Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB

CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS.

Principle of Classification :- -What grammatical purpose is to

be served ?..

The common definition of the noun, not a definition, but a sort

of sub-division.....
The actual classification is on a different plan...
Enumeration of five classes (each with grammatical peculi-

arities) : PROPER, COMMON, ABSTRACT (adjective and verb),
and the recently added MATERIAL and COLLECTIVE Nouns ....

[ocr errors]

24

6

[ocr errors]

Use of Verb Abstracts as Common Nouns.

A Verb Abstract often takes a plural (or the indefinite article

in the singular)

The meaning ceases to be abstract, denoting special instances or

occasions of the action.
This conversion also very liable to abuse........

9

THE PRONOUN.

Distinction of Persons and Things, inoperative in nouns,

prominent here

The so-called Third Personal Pronouns classed as Demonstra-

tives. Why?....

Various applications of 'we'.

Different uses are often mixed, or occur close together.

Resulting ambiguity ; methods of cure....

I’for we'; great force of singularity.....

PRONOUNS OF THE SECOND PERSON.

Anomalous nsages ; motive discussed and illustrated...

The familiar ‘thou ' early used for energetic contempt...

You'representative ; when allowable, and with what effect...
• Thou' and 'you' are often carelessly mixed...
Older distinction of 'ye' and 'you'....

6

PAGB

[ocr errors]
[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

They'— the popular voice ; examples and equivalents..
•One' is more important..

Special idiom for reference to 'one

Substitutes remarked upon : 'I' or

-'men', 'you' (familiar, vivid).

[ocr errors]

The Co-ordinating use explained....

63

Who' and 'which 'to be kept solely for Co-ordination ; equi-

valents

Typical cases..

Relative clauses (co-ordinating) of adverbial nature

64

• Which' with infinitive or clause as antecedent.

65

The Restrictive use explained.

The restrictive relative occasionally resolved.

66

. That 'to be kept solely for Restriction....

The idiomatic use absolutely necessary for clearness.

Ambiguous constructions exemplified

Relatives overdone : means of relief suggested..

67

Rare use of 'that'as co-ordinating ; instances

68

That' after Personal pronouns : discussion

Specially urgent cases for 'that':

After a Superlative ; after 'only', 'all'...

69

After a Negative ; in other (more or less) similar cases. 70

• Whose', possessive relative, both co-ordinating and restrictive 71

Ambiguity avoided by substitutions—'of whom', of which ',

&c.

The Adverbial Equivalents are highly important for variety and

lightness

Relative adverbs stand for preposition and pronoun: 'where '

and compounds, whence", whither', 'when ', for ‘in (on,

at, by, to, from, &c.), which '.

72

But (by ellipsis) an emphatic substitute for that not

Must be preceded by a negative (or equivalent).,

73

As (also by ellipsis) is used for that after “such' and 'same 74

Miscellaneous examples ; criticisms..

Relative resolved for emphasis

3

Incongruous forms of adjunct objectionable..

Adjective (for adverbial) clause after .so '...

76

Preposition at end of adjective clause often dropped, especially

in phrases of time...

78

Participle for clause..

79

Disadvantages of that'enumerated :

A preposition is thrown to the end of the clause...

"That’ may be ambiguous through not distinguishing per-

sons and things; as with neutral antecedents like 'one',

all'.

80

Gratuitous re-assertion of the distinction censurable.

* That' might be an awkward transition from whose 'in-

troducing a previous co-ordinate clause ..

81

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

THE ADJECTIVE.

The Definition further explained...

86

Typical adjectives (besides narrowing a class, and adding to its

meaning) have three characteristics—comparison, singleness

of meaning, and being intelligible in themselves......

THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE.

Any adjective may be expanded into an equivalent clause....... 87

Clauses are useful for emphatic or complicated qualifications...

Adjective Clauses abbreviated.

Participle and Prepositional Phrase give the full sense concisely 88

Omitted words essential to the full sense are to be supplied from

the hearer's previous knowledge....

THE NOUN AS ADJECTIVE.

Nouns do the work of Adjectives : an extensive process.... 89

Such nouns want three additional peculiarities of the typi-

cal adjectives ; examples discussed....

Usage explained by ellipsis of known particulars...

91

Many such cases were never full clauses, mere assimilations.... 92

Used in headings, titles, &c. ; in specifying material...

Contrast with the classical usage

Brevity gained without loss of intelligibility.

ANOMALOUS OR ARTIFICIAL ADJECTIVES.

Instances examined : Adjective form with Noun force... 93

The sense has to be filled up as for nouns...

The formal Adjective, where not misleading, is a gain only to

the ear : suffix 'an'

95

Great variety of the Adjective form in elliptical combinations.. 96

Extreme illustration from Latin : nouns must take Adjective

form....

Artificial Adjectives become regular by settling down to a con-

stant or uniform meaning..

97

This accounts for Adjectives derived from nouns by suffixes....

THE PREPOSITIONAL ADJECTIVE PHRASE.

An abridged form of the Adjective Clause.....

98

The Phrase is more expressive than the solitary noun.

Frequency and vagueness of the preposition of'..

THE POSSESSIVE AS AN ADJECTIVE.

Extensive process within limits.....

99

Analogy between the Possessive inflection and a significant

suffix...

[ocr errors]
« ZurückWeiter »