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cessary for the service of every such year, which universally prevail, may justly be (which, according to the plan now adopted, considered as indications, the most enwill be to be raised on the credit of the tax on couraging and decisive, of the abundant income) will be gradually decreasing during and unimpaired resources of the British sums applicable in each year to the reduction empire, and of the unshaken firmness of of debt increase; and that the period for which your faithful people. To your Commons, the tax on income must afterwards continue it is a subject of pride and satisfaction to in time of peace, on account of each year of reflect, that in providing for the exigency war, will decrease in like manner.

of the present conjuncture, they have 36. That fon the suppositions before been enabled to adopt a measure which, stated) taxes equal to the amount of the though attended with sacrifices unprececharge created during each year of the pre- dented in their amount, is eminently cal. sent war will be successively set free, from culated to administer effectual support to the year 1853 to 1840 inclusive, to the amount in the whole of about 8,500,000l. That takes public credit; upon the depreciation and to the amount of nearly 2,000,0001, will also expected failure of which, the enemy have be set free from the year 1833 to 1846 inclu- long been induced to found the vain hope sive; and farther taxes to the amount of of destroying the liberties and indepen4,200,000l. (being, the sum applicable from dence of these kingdoms. 1808 to the reduction of debt existing previous “ The conduct, however, of your Com to 1793) will be set free about 1846, when mons has not been influenced by a limited the whole of the said debt is estimated to be and partial view of the situation and cirredeemed; making, in the whole (together with the taxes before stated to be set free cumstances of this country, and of the from 1808 to 1833), near 19,000,0001. of taxes causes which operate upon its welfare and set free up to 1846.

security. They know that its interests 31. That, supposing the same number of are closely connected with those of other years of war to 1846, ar the same rate of ex- states ; and they have accordingly conpense, the sums necessary to be raised by loans formed to the principles of a sound and for defraying the same (if the system for rais- enlarged policy, for affording to your maing a portion of the supplies within the year; jesty the most

ample means of promoting as stated, should not be adopted) would and assisting the exertions of those amount in each year of the war, to about 25,000,000l. the whole to about 450,000,0001. powers, who justly estimating the danger sterling, which (supposing the price of per with which they are threatened, are concents to be 50l. on an average of war) would vinced that a fatal aggravation of it would amount to 900,000,000l, capital stock, and be the probable consequence of comprothe interest and charges of 1 per cent to mise and supineness; and that to be suc36,000,000l. per annum; which, after dedact- cessfully tepelled, it must be opposed by ing about 19,000,0001. taxes, estimated to be such efforts as will be sufficient to prove set free within the same period, would require to the enemy that their system of ambi, an increase of 17,000,0001. of permanent taxes tion and conquest is equally nefarious and beyond those now existing. The said Resolutions were agreed to by attainable.

extravagant, and that its objects are unthe House.

“ Your Commons, Sire, are deeply sen

sible of the importance of the stake for The Speaker's Speech to the King on which your majesty is still unavoidably presenting the Money Bills.] July 12. contending, and of the duties which they The King came this day to the House of are bound to discharge. It is, they are Peers. His Majesty being seated on the persuaded, upon the wisdom and fortitude throne, Mr. Speaker Addington addressed of the British parliament, that under the his Majesty as follows:

favour of Divine Providence, must chiefly “ Most gracious Sovereign ;

depend the preservation of whatever is In the name of the Commons of Great truly valuable in civil society, and of all Britain, in parliament assembled, it is my that constitutes the happiness of private daty humbly to tender to your majesty the life. Actuated by these sentiments, and bills by which their grants are completed relying with perfect confidence upon the for the public service of the year. justice and moderation of your majesty's

The magnitude of the supply, and views, your Commons have not hesitated the cheerfulness with which it has been to continue to your majesty that cordial given, combined with the flourishing state and decided support in the prosecution of of commerce and of the revenue, and with the contest, which can alone justify the the manifestations of zeal and public spirit hope of concluding it by a safe and dura

ble peace."

