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think it must be obvious, that neither the cessary to grant farther immunities to the present nor any former government in Catholics, the parliament of Ireland was Ireland, is or has been adequate to give competent to do it; but he thought they to the people of that country the degree had granted indulgencies to the Catholics of tranquillity, civilization, and improve at a time when the latter were not fitted ment, not only essential for their own to receive them. This was not the time comfort and happiness, but to enable to make a general relaxation of the Popery them to avail themselves of those number- laws. It was due from a government to less advantages which nature bas so pro- good subjects, to punish the bad. Some fusely bestowed on them. If, therefore, distinction should be made between those we be satisfied that the two separate legis- of the Catholics who had defended the lative parliaments, so far from forming at government during the late crisis, and present any bond of union to the two those who had not: the latter ought not countries, is the most vulnerable point, to be allowed the indulgences granted in can there be a more powerful argument to 1782; the former in proportion to their induce us, by every wise and prudent good behaviour ought to be admitted measure, to remedy those glaring defects io the privileges enjoyed by the Protestin the separation of the legislatures of two There were many obstacles to a countries, doomed by nature to rise and union in the relative situation of the two fall together, and who are already united countries: it would be difficult to arrange in affection, language, and habits? - Bur, a commercial intercourse, and to regulate. Sir, it has been asked, and very properly, the proportion of debt and taxes. He did in what manner gentlemen expect that a not see too, how local matters, cabals, legislative union is likely to have this won election deputies, &c. could be so well derful effect of removing all those disor- adjusted here as in a local parliament. ders to which Ireland has been so long a He repeated, that the state of Ireland was victim, and of communicating to her a not such as we could incorporate with. participation of those blessings which this As to the great mass of the population, happy country possesses? I do not say the country must be retained as a conthat a union will be accompanied with quered country; nor was the union calcu. those immediate good consequences which lated to remedy the causes from which is here expected ; on the contrary, the this necessity arose. He did not think changes to be effected upon the disposi- the tie between the two countries so frail tions, habits, and prejudices of the people as to require this measure to render the of Ireland, must be a work of time; but connexion permanent. the opening of English markets upon a Lord Belgrave said, he could admit that fair arrangement for all sorts of Irish pro- many of the evils lamented by his hon. duce and manufactures, the great influx friend existed in all their force, to disorof English capital, which must promote ganize and to destroy Ireland; but it not only the improvement of the soil, in was because those evils did exist, that he , the various operations of husbandry, but wished for a legislative union ; that being in manufactures and commerce, must in the only means of saving Ireland. The evitably produce riches, comforts, and settlement of 1782 was final for no other tranquillity to that unbappy country, and purpose but to stop the course of national that by rapid means.

prosperity: had the Irish accepted the Mr. Bankes said, that Ireland was not commercial propositions, the nation would, in a state in which we could incorporate by this time, have greatly benefited by with her. Even if her parliament were the operation of the immunities they al. favourable to the measure, it would not forded. reconcile him to its policy. The remedy The question being put, “ That the said was not suited to the circumstances of report be now brought up," the House Ireland. The government, the parliament, divided : and a great part of the property of Ire

land were firmly attached to this country ;
the mass of the population was unfortu.

ŞThe Earl Temple


Mr. Ryder nately animated by different sentiments. The lawer classes of the Catholics enter.

S Mr. Hobhouse

16 tained a hostile mind against this country: nor did he see at all how this plan tended

List of the Minority. to give us security. If it was thought ne Bankes, Henry Denison, W.J.

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Noes {Mr. Wilberforce Bird


Fitzpatrick, general Russell, lord W. members of the parliaments of Great Britain
Jefferys, N.

St. John, hon. St. A. and Ireland.
Jekyll, J.
Tierney, G.

5. “That for the same purpose it would be Jones, T. T. Wigley, J.

fit to propose, That the churches of that part Laurence, Dr. Wilson, R.

of Great Britain called England, and of that Lloyd, J.M.

part of Great Britain called Scotland, and of Milner, sir W. Bird, W. W.

Ireland, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, North, D.

Hobhouse, B. and government thereof, shall be preserved Plumer, W.

as now hy law established.

