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the time of the journey; and I will sup- “ her boy had never told a lic, no never!" pose they travel only twelve miles per Towards strangers, he says they are of a day: Twelve miles per day, for six mild and obliging disposition. Having months together, makes a journey of 2,124 mentioned their habit of pilfering, he British miles; and so many British miles, adds—" To counterbalance this depravity upon the parallel of the middle latitude in their nation, it is impossible for me to of the Windward Coast, make 314 de- forget the disinterested charity and tengrees longitude ; and 31 degrees of longi- der solicitude with which these poor tude eastward from the middle of heathens sympathized with me in my the Windward Coast carry us into the sufferings, relieved my distresses, and very heart of Africa, in the broadest part. contributed to my safety. In so free and And throughout this long tract of coun- kind a manner (speaking of the women in try, the natives, by the evidence of the particular)” [À laugh] -My lords, witnesses themselves, bear the marks of there is nothing in this to proroke the incipient civilization. But, by the rela- laugh of levity: Mr. Park's is a simple, tion of Mr. Park, on which I rely more but a serious, sober narrative; the freethan on the united testimony of all these dom of which he speaks was not the freewitnesses, through the whole extent of dom of wantonness, as those who laugh this country, civilization is much more must be supposed to understand itthan incipient. Through this very coun-" In so free and kind a manner did they try the line of Mr. Park's journey lay; (the women) contribute to my relief, that. and, my lords, you cannot travel half a if I was dry, I drank the sweetest draught, day with Mr. Park, in the whole route if hungry, I ate the coarsest morsel, with from Pisania to the very extremity of a double relish.” Then, of their domestic that line, but you find all the way the attachments and affections among thempleasing vestiges of a civilization that has selves, he gives many striking instances. already made some progress, and is Your lordships, I am sure, must recollect heightening every step you go the farther the affecting story of the return of the you get inland from the coast,- that is, blacksmith of Kasson, to his native vil. ihe farther you recede from the stage on lage.-By the way, my lords, I must which the slave trade perpetrates its hor- ask, is this a character of savage manuers, rors. Mr. Park not only speaks in gene- -that a young man goes from his home ral terms of the growing civilization of to a distant country, to find profitable these people, but he mentions many parti- employment in a trade :-- But the story culars, from which your lordships may form of the return, my lords, after an absence yourown judgment. He thus describes the of some years! His brother meets him on dress of the Mandingoes : “ Both sexes the road, and brings out a singing man to dress in cotton cloth of their own manu. sing him into the village; he brings a facture : the men wear a loose frock with horse to mount him upon, that he may drawers half-way down the leg, sandals on enter the town in a respectable manner : their feet, white cotton caps on their at the entrance of the village, his arrival heads; the women, a petticoat of the same is welcomed by a concourse of the peo. material, with a sort of mantle cast over ple; his mother blind with age, supporttheir shoulders.” My lords, is this the ing her tottering steps upon her staff, is led dress of savages ? --Is there not evidently out to meet him; the crowds respectfully a degree of elegance and neatness in it? make way for her; she shows the strongest Speaking of their manners, he says emotions of joy and maternal affection, “ They are industrious in agriculture and when she is satisfied, by feeling his perpasturage : they manufacture cotton son with her hands, that he is indeed her cloths, and coloured leathers ! they smelt very son. Mr. Park concludes the iniron; they smelt gold; they draw gold teresting narrative with this remark, that wire, of which they form various orna-" from this interview he was fully conments.” Are these the occupations of bar- vinced, that whatever difference there is barians ? My lords, they are not desti- between the negro and European in the tute of moral principle: the first lesson, formation of the nose, and the colour of says Mr. Park, a Mandingo woman teaches the skin, there is none in the genuine her child, is the practice of truth : the la: sympathies and characteristic feeling of mentation of a miserable mother over her our common nature." These, my lords, son, murdered by a moorish banditti, was, are the people which the slave-trade, in that in the course of his blameless life, defiance of its own princples, makes its victims on the Windward Coast,-because, slave trade were the wicked sinful thing forsooth, they are the best of slaves ! which those who would abolish it conTheir civilization is already in its progress, ceive it to be, it is very strange there and needs not the assistance of the slave should be no prohibition, no reprobation trade.