The King's Speech at the Close of the tious societies, which had been formed Session.] After the royal assent had for the purpose of disseminating the debeen given to the said bills, his Majesty structive principles of the French Revo, delivered the following most gracious lution, are peculiarly adapted to the cir. Speech :

cumstances of the times, and have fur, My Lords and Gentlemen; nished additional security to the esta“ The favourable appearances which Iblished constitution. announced to you, at the commencement “ Gentlemen of the House of Commons; of the present session, have since been " The unụsyal sacrifices which you have followed by successes beyond my most made in the present moment, on behalf of sanguine expectations.

my subjects, are wisely calculated to meet • By the progress of the imperial arms, effectually the exigencies of this great under the command of the Archduke crisis. They have, at the same time, Charles of Austria, a great part of Swit. given additional security to public credit, zerland has already recovered its ancient by establishing a system of finance, bene religion, laws, and liberties; and the un- ficial alike to yourselves and to posterity; interrupted and brilliant victories of the and the cheerfulness with which these combined armies, under the command of heavy burthens are supported, evince at field-marshal Suwarroff

, have, in the short once the good sense, the loyalty, and the period which has elapsed since the open public spirit of my people. ing of the campaign, nearly accomplished My Lords and Gentlemen; the deliverance of Italy from the degrad- “ It is impossible to compare the events ing yoke of the French Republic. of the present year with the state and

" The decision and energy which dis- prospects of Europe at the distance of tinguish the councils of my ally the em- but a few months, without acknowledging, peror of Russia, and the intimate union in humble thankfulness, the visible inter, and concert happily established between position of Divine Providence, in averting us, will enable me to employ, to the those dangers which so long threatened greatest advantage, the powerful means the overthrow of all the establishments of which


have entrusted to me, for esta- the civilized world. blishing, on permanent grounds, the secu- “ It may be permitted to us to bope, rity and honour of this country, and the that the same protecting Providence will liberty and independence of Europe. continue to us its guidance through the

“ I have the satisfaction of seeing, that remainder of this eventful contest ; and internal tranquillity is in some degree re- will conduct it finally to such an issue as stored in my kingdom of Ireland. shall transmit to future ages a memorable

“ The removal of the only remaining example of the instability of all power naval force of the enemy to a distant fouoded on injustice, usurpation, and imquarter must nearly extinguish even the piety; and shall prove the impossibility precarious hope which the traitorous and of ultimately dissolving the connexion bedisaffected have entertained of foreign as-tween public prosperity and public virsistance.

“ But our great reliance for the imme- The Lord Chancellor then, by his madiate safety of that country must still rest jesty's command, prorogued the parlia. on the experienced zeal and bravery of ment to the 27th of August. It was aftermy troops of all descriptions, and on the wards further prorogued to the 29th of unshaken loyalty and voluntary exertions October. of my faithful subjects in both kingdoms. Its ultimate security can alone be

FOURTH SESSION ensured by its intimate and entire union with Great Britain ; and I am happy to observe, that the sentiments manifested

EIGHTEENTH PARLIAMENT by numerous and respectable descriptions of my Irish subjects, justify the hope, that the accomplishment of this great and sa

GREAT BRITAIN. lutary work will be proved to be as much the joint wish, as it unquestionably is the The King's Speech on Opening the Ses. common interest, of both my kingdoms.

September 24. 1799. His Ma• The provisions which you have made jesty opened the Session with the followfor suppressing those dangerous and sedi-ing Speech to both Houses :


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“ My Lords and Gentlemen ; quarter in a state of solid and

permanent “ I have called you together at this security. The vigilance, decision, and unusual season, in order to recommend it wisdom of the governor general in council to you to consider of the propriety of on this great and important occasion, and enabling me, without delay, to avail the tried abilities and valour of the com. myself, to a further extent of the volun- manders, officers, and troops employed tary services of the Militia, at a moment under his direction, are entitled to my when an increase of our active force highest praise. abroad may be productive of the most “ There, is, I trust, every reason to ex. important and beneficial consequences. pect that the effort which I ani waking * We have seen the happy effects of for the deliverance of the

United Provinces the measure which you adopted on will prove successful. The British arms this subject in the last session ; and the have rescued from the possession of forces which I was thereby enabled the enemy the principal port and naval to employ have already displayed, in the arsenal of the Dutch republic; and face of the enemy, a courage, discipline, although we have to regret the loss and steadiness, worthy of the character of of many brave men in a subsequent British soldiers.

attack against the enemy, whose position “ In the short interval since the close enabled them to obstruct our progress, I of the last session, our situation and have the strongest ground to expect that prospects have, under the blessir.g of the skill of my generals, and the deterProvidence, improved beyond the most mined resolution and intrepidity of my sanguine expectation. The abilities and troops, and of those of my allies, will soon válour of the commanders and troops of surmount every obstacle; and that the the combined imperial armies have con- feet which, under the usurped dominion tinued to be eminently displayed. The of France, was destined to co-operate in deliverance of Italy may now be consi. the invasion of these islands, may speedily dered as secured, by the result of a cam- I trust, under its ancient standard, partake paign, equal in splendor and success to in the glory of restoring the religion, liany the most brilliant recorded in history; berty, and independence of those proand I have had the heart-felt satisfaction vinces, so long in intimate union and alliof seeing the valour of my fleets and ar- ance with this country. mies successfully employed to the assist- " While you rejoice with me in the ance of my allies, to the support of our events which add so much lustre to the just cause, and to the advancement British character, you will, I am per of the most important interests of the Bri- suaded, as cordially join in the sentitish empire.

