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koned a very excellent scholar, and was known abroad as well as at home by the learned correspondence he kept with foreigners of eminence. A volume of such correspondence with Jablonski, Osterwald, Wetstein, &c. was presented by his widow Catharine Nichols to the archbishop of Canterbury, Oct. 28, 1712, to be deposited either in Lambeth or St. Martin's library, and is now among the valuable MSS. at Lambeth, No. 676. He died in the end of April 1712, and was buried in St. Swithin's church May 5. It may not be iinproper to distinguish this pious divine from his name-sake WILLIAM Nichols, M. A. and rector of Stockport, in Cheshire, who was a student of Christ church, Oxford, and published, 1. “ De Literis inventis Libri sex ; ad illustrissimum Principem Thomam Herbertum, Pembrokiæ Comitem,” &c. 1711, 8vo. 2. “ Oratio coram venerabili Societate promovenda Religione Christianâ babita Londini, Dec. 29, 1715," 12mo; and, 3. “ NEPI APXSN Libri Septem. Accedunt Liturgica," 1717, 12mo.

NICOLAI (John), a learned doctor of the Sorbonne, and Dominican, was born in 1594, at Monza, a village in the diocese of Verdun, near Stenay. After taking a doctor's degree in 1632, he taught theology in the house of his order at Paris, for about twenty years. He was elected prior in 1661, and died May 7, 1673, aged seventyeight. He was the editor of a good edition of the “ Summary" of St. Thomas, with notes, and of all that doctor's works, Lyons, 1660, 19 vols, fol. He also published five Dissertations on several points of ecclesiastical discipline, against M. de Launoi, 12mo; “ Judicium, seu censorium suffragium de propositione Antonji Arnaldi,” &c. 4to, which last he likewise published in French by the title of “ Avis déliberatif,” &c. 4to. This relates to the much contested proposition of M. Arnauld, that “ Grace failed in St. Peter," and it was answered by M. Arnauld, Nicole, and de la Lane. He was the author of other works, in which are some singular opinions, but which are now of little consequence. He must, however, be distinguished from PHILIP NICOLAI, a learned divine, who died in 1608, and from Melchior NICOLAI, a celebrated professor of divinity at Tubiugen, who died in 1659. Both these

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Knight's Life of Colet.-Ath. Ox. vol. 11.-Leland's Deistical Writers Nichols's Bowyer.-Orton's Letters, vol. II. p. 363.


wrote commentaries and controversial treatises, noticed in “ Freberi Theatrum," and our other authorities.'

NICOLAUS (DAMASCENUS), a native of Damascus, in Syria, who flourished in the time of Augustus, was a man of extensive learning, and an illustrious ornament of the Peripatetic school. Herod the Great made choice of him for his preceptor in philosophy; and when he sailed to Rome for the purpose of visiting the emperor, took him as his companion in the voyage. Afterwards that prince prosecuted historical learning under Nicolaus, who at his request undertook to write a Universal History, and being introduced by Herod to Augustus, he was admitted to his intimate friendship, and received from him many valuable tokens of regard. The integrity and generosity of his spirit, and the urbanity of his manners, obtained him universal respect. Nicolaus wrote several treatises on the philosophy of Aristotle ; “A Dissertation on the manners of various Nations ;” Memoirs of Augustus ;" and his own “Life.” Of these some fragments are preserved by Valesius, and a complete edition was published in 1804, by J. C. Orellius, under the title “ Nicolai Damasceni Historiarum excerpta et fragmenta quæ supersunt, Gr. Lat.” Svo.' · NICOLE (Francis), a very celebrated French mathematician, was born at Paris, December 23, 1683. His early attachment to the mathematics induced M. Montmort to take the charge of bis education, and initiate him in the higher geometry. He first distinguished himself by detecting the fallacy of a pretended quadrature of the circle. A M. Mathulon was so confident that he had discovered this quadrature, as to deposit in the hands of a public notary at Lyons, the sum of 3000 livres, to be paid to any person who in the judgment of the academy of sciences, should demonstrate the falsity of his solution. M. Nicole having undertaken the task, the academy's judgment was, that he had plainly proved that the rectilineal figure which Mathulon had given as equal to the circle, was not only unequal to it, but that it was even greater than the polygon of 32 sides circumscribed about the circle. It was the love of science, however, and not of money, which inspired Nicole on this occasion, for he presented the prize of 3000 livres to the public hospital of Lyons. The academy

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named Nicole eleve-mechanician, March 12, 1707; adjunct in 1716, associate in 1718, and pensioner in 1724, which he continued till his death, which happened January 18, 1758, at seventy-five years of age.

