)-seem to relegate this form to the vulgar speech.
Even the auxiliary verbs must follow the rule of repetition : "Man should glorify God, and should enjoy him for ever'. * They will admit that he was a great poet, but 'they will’ deny that he was a great man’.
‘Be’ should not do duty first as incomplete verb, and then as auxiliary. It should be repeated. “The Doctor was a very great favourite, and received with much respect and honour'. (Thackeray.) Say was received'. Waste are those pleasant farms, and the farmers for ever departed'. (Longfellow.)
The principle extends to PREPOSITIONS. 'Journal kept in France and (in) Italy'. The omission of the second 'in'is excused solely on the ground that we cannot be misled into supposing France and Italy the same subject. “Man's chief end is to glorify God, and to enjoy him for ever'. This served rather to perplex than to undeceive him’; These events belong more to Roman than 'to' British story'. (Hume.)
Macaulay's two essays on Milton and Machiavelli'suggests two essays, both on the two authors combined. There are various ways, though perhaps more cumbrous, of shewing that one essay is on Milton, and the other on Machiavelli. Some improvement is effected by repeating the preposition; we might farther append the word 'respectively'.
‘Had John inherited the great qualities of his father, of,
Henry Beauclerc, or of the conqueror, &c.' (Macaulay.) If the repeated ofs were omitted, the meaning would be very misleading, or at least ambiguous, to such as are not acquainted with the facts from other sources.
• The Sabbath was regarded as a day for rest from worldly occupation and holy joy'. One might be excused for supposing at first reading that the writer means 'rest from holy joy' as well as 'rest from worldly occupation'. The repetition of 'for' is necessary :'a day for rest from worldly occupation and for holy joy’.
‘He sympathized not with their cause, but their fate'. (Lytton.) ‘Not’and 'but'here contrast two positions, which should be expressed similarly: 'not with their cause, but • with’ their fate’ is far more satisfactory.
"Wise women choose not husbands for the eye, merit, or birth, but wealth and sovereignty'. (Ben Jonson.) Here again is a contrast between positions. “For’ should be repeated at least before 'wealth': 'not for certain grounds, (which are obviously different from each other without 'for' before each), but for' certain other grounds'. To gain emphasis, however, ' for ' may be placed before each ground of choice, 'wealth and sovereignty' being so closely related as to be reckoned a single ground : Wise women choose husbands, not for the eye, for' merit, or ‘for' birth, but for' wealth and sovereignty'.
“The bursting of the Mississippi Scheme and South-Sea Bubble'. The omission of the article before 'South-Sea' and of the preposition 'of' before the article, as well as the application of 'bursting' to both 'Scheme' and 'Bubble', render the meaning unnecessarily doubtful. Say 'The failure of the Mississippi Scheme and the’ bursting of the SouthSea Bubble'.
Macaulay deserves special commendation for clearness and emphasis gained by means of the repetition of the preposition: ‘Amidst the cares of state the King retained his passion for music, for reading, for writing, for literary society': 'Avowed dissent was punished by imprisonment, by ignominious exposure, by cruel mutilations, and by ruinous
fines'. The separate agencies are emphatically singled out by the repetition of the preposition.
'He [William of Orange) was proved by every test: by war, by wounds, by painful and depressing maladies, by raging seas, by the imminent and constant risk of assassination'. Here again special attention is called to the different agencies working at different times; the repetition of the preposition is peculiarly emphatic.
Obverse couples are to be understood as one subject, unless there be some specific separation. The rule of right and wrong' is the correct way of stating the rule that settles what is right and what is wrong. “It is not a question of pleasure and pain’. * The theory of heat and cold' is equivalent to the theory of the variation of temperature, and is one subject. The feeling of approbation and disap
• probation' is the same subject, unless we mean to make one discussion respecting approbation and another respecting disapprobation.
'By observation and experiment' means the appeal to facts generally, as opposed to deductive inference apart from facts. If we are to draw a line between making observations and making experiments, which are distinct modes of appealing to facts, we should repeat the preposition : 'by observations and by experiments'.
* Persons are prohibited from riding or driving cattle on the footpath'. Rather—'No one is allowed either to ride on horseback, or to drive cattle on the footpath'; 'It is not allowed to drive cattle, or to ride, on the footpath'. 'Riding on horseback and driving cattle are both forbidden on the footpath'.
So with CONJUNCTIONS : ‘These emigrants were always ready to take the field against the Christians, both as a religious duty and as a means of acquiring slaves'. 'He lives in the family rather as a relation, than as a dependant'. (Addison.)