ments so justly due to the conduct of my “ The kingdom of Naples has been good and faithful ally the emperor of rescued from the French yoke, and Russial

; to his magnanimity and wisdom, restored to the dominion of its lawful directing to so many quarters of Europe Sovereign, and my former connexions the force of his extensive and powerful with that power have been renewed. empire, we are, in a great degree,

“ The French expedition to Egypt has indebted for the success of our own been continued to be productive of cala- efforts, as well as for the rapid and famity and disgrace to our enemies, while vourable change in the general situation its ultimate views against our Eastern of affairs. I have directed copies to be possessions have been utterly confounded. laid before you of those engagements The desperate attempt which they have which have consolidated and cemented a lately made, to extricate themselves from connexion so consonant to the permanent their difficulties, has been defeated by the interests of my empire, and so important courage of the Turkish forces, directed at the present moment to every part of by the skill, and animated by the heroism the civilised world. of a British officer, with a small portion « Gentlemen of the House of Commons; of f my naval force under his command; “ The ample Supplies which you have and the overthrow of that restless and granted to me, in the course of the perfidious power, who, instigated by the last sessions, will, I trust, so nearly proartifices, and deluded by the promises of vide for the exigencies of the public serthe French, had entered into their ambi- vice, even on the extensive scale which our tious and destructive projects in India, present operations require, as to enable has placed the British interests in that I me, without further aid, to continue those pire."

exertions to the close of the present year : it proper to make some material altera-but, in order to afford you the conveni- tions in the militia establishments: by the ence of a longer recess, I recommend it complete subjugation of the Dutch navy, to you to consider of providing for the there no longer existed a necessity for a expense which will be necessary in the fileet in the North Sea, nor for a powerful early part of the ensuing year; and military force to be cantoned along our with this view I have ordered the proper Northern and Eastern coasts. It would estimates to be laid before you,

be politic, however, to avail ourselves in “ My Lords, and Gentlemen ; other quarters of the forces which would « In pursuance of your recommenda-be thus free to act in any other shape, tion, I judged it proper to communicate to and proceeding in that manner, he deemed my two Houses of Parliament in Ireland it best to do it through the medium of the at the close of their last session, the militia corps. It struck him, that the sentiments which you had expressed present national circumstances would to me respecting an incorporating Uni- even warrant a reduction of the militia on with that kingdom. The experience force to its original establishment in point of every day confirms me in the per- of numbers. By the adoption of the suasion, that signal benefit would be measure he alluded to, the nation would derived to both countries from that im- be placed in a greater degree of security, portant measure; and I trust that the by being enabled to follow up hostile

opedisposition of my parliament there will be rations, to cement our continental allifound to correspond with that which you ance, and to meet the exertions of the have manifested for the accomplishment enemy, and, above all, to recover one of of a work which would tend so much to our oldest and most valuable alliances. add to the security and happiness of all | A measure of the nature proposed did not my Irish subjects, and to consolidate appear to him to involve the slightest the strength and prosperity of the em- breach of parliamentary faith. The events

of the late campaign were such as called His Majesty then withdrew.

for our most grateful acknowledgments to

Providence. He would call the consideDebate in the Lords on the Address of ration of their lordships to the wanton Thanks.] His Majesty's Speech having aggression made by the common enemy of been read,

