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COMMON NOUNS.

The typical example is common, general, significant, and a

class noun

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It applies to each of a plurality of agreeing individuals in virtue

of their agreement...
The signification is the sum of the agreements.
Significant names are frequently Singular.

Abstract names used figuratively....
General names limited (especially by demonstrative and
possessive adjectives) so as to mean a single individual..

ABSTRACT NOUNS.

The Adjective a fruitful source of these....

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The Adjective Abstract names in separation the point of com-

munity of individuals entitled to the adjective.....

By what marks may the Abstract noun be recognized ?

The Verb Abstracts are of higher importance, grammatically... 28

Abstracts whose origin (adj. or verb) is not obvious

29

History of some examples traced...

A few Abstract Nouns come from other (chiefly class) nouns. ...

30

Use of Verb Abstracts as Common Nouns.

A Verb Abstract often takes a plural (or the indefinite article

in the singular)

The meaning ceases to be abstract, denoting special instances or

occasions of the action.
This conversion also very liable to abuse....

THE PRONOUN.

Distinction of Persons and Things, inoperative in nouns,

prominent here...

The so-called Third Personal Pronouns classed as Demonstra-

tives. Why?........

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The Co-ordinating use explained..

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• Who' and 'which' to be kept solely for Co-ordination ; equi-

valents

Typical cases...

Relative clauses (co-ordinating) of adverbial nature

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Which' with infinitive or clause as antecedent.

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The Restrictive use explained.

The restrictive relative occasionally resolved.

That’to be kept solely for Restriction....

The idiomatic use absolutely necessary for clearness..

Ambiguous constructions exemplified

Relatives overdone : means of relief suggested..

67

Rare use of that'as co-ordinating ; instances

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' That' after Personal pronouns : discussion

Specially urgent cases for 'that':

After a Superlative ; after 'only', 'all'.

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After a Negative; in other (more or less) similar cases .. 70

• Whose', possessive relative, both co-ordinating and restrictive 71

Ambiguity avoided by substitutions of whom', of which ',

&c.

The Adverbial Equivalents are highly important for variety and

lightness ..

Relative adverbs stand for preposition and pronoun: 'where'

and compounds, 'whence whither', when ', for ‘in (on,

at, by, to, from, &c.), which '.

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But (by ellipsis) an emphatic substitute for that not

Must be preceded by a negative (or equivalent).,

73

As (also by ellipsis) is used for that after such' and 'same 74

Miscellaneous examples ; criticisms..

Relative resolved for emphasis

Incongruous forms of adjunct objectionable..

Adjective (for adverbial) clause after so '...

76

Preposition at end of adjective clause often dropped, especially

in phrases of time ....

78

Participle for clause...

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Disadvantages of 'that'enumerated :

A preposition is thrown to the end of the clause..

*That' may be ambiguous through not distinguishing per-

sons and things; as with neutral antecedents like one

'all'

80

Gratuitous re-assertion of the distinction censurable...

* That' might be an awkward transition from whose 'in-

troducing a previous co-ordinate clause

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Older relative usages :

Scriblerus, Milton, St. Matthew...

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Such who (that, as),-whose, - where,—wherein

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Interchange of 'who' and 'which '. The which'

Adverbial substitutes carried to excess...

85

THE ADJECTIVE.

The Definition further explained...

86

Typical adjectives (besides narrowing a class, and adding to its
meaning) have three characteristics-comparison, singleness
of meaning, and being intelligible in themselves...

THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE.

Any adjective may be expanded into an equivalent clause....... 87

Clauses are useful for emphatic or complicated qualifications...

Adjective Clauses abbreviated.

Participle and Prepositional Phrase give the full sense concisely 88

Omitted words essential to the full sense are to be supplied from
the hearer's previous knowledge.........

THE NOUN AS ADJECTIVE.

Nouns do the work of Adjectives : an extensive process.... 89

Such nouns want the three additional peculiarities of the typi-

cal adjectives; examples discussed...

Usage explained by ellipsis of known particulars..

91

Many such cases were never full clauses, mere assimilations.... 92

Used in headings, titles, &c. ; in specifying material..
Contrast with the classical usage
Brevity gained without loss of intelligibility.

ANOMALOUS OR ARTIFICIAL ADJECTIVES.

Instances examined : Adjective form with Noun force.... 93

The sense has to be filled up as for nouns...

The formal Adjective, where not misleading, is a gain only to

the ear : suffix 'an'

Great variety of the Adjective form in elliptical combinations.. 96

Extreme illustration from Latin : nouns must take Adjective

form....

Artificial Adjectives become regular by settling down to a con-

stant or uniform meaning.....

97

This accounts for Adjectives derived from nouns by suffixes....

THE PREPOSITIONAL ADJECTIVE PHRASE.

An abridged form of the Adjective Clause......

98

The Phrase is more expressive than the solitary noun.
Frequency and vagueness of the preposition 'of'.

THE POSSESSIVE AS AN ADJECTIVE.

Extensive process within limits....

99

Analogy between the Possessive inflection and a significant

suffix....

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