of slavery, in the Holy Scriptures either My lords, shall I be told, “ Imagine of the Old or New Testament. The what civility you please, slavery is the learned counsel evidently wished your birth-right of the African; and we remove lordships to conclude, that the slave him only from slavery in one place to trade is at least not condemned, if not slavery in another ?" My lords, slavery sanctioned, by religion. My lords, that is a word of very large indefinite meaning, learned counsel has studied his law books comprehending a variety of conditions, in with more critical accuracy than his fact
very different from one another under Bible, or he never would have been the a common name. I admit that it is the great and able lawyer that he is; he case, that in that part of Africa of which would have been no better lawyer than I have been speaking, not more than he is divine,—that is to say, he would one-fourth part of the inhabitants are of have been a very bad one. My lords, the free condition; the other three-fourths are sentiments of a right reverend prelate, slaves. But, of what sort is the African while he lived a dear and valued friend of slavery in Africa ?-My lords, it seems mine, * have been cited in this night's deat this moment perfectly analogous to bate, as if they had in some degree cointhe slavery of the heroic and the patri- cided with those of the learned counsel archal ages; when the slave and the upon the subject. True it is, that about freeborn lived so much upon a footing the time when the question of abolition that you could hardly distinguish the one first began to be agitated, the riglit revefrom the other,—when the princess Nau. rend prelate let fall something in a sersicaa took a part in the labour of her fe- mon, about a danger which he appremale slaves -and the slave-girls, when the hended might arise from exciting the common task was finished, were the play- | public mind upon the subject of the slave mates of the princess-when Abraham's trade, while it was protected by the laws, confidential slave, sent to choose a wife and while the matter was under the exafor his master's eldest son, found the lady mination of the privy council. I confess designed by Providence to be joined in that I never saw that danger ; and I am marriage to so great a man as Isaac, in the confident, were the right reverend prelate laborious office of drawing water for her among us now, his sentiments upon the father's cattle and the slave of Abraham scriptural part of the argument would not that came upon this happy errand was re- be very different from mine. Be that as ceived by the parents of the bride with all it may, I am confident, that in what I am the respect and hospitality with which they about to deliver upon that subject, I shall could have received his master. My lords, have the concurrence of my right reverend the indigenous slavery of Africa is of this brethren near me. My lords, I do cera kind. The witnesses have told you, that tainly admit, that there is no prohibition persons not well acquainted with the coun- of slavery in the Bible, in explicit terms, try would mistake the domestic slaves for such as these would be, “ Thou shalt free persons : there is no external dis- not have a slave,” or “ Thou shalt not hold tinction; they are dressed alike, they are any one in slavery;" there is no explicit fed alike; they are lodged alike; and they reprobation of slavery by name. "If I are all employed alike; the slave is not were to say that there was no occasion for treated with rigour, nor punished with se- any such prohibition or reprobation beverity; the master cannot legally sell his cause slavery is condemned by something domestic slave, unless for crime, and with anterior either to the christian or the the consent and approbation of the family. Mosaic dispensation, I could support the My lords, it is absurd to compare this assertion by grave authorities,-not the sort of slavery with that to which, the authorities of the new-fashioned advoslave trade consigns the African ; no two cates of the rights of men,-not such authings can be more unlike; they agree in thorities as Vattel or Tom Paine. My nothing but the name. My 'lords, the lords, what is the definition of slavery in learned counsel who replied to the summing up of the learned counsel for the • Dr. Samuel Halifax, Lord Bishop of Sierra Leone company, said, that if the Gloucester, afterwards of St. Asaph,
charter had been granted for erecting this under circumstances of gross inattention company into a corporation for the pur to the public interest, to private rights of pose of trade.