6. “ That for the same purpose it would be Mr. Douglas accordingly delivered the fit to propose, That his majesty's subjects in Resolutions in at the clerk's table. They Ireland shall at all times hereafter be entitled were then agreed to by the House, with to the same privileges, and be on the same some amendments, and earl Temple was footing, in respect of trade and navigation, in ordered to communicate them to the Lords all posts and places belonging to Great Britain, at a conference. The said Resolutions and in all cases with respect to which treaties

shall be made by his majesty, his heirs or were as follow :

successors, with any foreign power, as his maRESOLUTIONS.

jesty's subjectsin Great Britain :-That no duty

shall be imposed on the import and export be1. “ Resolved, That in order to promote tween Great Britain and Irelaud of any ar. and secure the essential interests of Great ticles now duty free; and that on other arBritain and Ireland, and to consolidate the ticles there shall be established, for a time to strength, power, and resources of the British be limited, such a moderate rate of equal empire, it will be advisable to concur in such duties as shall, previous to the union, be measures as may best tend to unite the two agreed upon and approved by the respective kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland into parliaments, subject, after the expiration of one kingdom, in such manner, and on such such limited time, to be diminished equally terms and conditions, as may be established with respect to both kingdoms, but in no case by acts of the respective parliaments of his to be increased; that all articles which may majesty's said kingdoms.

at any time hereafter be imported into Great ž. “ That it would be fit to propose, as the Britain from foreign parts, shall be importfirst article, to serve as a basis of the said able through either kingdom into the other, union, that the said kingdoms of Great Britain subject to the like duties and regulations as if and Ireland shall upon a day to be agreed the same were imported directly from foreign upon, be united into one kingdom, by the parts; that where any articles, the growth, name of, “The United Kingdom of Great produce, or manufacture of either kingdom, Britain and Ireland."

are subject to any internal duty in one king3. “ That for the same purpose it would be dom, such countervailing duties (over and fit to propose, That the succession to the mo. above any duties on import to be fixed as narchy and the imperial crown of the said aforesaid, shall be imposed, as shall be necesunited kingdom shall continue limited, and sary to prevent any inequality in that respect; settled in the same manner as the imperial and that all other matters of trade and com crown of the said kingdoms of Great Britain merce other than the foregoing, and than and Ireland now stands limited and settled, such others as may before the union be speaccording to the existing laws,and to the terms cially agreed upon for the due encouragement of the union between England and Scotland. of the agriculture and manufactures of the

4. “That for the same purpose it would be respective kingdoms, shall remain to be regufit to propose, That the said united kingdom lated from time to time by the united parliabe represented in one and the same parliainent, ment. to be styled “ The Parliament of the United 7. “That for the same purpose it would be Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland;" and fit to propose that the charge arising from the that such a pumber of Lords spiritual and payment of the interest or sinking fund for the temporal, and such a number of members in reduction of the principal of the debt incurred the House of Commons, as shall be hereafter in either kingdom before the union, shall conagreed upon by acts of the respective parlia- tinue to be separately defrayed by Great Briments as aforesaid, shall sit and vote in the tain and Ireland respectively. That for a said parliament on the part of Ireland and shall number of years to be limited, the future be summoned, chosen, and returned in such expenses of the united kingdom, in peace manneras shall be fixed by an actof parliament or war, shall he defrayed by Great Briof Ireland previous to the said union, and that tain and Ireland jointly, according to such every member hereafter to sit and vote in the proportions as shall be established by the resaid parliament of the united kingdom, shall, spective parliaments previous to the union; until the said parliament shall otherwise pro- and that after the expiration of the time to be vide, take, and subscribe the same oaths, and so limited, the mode of jointly defraying such make the same declarations, as are by law re expenses shall be regulated according to such quired to be taken, subscribed and made, by the rules and principles as shall be in likc manner (VOL. XXXIV.)

[2 L]

agreed upon previous to the union, for the Mr. Abbot's Motion for a Committee on purpose of establishing gradually a uniform the Expiring Laws.] March 1. Mr. Abbot, system of taxation through every part of the in rising to move for the appointment of united kingdom: 8. “That for the same purpose

it would be

the annual committee on expired and exfit to propose that all laws in force at the time piring laws, said, that he wished to take of the union, and all the courts of civil or this opportunity of submitting to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction within the respec- House the propriety of some special directive kingdoms shall remain as now by law es tions, which it inight be fit for the comtablished within the same, subject only to mittee to observe in the course of its prosuch alterations or regulations from time to ceedings, for the purpose of attaining time as circumstances may appear to the par- more effectually the objects for which it liament of the united kingdom to require." was to be appointed :-It appeared to have

The above Resolutions being commu- been the usage of parliament in former nicated to the Lords at a conference, were, times, and more especially within the preon the 18th, read by the clerk at the sent century, in making new laws upon table, and ordered to be printed, and to matters of a novel nature or of doubtful be taken into consideration on that day policy, to limit them in the first instance se'nnight.

to some short period of duration, in order

that those laws might of necessity come Petition of Colonel Despard.] Feb. 25. back for re-consideration after some ex. Mr. Courtenay presented a petition from perience of their effects. This practice Edward Marcus Despard; setting forth, was in itself wise and beneficiat; but it had “ That since the 22nd of April last, thé also led to a multiplicity and accumulation petitioner has been confined close prisoner of laws which was scarcely to be conceived in the House of Correction, