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and I leave your lordships and the public | Total annual produce of the land to judge between us.

which can be taxed.. £.43,000,000 Earl Stanhope's Motion for an Address Annual Taxes after the War, if the War were to enter into Negotiations for Peace with

to end to-morrow. France.] Feb. 20. Earl Stanhope said :

Estimate of the

peace establishMy lords; not having for several years

ment, as stated by the commit

tee in 1791 troubled your lordships with my senti

16,000,000 ments on public affairs, I consider it to Charge incurred during the war,

by loans and funding....: 8,264,000 be my duty, in the present alarming si. Increased charges not included in tuation of the country, to suggest to your the estimate of 1791 (in conselordships why you ought, and how you quence of the increase of pay for might put an end to the war.

I have to 18,000 seamen, and of the arregret, that the honest, and, I trust, judi. my; and also in consequence of cious advice I gave early in the war, did

increased half-pay, &c.)........ 1,260,000

Additional not at that time meet your lordship’s ap

peace establishment

beyond the establishment in the probation. If I can prove that the dan

last peace; together with the ger arising from a continuance of the war

expense of yeomanry and vois greater than any that can be reasonably lunteers

1,330,000 imagined in putting an end to it, if I can Total of tithes paid by the people 5,000,000 satisfy your lordships' that there would be Parochial and county rates... 5,000,000 an advantage arising from peace, which Income tax...

7,500,000 it will be impossible to obtain by continuing the contest if I can prove that Total of taxes per annum........44,354,000 you are wasting your resources, even if | Deduct the total annual produce

of the land which can be taxed 43,000,000 the war was in certain respects proper, faster than the French republic is wasting Annual deficiency after the war, her's—I Aatter myself I shall have your if the war were to cease to-morlordships support. My lords, there is

£.1,354,000 one topic so important, that I cannot

I have stated the whole produce of the wave the discussion of it.I mean the subject of finance. I have in

country, and the whole of the taxes. The hand

my pamphlet published by Mr. Rose, the tion I have mentioned; I mean exclu

taxes exceed the income in the proporsecretary of the Treasury, stating a great sively of the trade of the country: As to number of items, several of which I dis, the comparative strength of England and approve, but every one of which I will France -- when I was a member of the take, so that we shall not have the debate other House, I moved for a return, of diverted from the principle to detail. the number of houses in England and The items stated by Mr. Rose I have en Wales; they appeared to be about deavoured to bring to a point, the better

1,000,000; and this fact has been ascerto enable your lordships to understand them. If ministers shall object to any of number of inhabitants of a country, get

tained, that when you want to know the the items of the secretary of the treasury, the number of houses, and multiply by it will be a difference of opinion between ministers and George Rose, and not be- 44, and you arrive nearly at the true esti. tween ministers and citizen Stanhope. gives 5,000,000 for England and Wales,

mate. I, however, multiplied by 5: this My lords, the melancholy fact proved by which, with the population of Scotland, this book is, that the expenses of the

makes 6,000,000. Now, then, look to country, after the war, supposing its the population of the French republic: I immediate termination to take place, find that, including Savoy and Nice, and would amount to 44,354,000l. per annum. all those countries it has conquered on the The items are as follow:

Rhine, the population of France is from Total Annual Produce of the Land which can 32 to 33,000,000. In estimating the rebe taxed.

sources of England and the French re. Landlords rents

20,000,000 public, I shall deduct what the people of Tenants profits

6,000,000 this country pay for parochial and county Mines, navigation, and timber.. 3,000,000 Tithes of the superior clergy... 4,000,000

rates, because I have no information of Proportions for Scotland, and pos

the exact amount of payments of a similar sessions beyond sea..

This reduces 10,000,000 nature made in France.

our taxes to 39,354,0001. and dividing it EVOL. XXXIV.)