In the charter a clause various descriptions, and to the clearest was inserted to prohibit them as a com- and most important principles of the conpany from trading in slaves upon that part stitution; and we should esteem ourselves of the Coast; but no penalty was annexed neglectful of our own characters, as well to a breach of the prohibition, nor was it as deficient in public duty, if we did not provided that their agents should be so record our marked and unreserved reproprohibited. What other trade could they bation of a measure of such dangerous carry on? It was a miserable company, tendency. which never could flourish in a place • 1. Because the promoters of this bill which experience had proved to be inca. have, contrary to every principle of compable of yielding any productions of value. mon justice, established an arbitrary proThe bill was altogether miserable and ri- portion, by which the respective counties diculous. But the society alleged that it are hereafter to be burthened with the exwould civilize the Africans; that was to say pense of raising their future militia, deviatthey would send missionaries to preach in ing from the established scale, approved and a bărn of Sierra Leone to a set of negroes, sanctioned by the acts of the twenty-sixth who did not understand a single word of and thirty-seventh of the king, without his language. He considered the bill to any grounds laid before parliament by be absurd, unjust, and such as ought not which the justice of such deviation could to be passed into a law.
be estimated; though in a few days, and The House divided : Contents, 25; with no expense, the annual list for the Not-contents, 32; Proxies, 36, on each county ballots returned to the lieutenants side. The bill was consequently thrown of each county, and directed (by the
26th of Geo. 3rd, chap. 107, clause 50) to
be transmitted to the secretary of state, Protest against the Militia Reduction would without error have produced a corBill.] July 10. The following Protest rect scale. was entered on the Journals :
“ 2. Because all militia men, not ar“ Dissentient,
riving (after the enrolment) at their re“ Because the measures prescribed by spective regiments at the exact time conthe bill are destructive of the constitu- tained in any order which may be given tional force of the country, by making to them, are declared to be deserters, the militia ballot a fund for the supply, liable to be taken from service in the mic and its discipline a drill for the accommo- litia for five years within the kingdom, and dation, of other corps, and by degrading condemned to serve in regiments of the its officers to the humiliating situation of line for life in any part of the world, by commanding the miserable remnants of sentence of a regimental court martial, their regiments rejected by recruiting ser- where neither the judges nor the witnesses jeants of the line.
are upon oath; and by an additional in“ Because the subversion of this con- justice, the county which paid the service stitutional force must be the inevitable of the man is liable to the farther charge consequence, as it is probably the object of supplying his place. of these measures; for it cannot be ima- “ 3. Because the difficulties and embargined that gentlemen' of property (such rassments which men enrolled to serve in as are required by the still remaining wreck the militia are exposed to by this bill are of the militia laws) should hereafter come so obviously cruel and unjust, that it afforward in times of difficulty and danger, fords no slight ground of suspicion that with a zeal and patriotism so much ap- they are intended to promote the recruite plauded, and so bitterly insulted: that ing the regular forces from the militia by men of the highest consideration and for the forced desertions of the unfortunate tune, such as alone can form a constitu- individuals who shall be engaged in the tional force, should quit their domestic militia service; for the man, as soon as comforts and family occupations, without he is enrolled, perhaps many huodred personal views or professional allurements, miles from his regiment, is ordered to join to fill a station so degrading to them as it, but by this bill no pay is to commence, that of drill-serjeants for the army; but nor allowance to be granted till he actuexclusive of this great and insuperable obally arrives at his regiment; he is deprived jection, we consider this bill" as framed of all former sources of subsistence, and is not entitled to the means of present | rise to trouble the House with several resosupport; plunder or clarity alone can lutions relative to the finances of the counmaintain him on the road; and if under try. It is now three years since any question all these insurmountable difficulties he of the expenditure of the country was agidoes not arrive within the time limited in tated; it is now three years since any inhis orders, he is liable to be treated as a quiry was instituted into the magnitude of deserter.