all religion and government upon a The Marquis of Buckingham said, he power with whom they were then in the felt it incumbent on him to call the at- relations of peace and amity, by an attack tention of their lordships to some of the upon one of its distant provinces, Egypt ; leading points in the speech from the but in which nefarious attempt they were throne, and in this view what struck baffled by the unexampled gallantry of a him most forcibly were the well-founded handful of British seamen, aided by the allusions which were made to the steadi- uninformed bravery of a few Turkish ness and bravery of the British troops in soldiers, but led on by an officer who the late glorious exploits upon the conti- merited the most grateful acknowledgnent, in which these levies taken from ments from his country. Indeed, when that part of the British forces to which he he contemplated the exploit in queshad the honour to belong, bore so distina tion, he was lost in admiration." He guished a share. Yet it was not their then adverted to the recent operations in conduct in action which most merited his India, and spoke in the highest strain of approbation; when he contemplated the commendation of those councils, and the alacrity, with which they entered them- military gallantry by which the usurper selves for foreign service, their merits in Tippoo Saib was humbled to the dust, bis mind were considerably enhanced. His lordship next dwelt in strains of euloHaving said thus much, he must notice gium upon the wise and energetic meathe obvious good policy of pursuing our sures adopted by the Emperor of Russia. late brilliant successes, by expeditiously He then passed to the affairs of the sister adopting the measures recommended from kingdom; the disadvantage of her present the Throne. He did not think that, situation; her still existing distractions : under the present circumstances of the na- and concluded by expressing his conviction, such measures could create the slight- tion that the popular sentiment in favour est degree of alarm. Circumstances had of a union with this country was daily recently occurred, which indeed rendered gaining ground. Even the peasantry themselves now looked forward to the continental powers; that they render us measure in the hopes of relief from it. dependent on the fidelity of allies to The noble marquis then moved an Ad. whom we look for co-operation; and that dress, which was an echo of the Speech such a plan of action once entered upon from the throne.

leads to indefinite and complicated enLord Amherst, after passing a panegyric gagements, in which the interests of on the services of the militia, and defend- Great Britaip are not unfrequently neg. ing the proposed measure with regard to lected. Not to trust too far to foreign them, said : My lords, I confess I find it powers, where they have an obvious inimpossible to contemplate all that has terest in deceiving, or a manifest temptabeen done by the arms of England abroad, tion to betray, is certainly a matter of no to look at empires saved, at kingdoms re- doubtful policy. But surely it is po less stored, at hostile fleets and armies swept unwise to reject all co-operation, which from the face of the globe, at the support may be useful so far as it goes, because it of friendly and the extermination of hos may not gothroughout by the same road, or tile powers; and all this, achieved as it to the same end, to which our views are has been, in many instances, by the single directed, But if ever there svas a case of arm of Great Britain or turning from continental operation in which this caution this prospect, to look at the proud and in would not apply, it is the present; where, spiriting array of armies embattled for the the contest is for an object confessedly defence of oursovereign and our country touching Great Britain more nearly without feeling, I hope, a just and blame than any other continental object, less pride in the military strength and the liberation of our old ally from the glory of Great Britain--without feeling ita yoke of our inveterate enemy; where matter of self congratulation, that the car in the course of our present success, so lumny, which not many years ago was 80 far as it has gone, we have already effected common in the mouth of our vaunting an object so purely British, and so great enemy, that our cominercial prosperity in its extent, that in former times it would had depressed and overlaid our martial have been considered alope as the great spirit, stands refuted in the face of the and marking feature of a campaign, or world, and what is of more real import, even of a war the capture of the Dutch ance, in our own conscious feeling feet; and where the ally co-operating without rejoicing that the British cha with us, besides being that power which, racter is not so enervated by the blessings from the unexampled magnanimity and we so pre-eminently enjoy, but ubat we liberality of its conduct, has best dehave still the sense to know, that by the served to be exempted from all suspisame virtue and valour which originally cion of selfish, much more of treacherous won them to ya, by these alone, can dispositions, besides being that power to they securely be maintained that though which one-third of that part of Europe which the steady and settled course of justice France had subjugated already owes its and law, the arts of peaceful industry deliverance, is chat which has, perhaps, and flourishing commerce make war the least visible interest of any of the almost uoknown to us as a profession, we powers whom we could have associated have nevertheless not forgotten that the in our enterprise, except so far as every spirit to defend is essential in exact pro- power has a common interest in the sucportion to the value of what is to be decess of every measure which tends to the fended. But though it is impossible to diminution of the dominion of French repress these feelings of proud and honest power, of the influence of French princisatisfaction, it is by no means by the im- ples, and the operation and tenor of pulse of military glory alone that we could French arms. For an object, therefore, be justified in engaging in a new mode of in its general nature so essentially interestwar, upless the object of our continental ing to this country, touching at once so expeditions were precisely the same with nearly its honour and its power--for an that which animates exertions in all other object already 60 splendidly begun, and parts of the system, that is, the upholding which a vigorous perseverance may bring the independence of this country, and the at no great distance of time to a success. liberties and independence of Europe. I ful issue, we can have no scruple in using know that there is a strong prejudice our best endeavours to give every addiagainst all continental operations whatso- tional strength to the arms of the country, ever, that they link us too closely with and every support which they deserve to

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