15 D)

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by the six millions of inhabitants in Great the present alarming scarcity in Great Britain, you will find that what the people Britain. What I mean to offer as an arof this country have to pay in taxes and gument from this is, that if you take the in tithes will amount to above 61. 10s. for produce of the whole cultivated land of every inhabitant. Now I find by Mr. Great Britain, and the whole cultivated Rose's estimate, that the whole sum paid land of new France, that is to say, of the by the French republic annually to its go- whole country, extending from the Pyre. vernment is 15,000,000l.; consequently nees to the Rhine, and from the English 15,000,0001. to be paid by 32,000,000 of channel to the Alps, to the same market, inhabitants, amounts to less than 10s. the amount of the latter would be six each; yet we are told that this country, times as much as the former; so that the where we pay 61 10s. is the best governed produce of the land of France is upwards country in the world ; and France, where of 200,000,0001. more than that of Eng. they pay only. 10s. is oppressed by its land and its dependencies, including also rulers, distracted in its councils, ruined the 14,000,0001. stated by Mr. Rose as in its finances, and incapable of defending the balance of trade in our favour. Conitself! The next point to which I shall sequently, giving ourselves all the benefit draw the attention of your lordships is, of our trade, and supposing France to the comparative state of the cultivation of have none at all, still the advantage in faEngland and France. I have been in se- vour of the republic is considerably above veral districts in Devonshire, and I find, ten to three. Then, I ask, what ground in that one county, more waste land than is there for stating France as a ruined there is land altogether in Middlesex. country, and incapable of carrying on the With respect to France, since hunting in war? Suppose two men of equal income, the country has been so much diminished, and one of them does as France does, that is, since the revolution, and the over- that is, lives within his, while the other, like throw of the feudal system, it has been re- England, exceeds it ; can these be put in markably well cultivated. What a noble competition with each other, as to whose lord (Auckland) says as to the cultiva. finances will hold the longer? Besides, tion of France, proceeds upon a misstate if there are two men of equal income, and ment: he tells you there is no corn in one pays 6l. 10s. a year for every 10s. France, at least not sufficient to afford any which the other pays, is there any comsupply to this country, because M. Neckar parison between them? Is not the maa stated some years ago that France did not who pays no tythes more capable of supupon an average, produce quite corn porting himself than he who does pay enough for its own consumption; but he them? Then, as to the assistance you should recollect, that since that period the can derive from national lands, you have country has been materially changed, none. Again, suppose two men, one with the land has experienced a higher degree a clear unencumbered estate, and another of cultivation, and that cultivation has with a mortgagedone,-must not the man been accelerated by the labour of the with the mortgaged estate be first ex. women as well as the men. The people hausted? And the national debt is clearly of France have been much diminished by an enormous mortgage on the lands of emigration and war; therefore it is to be England. Whereas the French, by carrypresumed, that with their decreased po- ing on the war without borrowing any conpulation and increased state of agriculture, siderable sum, are in that respect in a they may have corn to spare for exporta much better situation than Great Britain. tion. Besides, look to the rich and fer. If this is not palpable, then there is no tile countries along the Rhine, that did truth in arithmetic. I assert, that inevi. not belong to France at the time when M. table ruin awaits the country, if you go Neckar wrote ; and it is very material on with the war. When the people of here to observe, that those fertile coun- France are paying 10s. a head, and those tries along the Rhine communicate to of this country 6l. 10s. will it not have a Great Britain by water carriage, and that material effect on your manufactures as soon from their not having been able, on ac.

as peace arrives ?

How can you contend count of the war, to carry their produce against France, while the price of labour by sea to other countries, nor to the south is at so enormous a rate? How is it posof France, there is every reason to think sible you can prevent her from underselthat corn might be procured in great ling you in the markets? Depend upon quantities from those countries, to relieve it, whenever by imposing taxes you con1509] to enter into Negotiations for Peace with France. A. D. 1800. (1510 trive to raise the price of labour, the ple at a cheap rate. You will ask how French will undersell you after peace is they preserve it? I will tell you. There made; and then what becomes of your are means of drying wheat made use of in 14,000,000l. the balance of trade in your Geneva by which they can keep it fifty favour? If the French should be able to years; when you dry it and expel the undersell you, supposing you were to moisture from it, it is no longer capable make peace to-morrow, what must you of corruption. I have ate bread made of not expect if this war is to be conti- wheat that has been kept that time, and nued ? " What but certain ruin to your it has been extremely palatable, as much trade? I should like to know how taxes

so as any other. 6. War renders it ne. are to be procured? Where are you to cessary you should take up, for the conget revenue? Yet we insulted with false veyance of troops, ships that ought to be statements of the prosperity of this coun- employed in bringing corn from abroad ; try, and with the flourishing statements there are plenty of places in the Netherof government revenue. There is infinitely lands whence you could have a supply. more wisdom in the American govern- And, 7. This unfortunate war has shut ment, which makes it a boast that its ex.