that expenditure, the application of it, or “ 4. Because by this bill the regiments the consequences to which it must lead. of militia are invited to a state of disorder My object in these resolutions is, to take and mutiny by anticipation, as the bill a comparative view of what the state of has publicly declared that desertion before the country was at the period previous to the period of its passing into a law was to the war, and what it is now; to show at be made an offence not necessarily fol. what rate of expense we are travelling, lowed by punishment, but that every man
and what the result must be, even if peace may by such desertion take leave of ab- should arrive at the end of the present sence till August, if by that time he shall year.-Mr. Tierney here read his Resoluenlist into the regular service; the bill en- tions, which were as follow: courages immediate desertion from a ser. vice to which the man had sworn fidelity,
FINANCE RESOLUTION3. and the king is empowered to authorize 1. That it appears to this House, that the the deserter's entrance into another ser- amount of the public funded debt existing on vice, discharged from any claim by the the 5th January, 1795, was 238,231,2101. esmilitia regiment to which he belongs.
clusive of the long and short annuities to the “ 5. Because by this bill the most im- 1st of February, 1799, stock to the amount of
amount of 1,373,550l.; of which sums on the portant and incontrovertible principle of 28,677,6891. had been purchased by, and anthe constitution is flagrantly impeached. nuities to the amount of 119,8801. had fallen Whether it is legal or not, to appropriate in to the commissioners for redeeming the public money by an order of the commis- national debt; reducing the actual amount sioners of the Treasury, and levy money of the debt existing on the 5th of January, on the land owners by a similar order, with 1793, to 209,553,5591. and the annuities to out consent of parliament, is stated by 1,253,6701. this bill as a matter of doubt entertained debt, created since the 5th January, 1793
2. That the amount of the public funded by parliament; and on the grounds of this (including the amount to be created by sums pretended doubt, a clause of indemnity borrowed in the present session of parliament, is introduced, of which the title of the and exclusive of 7,502,6331. 3 per cent stock, bill gave no intimation, and to which and 230,0001. per annum annuitics, created the attention of the legislature had not by advances to the emperor of Germany), is been directed.
225,602,7921 exclusive of long annuities to In this general neglect, overthrow, and the amount of 283,2061. per annum; of which denial of private justice, public principles, had been purchased by the commissioners for
sums, on the 1st of Feb. 1799, 8,704,0821. and national rights, it is not to be won. dered at, that little attention should be actual amount of debt created since the 5th
redeeming the national debt; reducing the paid to the feelings of individuals, however Jan., 1793, to 216,898,7101, exclusive of long called by their country to stations of con- annuities to the amount of 283,2061. per siderable confidence and trust; yet we annum. cannot but express our disapprobation of
3. That the total amount of the public the grating directions to commanding of funded debt, after deducting the sum of ficers of militia regiments, to crimp for 37,381,7711. redeemed by, and the annuities another service their associates and fellow fallen in to the commissioners, and exclusive soldiers, and become at once the instru. with short annuities to
of the imperial debt, is 426,452,2691., together
the amount of ment both of their own disgrace, and of 549,0511, and long annuities to the amount of that of the militia establishments, to which 987,946l. they are zealously attached.
4. That the sum applicable to the reduction (Signed). CAERNARVON,
of the national debi may, for the year 1799, RADNOR,
be estimated at 4,500,0001. WENTWORTH FITZWILLIAM."
5. That the permanent charge incurred by
the national debt on the 5th Jan., 1793, was Mr.Tierney's Finance Resolutions.]June
9,325,866l. per annum.
6. That the permanent charge incurred by 28. Mr. Tierney rose and said :—Sir, in the debt created since the 5th Jan., 1793 (expursuance of the notice which I gave, I now clusive of interest payable by Ireland, and
including 310,000l. permaneut interest on the payable by Ireland.... ..£.18,760,024 Joan of the present session), amounts to Interest payable for the Impe8,247,215l. per annum; and that a farther rial loan
497,735 charge of 497,735l. per annum is liable to be Interest, &c. to be incurred and incurred in default of payment of the interest payed between the 5th Jan., 1799, of certain loans by his majesty the emperor and the 5th Jan., 1800, on stock of Germany.
created by loans in the present 7. That the unfunded debt (exclusive of session, to
amount of anticipations in the usual form upon the land | 15,500,0001...