His works, which were all inserted in the different volumes of the Memoirs of the academy of sciences, are : 1. A general method for determining the nature of curves formed by the rolling of other curves upon any given curve; in the voluine for the year 1707. 2. A general method for rectifying all roulets upon right and circular bases ; 1708. 3. General method of determining the nature of those curves which cut an infinity of other curves given in posi. tion, cutting them always in a constant angle, 1715. 4. Solution of a problem proposed by M. de Lagny, 1716. 5. Treatise of the calculus of finite differences, 1717. 6. Second part of the calculus of finite differences, 1723. 7. Second section of ditto, 1723. 8. Addition to the two foregoing papers, 1724. 9. New proposition in Elementary Geometry, 1725. 10. New solution of a problem proposed to the English mathematicians, by the late M. Leibnitz, 1725. 11. Method of summing an infinity of new series, which are not summable .by any other known method, 1727. 12. Treatise of the lines of the third order, or the curves of the second kind, 1729. 13. Examination and resolution of some questions relating to play, 1730. 14. Method of determining the chances at play. 15. Observations upon the conic sections, 1731. 16. Manner of generating in a solid body, all the lines of the third order, 1731. 17. Manner of determining the nature of roulets formed upon the convex surface of a sphere; and of determining which are geometric, and which are recti. fiable, 1732. 18. Solution of a problem in geometry, 1732. 19. The use of series in resolving many problems in the inverse method of tangents, 1737. 20. Observations on the irreducible case in cubic equations, 1738. 21. Observations upon cubic equations, 1738. 22. On the trisection of an angle, 1740. 23. On the irreducible case in cubic equations, 1741. 24. Addition to ditto, 1743. 25. His last paper upon the same, 1744. 26. Determination, by incommensurables and decimals, the values of the sides and areas of the series in a double progression of regular polygons, inscribed in and circumscribed about a circle, 1747.

I Hatton's Dict. Dict. Hist.

NICOLE (JOHN), father of the celebrated Peter Nicole, was descended of a reputable family, and born at Chartres, in Oct. 1600. He applied himself to the law, and made a good proficiency in it; so that he became an advocate in parliament, and judge official to the bishop of Chartres. As a pleader, however, he is said to have been more flowery than solid, and he injured his reputation by interspersing his pleadings with verses and scraps of romances, which his son took care afterwards to burn. It does not appear that he published much, unless part if not the whole of a French translation of Quintilian, printed at Paris, in 1642, and dedicated to Mr. Seof, bishop of Chartres. The abbé de Marolles says that he had several times received verses in Latin and French from our advocate, who died at Chartres in 1678.

NICOLE (CLAUDE), cousin-german of the preceding, was son of Nicolas Nicole, receiver of the town of Chartres, where he was born Sept. 4, 1611; and became one of the king's council, and president in the elections of Chartres. He died Nov. 22, 1685. He was a good Greek, Latin, and Italian scholar, and had a talent for French poetry; which, however, he abused, the greatest part of his poems being grossly indelicate. Of these he published a collection at Paris, 1660, in 2 vols. 12mo, with a dedication to the king, under the title of “ The Works of the President Nicole." This collection appeared again after his death, enlarged with several new pieces, some of which are upon subjects of piety, in 1693, at Paris. They consist chiefly of translations of several works of “Ovid,” “ Horace," Persius," “ Martial,” “ Seneca the Tragedian," “ Claudian,” and others, “ A Translation of an Elegy and Ode of Anacreon," and of " A Poem upon the Loves of Adonis, by the cavalier Marin, &c."?

NICOLE (PETER), a celebrated French divine, was born at Chartres, Oct. 6, 1625. He was the son of John Nicole above mentioned, who, discovering him to be a youth of promising talents, gave him his first instructions in grammar, and so grounded him in classical knowledge, that at the age of fourteen he was qualified to go to Paris, and commence à course of philosophy; and at its completion, in about two years, he took the degree of M. A. July 23, 1644. He afterwards studied divinity at the Sorbonne,

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in 1645 and 1646 ; and, during this course, learned He. brew, improved himself farther in Greek, acquired a knowledge of Spanish and Italian. He also devoted part of his time to the instruction of the youth put under the care of messieurs de Port-royal. As soon as he had completed three years, the usual period, in the study of divinity, he proceeded bachelor in that faculty in 1649, ou which oco casion he maintained the theses called the Tentative. He afterwards prepared himself to proceed a licentiate ; but was diverted from it by the dispute which arose about the five famous propositions of Jansenius, added to his connections with Mr. Arnauld. By this means he was at more leisure to cultivate his acquaintance with gentlemen of the Port-royal, to which house he now retired, and assisted Mr. Arnauld in several pieces, which that celebrated divine published in his own defence. They both went to M. Varet's house at Chatillon near Paris, in 1664, and there continued to write in concert. Nicole afterwards resided at several places, sometimes at Port-royal, sometimes at Paris, &c. He was solicited to take holy orders; but, after an examination of three weeks, and consulting with M. Pavillon, bishop of Aleth, he remained only a tonsured priest. It has been asserted by some, that having failed to answer properly when examined for the subdeaconship, he considered his being refused admission to it, as a warning from heaven. He continued undisturbed at Paris till 1677, when a letter which he wrote, for the bishops of St. Pons and Arras, to pope Innocent XI. against the relaxations of the casuists, drew upon him a storm, that obliged him to withdraw. He went first to Chartres, where his father was lately dead; and, having settled his temporal affairs, he repaired to Beauvais, and soon after took his leave of the kingdom, in 1679. He retired first to Brussels, then went to Liege, and, after that, visited Orval, and several other places. A letter, dated July 16, 1679, which he wrote to Harlai, archbishop of Paris, facilitated bis return to France: and Robert, canon of the church of Paris, obtained leave of that archbishop, some time after, for Nicole to come back privately to Chartres. Accordingly he repaired immediately to that city, under the name of M. Berci, and resumed his usual employments. The same friend afterwards solicited a permission for him to return to Paris, and having obtained it at length in 1683, he employed his time in the composition of various new works. In 1693,

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