of those countries that could penses do not exceed 200,000l. annually, supply you; by peace you will open them than there is in the government of this and restore plenty. My lords, I love the country, which makes it a boast that it is true principles of the constitution : but I 40,000,0001. To talk of national prospe- know it has its abuses, and I wish to see rity when the expense of a government is those abuses corrected. I am come down 60° inordinate, is an insult to common to this House, to implore your lordships sense. I shall now offer you my reasons most earnestly, and upon my knees, to for wishing to make, and prevent that put an end to the calamities of this cruel dreadful evil which war has introduced war, to preserve the country, and to save into the country in the shape of famine. the people. Ministers cannot say these I agree that it is the failure of the things were not foreseen. I desire to harvest, and the very short crops, that have the protest of earl Stanhope, of Fe-' produced the scarcity, but the extent of bruary 1st 1793, read. [The Protest that calamity is occasioned by the war; was then read.*] What I prophesied has and, my lords, for my opinion I will give come to pass ; and I repeat, that if you you seven reasons : 1. Provisions are continue the war, you will put the neces. wasted and consumed in time of war, to a saries of life beyond the reach of the greater extent than they are in time of poor. There will be a general cry for peace. 2. There is a considerable de- peace if you do not make it. After some crease in the operations of agriculture, by further observations, the noble earl contaking so many men from their labours in cluded with moving, the field to fill up the army and navy; 3. “ That an humble Address be preBecause the war has been a check sented to his majesty, earnestly to reprethroughout the kingdom, to the cultivation sent to his majesty, that a state of war is of waste lands. 4. The effect the war contrary to nature; but that a state of bas towards producing the failure of large peace is always for the interest of the and extensive commercial houses, for, had people in all countries : it not been for the war, there would have 6 And farther to represent to his ma. been more private capital in the country, jesty, that the shedding of human blood, which might have been employed in pro. and the laying of countries waste, when curing corn from abroad. 5. It is most it can possibly be avoided, are utterly reclear, that the public revenue, which has pugnant to the first principles of morabeen prodigally expended in expeditions, lity and of humanity, and to that duty in building barracks, and in subsidizing which every man owes to his fellow men; foreign powers, might have been em- but that the establishment of a pacific ployed in purchasing a sufficient stock of system, founded upon principles of mocorn, and in building granaries to store it. deration and justice, ought to be the con. My lords, I know something of granaries, stant policy of a wise and enlightened in consequence of having been formerly nation. at Geneva, where, in time of cheapness, “ And further to represent to his mathey lay their corn in granaries, in order jesty, that the present war against the that, when they are visited by scarcity, they may be enabled to sell it to the peo


* See Vol. 90, p. 336.

French republic has been expensive be- lected a protest being ordered to be read, yond the example of any former war, and and no objection whatever had been made that it has produced an enormous in- to it. crease of the National Debt, a most The question being put, the House diheavy accumulation of taxes, and an vided : Contents, 2; Not-contents, 26. alarming and consequent increase in the The Contents were earl Stanhope and lord price of almost all the necessaries of life. Camelford.

“ And further to represent to his majesty, that this House is fully convinced, Earl Stanhope's Protest against the Reihat peace is essential to diminish the jection of his Motion for an Address to present scarcity of corn ; for that, although enter into Negotiations for Peace with scarcity may be produced by scanty crops, France.] The following Protest was enyet that the danger of impending famine tered upon the Journals: is chiefly to be attributed to the war.

“ Dissentient, " And further to represent to his ma- 1. “ Because I have uniformly conjesty, that it is a duty which this House sidered the war against the French repub. motive the

most cogent, and from every 12. "Because I feel revolted at the idea, principle the most sacred, strongly to dis. that the blood of my fellow men is still to suade his majesty from attempting the continue to be spilt for an unjustifiable restoration of the line of princes of object; namely, in order to endeavour to the Bourbon family to the throne re-establish in France the ancient des. of France; and most earnestly to re- potism, and to restore to the throne the quest his majesty to be pleased imme. Bourbon family, the hereditary princes of diately to take the proper measures to which race have, for so many centuries negotiate for peace with the French re- past, disturbed the peace of Europe, and public."

threatened the liberties of this country. The Lord Chancellor left the woolsack, 3. “Because this war against the French not, he said, to observe upon any of the republic has already operated in a very arguments used by the noble earl, but to powerful and dreadful manner to increase take notice of a matter which was in the the present scarcity of corn in Great highest degree irregular. The noble earl Britain ; first by the enormously increased had caused to be read from the Journals, consumption and waste arising immediately an extract from a protest of his own, as from the war ; secondly, by the decrease an illustration of his argument, and the of agriculture, arising from so many thouground of his motion. Nothing could sands of men having, for some years past, be more contrary to the forms of the been taken from the plough, for the navy, House than such a proceeding; un- army, and militia ; thirdly, by the check doubtedly it was the privilege of every which it has given to the making of canals, noble lord to put on the Journals, what the draining and the flowing of lands, ever he thought proper to sign with his and sundry other agricultural improvename as his protest; but it was extremely ments; fourthly, by the failure of many irregular to call for any part of a protest commercial houses, and embarrassment to be read in a debate, from the Journals, of others, by which means much private as if the privilege of entering it made it capital has been liverted, which might wear the authority of the proceedings of have been employed in procuring corn the House itself. Had it been any other from abroad; fifthly, by the public funds noble lord's protest, he should have imme- having been diverted to the purposes of diately prevented its being read; but the war, unsuccessful expeditions, and fo. reason why he had not taken notice of it reign subsidies, and to the building of at the proper moment was, because he barracks, which might and ought to have did not feel it necessary to interrupt been usefully employed in building public (what their lordships had heard, some- granaries, and in providing corn for the times with good humour, sometimes with people; sixthly, by diverting such an imgravity, but throughout with great -pa- mense quantity of shipping from being tience) the visitation of God, which their employed in importing corn into this lordships had that night witnessed. country; and seventhly, by depriving this