566,350 and malt taxes) amounted, on the 5th Jan., Interest on exchequer bills, es1793, to 10,252,5341.
timated to be the same as paid in 8. That the unfunded debt (exclusive of the year ending the 5th Jan., anticipations in the usual form upon the land 1799...
356,847 and malt taxes) amounted, on the 5th Jan., The civil list.....
898,000 1799, to 17,405,9741.
Other charges on the consoli. 9. That the nett produce of the old perma- dated fund, estimated to be the nent taxes, existing previous to the war, was, same as incurred in the year endon the 5th Jan., 1793, 14,284,0001.
ing the 5th Jan., 1799, and add10. That the nett produce of the old perma. ing 26,0001. annuities granted in nent taxes, existing previous to the war, was, the present session of parliament 239,075 on the 5th Jan., 1794, 13,941,000l.; on the Civil government in Scotland, 5th Jan., 1795, 13,858,0001.; on the 5th Jan. estimated as before
111,973 1796, 13,557,0001.; on the 5th Jan., 1797, Pensions upon the hereditary 14,292,000l.; the 5th Jan., 1998, revenues, ditto
55,400 13,332,000l.; the 5th Jan., 1799,
Militia and deserters warrants, 14,275,0001.; and on the 5th April, 1799, ditto ..
Bounties for promoting fisheries 11. That the nett produce of the taxes im- linen manufactures, &c, estimated posed since the 5th Jan., amounted, in the as before ..
S44,076 year ending the 5th April, 1799, to 7,272,0431. Charges of management of the 12. That the total value of all imports into revenue, ditto
1,589,437 Great Britain, in the year ending the 5th Supplies voted for 1799, excluJan., 1793, was 19,659,358l.; and on an sive of one million to defray vote average of six years, ending 5th Jan., 1793, of credit, 1798 .....
Advance to Ireland ..
3,000,000 That the total value of all imports into Vote of credit for probable conGreat Britain, in the year ending 5th Jan., tingencies
3,000,000 1779, was 25,654,0001.; and on an rage of six years, ending 5th Jan., 1799,
13. That the total value of British manu- 16. That it appears to this House, that the factures exported from Great Britain, in the gross receipt of the revenue (after deducting year ending 5th Jan., 1793, was 18,336,851l., re-payments for over-entries, drawbacks, and and on an average of six years, ending 5th bounties in the nature of drawbacks), Jan., 1793, 14,771,0191.
amounted, in the year ending the 5th Jan., That the total value of British manufactures 1799, to 26,039,0461. exported, in the year ending the 5th Jan., That the tax on income is estimated to 1799, was 19,771,510l.; and on an average produce a sum of 7,500,0001. per annum. of six years, ending 5th Jan., 1799, That the tax on imports and exports may 17,154,3231.
be estimated to produce a sum of 1,500,0001. 14. That the total value of foreign mer- That permanent taxes have been imposed chandize exported from Great Britain, in the in the present session of parliament, calcuyear ending the 5th Jan. 1793, was 6,497,9111.; lated to produce 316,0001.; and that, estiand on an average of six years, ending 5th mating the gross receipt of the revenue to Jan., 1793, 5,468,0141.
continue the same as in the year ending the That the total value of foreign merchandize 5th Jan., 1799, the total amount to be raised exported from Great Britain, in the year end-by tases, for the service of the year 1799, ing the 5th Jan., 1799, was 13,883,3851.; and may be computed at a sum not less than on an average of six years, ending the 5th 35,355,0461. Jan., 1799, 10,753,6881.
17. That it appears by the re15. That the total sun to be raised in port of a committee of this llouse Great Britain, in the year 1799, may be es- in 1791, that the actual expenditimated as follows, viz.
ture of the peace establishment Interest of the public funded
(including the annual million for debi, charges of management and
the sinking fund), on an average sinking fund, on the 5th Jan.,
of five years, ending the 5th Jan, 1799, after deducting the interest