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DERIVATION.

SOURCES OF THE VOCABULARY.

Practical intention of the review

205

Saxon and Classical words to be used, not indiscriminately, but

in view of their special advantages.

Propriety of the term 'Saxon'

Saxon words are more generally intelligible.

They are widely associated with our strongest feelings.

206

Classical words are valuable for precise discrimination.

They are more refined and dignified...

207

They predominate in elevated style ; oratory, &c....

208

Use Saxon words, unless special motives demand classical .......

Examples of the two Vocabularies.

Saxon words from various departments.

208

Many French words widely diffused and very familiar

209

Classical words from various departments..

Farther comparison of the distinctive merits of the two classes. 2ľo

Familiar Saxon names needlessly ousted by classical names... .. 211

A principle is stated in precise terms ; the exposition admits

Tess exact varieties.....

212

Saxon words more rarely supplant Classical words..

213

The Saxon of the Bible....

Authorized English translation compared with others.. 214

The classical element in the Bible..

215

The language of the Bible might be still more simple.

217

Learned terms in simple passages are inharmonious...

Qualities of words not necessarily decided by their origin alone. 218

Some Saxon words difficult; many Classical words familiar ...
Classical words graduated in simplicity : Greek - Latin - French 219

Simplification of learned style : extended examples........

COMPOSITION OF WORDS.

How far the process is to be examined here...

229

ORDER OF WORDS.

Importance of the subject.

295

INVERSION OF SUBJECT AND VERB.

The main purpose is to gain emphasis.....

295

Adverb (and equivalents) in the foremost place : examples...
Complement often first with adverbial force..

Inversion without preceding adverb mostly poetical..

298

Inversion of complement easy. Ambiguities ..

Infinitive (logical subject) anticipated by 'it', 'this', &c.

(formal subject) comes after the predicate..

299

Cases with 'it'absent, infinitive (subj.) still after verb.
Similar instances of the noun clause..

OBJECT AND VERB.

Ambiguity through inverted object...

300

Inversion admissible when either subject or object is a pronoun

Also when subject and object are not of the same number and

the verb shows the number.

No difficulty with the Imperative..

301

Infinitive or clause (object) rather heavy for the first place.......

Practical purposes of the inversion....

NOUN AND ADJECTIVE.

Propriety of the arrangement..

302

Exceptions ; for the most part poetical varieties..

Adjectives with long or many adjuncts follow the noun. 304

Most adjective equivalents, being more cumbrous, follow the

noun; German usage compared..
Noun repeated, so as to take complicated or important adjuncts
in two divisions.

The three first, or the first three ?

Additional examples and explanation .

305

The Article.

Rule of Repetition further exemplified...

306

The Article precedes another adjective ; exceptions

308

Rule of Repetition extended to Auxiliary verbs..

And to Prepositions..

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Special case of obverse couples

Conjunctions also are to be repeated..

PRONOUN AND ANTECEDENT.

Relative and Antecedent should be kept close....

312

Subject and clause adjunct separated by predicate...

Devices for relief :—the relative resolved ; inversion...

A distant possessive Antecedent resolved.....

313

Awkward prominence of the relative...

314

PLACING OF THE ADVERB.

All the delicacies of Order are brought up under this head...... 315

Law of PROXIMITY : Adverb may come before or after verb.

Adverb placed after, especially at the end of the clause....

Adjuncts, when numerous, cluster before and after the verb..

Law of PRIORITY : grounding considerations.....

316

The Qualification comes first; we prefer to look forward..

The Qualification influences all up to a break......

Special instances of single-word Adverbs.

Misplacement of ONLY. Alternative forms..

316

Only referred to a preceding subject : similar case of 'first' 318

Not. Examples with criticisms

319

Miscellaneous examples : misplacement of more', 'never',

'but', 'even', 'enough' (refers back), 'at least

320

Placing of Adverbs generally.

Examples criticized. Re-arrangements and various forms....... 321

Unnatural separations : an Adverb should not separate the ob-

ject from its adjunct, especially if the adjunct be a relative

clause......

322

When a short adverbial adjunct and a long or emphatic

object come together, the adverb should stand first.. 323

Important adverbial adjuncts first—a powerful inversion...

Emphatic prominence of not', 'never'

324

The most sweeping adverbial adjunct takes the foreground,

Adverb comes first for closeness to previous statement..

325

Proper order : time-place-manner ; exceptions.....

PLACING OF PREPOSITIONS.

Prepositions precede their object..

326

Relative clauses often throw the preposition to the end.....

Interrogatives take the first place; preposition again at the end

PLACING OF CONJUNCTIONS.

Frequent misplacement of 'not-but', 'not only—but also '... 326

Alternative forms......

327

Improprieties incidental to the double conjunctions

Neither-nor', 'not-or', often misplaced.......

328

PLACING OF ADJUNCTS GENERALLY.

General examples of Adjectives and Adverbs (and their equiva-

lents) criticized at full length

328

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INTRODUCTION.

THE DEFINITIONS IN GRAMMAR.

ANY subject that has to deal with a large mass of complicated and wayward facts, such as the usages of a modern cultivated language, would need, for its own sake, to have all its classes well marked and defined. Still more would this be demanded, if the subject is also to be put forward as an instrument of mental training.

In Grammar, the operation of defining is required mainly for the Parts of Speech. For although we might be expected at the outset to define the scope or province of the subject itself, we are precluded from doing so by the neglect of Grammarians to observe a clear line of distinction between Grammar and the allied departments—Philology on the one hand, and Rhetoric on the other. Thus-to compare Grammar with Rhetoric and the higher elements of Composition-while there are well-marked differences in the extremes of the two subjects, as for example the contrast between the Inflexion of Words or the rules of Concord in Syntax on the one hand, and the Figures of Speech or the laws of Description on the other, there are matters treated indifferently in both departments; such as the placing of qualifying words and the disposition of the clauses in a sentence. In a practical subject like Grammar, we do not gain much by drawing a severe boundary line ; the thing to be most considered is at what points, or in what connexions, an important rule can be most effectively taught.

The defining of the Parts of Speech is a serious affair. The whole fabric of Grammar rests upon the classifying of words according to their function in the sentence. A loose

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