Earl Stanhope contended, that he had nation of the immense advantage of renot been out of order in reading an ex. ceiving corn from several of the most fertract from his own protest. He recol. tile countries in Europe, especially from

the Netherlands and other parts of France. curities, which they shall have remaining in

4. “ Because the continuance of the their hands, or be entitled to at the time of present war is in the highest degree such notice to be given as aforesaid ; the said alarming, since the effects which must governor and company continuing a corporainevitably arise from the further prosecu- notwithstanding such notice given, until

tion, with an exclusive power of banking, tion of the war, when added to the bane- all the money due to thein às aforesaid ful effects which it has already produced, shall be duly paid. That, in consideration threaten this nation with absolute want of the above proposed extension of their and famine; the more especially if another charter for 21 years, and a grant of their unfavourable harvest should still more in- other privileges, employments, advantages, crease those calamitous effects which the and immunities abovementioned, the said

gopersevering in this war must, of itself, the sum of three millions sterling for the

vernor and company are willing to advance unavoidably produce. And, 5. “Because my mind is seriously im- the present year, and in such manner, as par

public service, to be paid on such days during pressed with the present most extraor- liament shall direct and appoint: the re-paydinary and awful situation of Great Bri- ment thereof to be secured by exchequer bills, tain, which, with an immense navy, im- to be made out at the time of such advance, mense credit, immense trade, and the by virtue of an act to be passed in this session seas at her command, is now at the eve of parliament, and to be made payable at the perhaps of famine, and of all its conse

expiration of six years from the date thereof, quent horrors, whilst France, a neigh without interest; the

said exchequer bills

to be bouring republic, without commerce, and charged and chargeable upon the first aids of

supplies which shall be granted by parliawhich has been by his majesty's ministers ment, for the service of the year 1806, and, attempted to be inhumanly starved by a in case sufficient aids or supplies should not blockade, is now, by means of its internal be granted by parliament for that purpose resources alone, possessed of the most es- before the 5th day of April 1806, the same to sential necessaries of life.

be charged and chargeable upon and to be (Signed) “ STANHOPE.” repaid out of the consolidated fund: Provided,

That the said governor and company shall Proposal and Resolution respecting the have the option

of being repaid

the said sum of Renewal of the Bank Charter.] Feb. 21, tion of the said term of six years, in case the The House having resolved itself into a price of the three per cent consolidated committee of the whole House, on the act | annuities shall be 80 per cent or more, upon for establishing an Agreement with the giving six months notice for that purpose to Bank, and the following Proposal being the lords commissioners of his majesty's read, viz.


and upon such repayment, the said

governor and company shall deduct or allow To the Honourable the Commons of Great

a discount to the public at and after the rate Britain, in Parliament assembled. The of six pounds per cent per annum on the sum Governor and company of the Bank of repaid for such part of the said term of six England humbly propose,

years as shall then remain unexpired. Sealed That, in consideration of the advance of by order of the Court of Directors, the 13th of three millions sterling, in the manner for the February 1800. period, and upon the terms herein aftermen

(L. S.)

“ ROBERT Best, Sec." . tioned, they be continued a corporation, with Mr. Pitt said, that the advantages the sole power and privilege of banking for which the public would derive from the the term of 21 years, from the 1st day of renewal of the Bank charter would be, August 1812, with all abilities, capacities, the possession of three millions for six powers, authoritics, franchises, immunities, cxemptions, privileges, profits, emoluments, years without interest; the value of which benefits, and advantages, which they now

would be between 6 and 700,0001. This have, possess, or enjoy by virtue or in pur- was the mere gain upon dry calculation suance of their charter, or of any act or acts but not the actual gain ; for, in the first of parliament, or of any employment by or on place, whether the charter of the Bank behalf of the public: redeemable, never- were renewed or not, this money would theless, after the expiration of the said ex be wanted, together with a much larger tended term of 21 years from the said first day of bum : what interest was to be paid upon August 1812, on one year's notice, and the the rest of it must depend upon the terms re-payment of all the principal money and interest which shall be then due and owing to

on which the loan was made; nor could the said governor and company upon all such

what the probable prices would be tallies, exchequer orders, exchequer bills, when this sum of three millions was to be parliamentary funds, or other government se replaced, or when it should begin to bear

he say

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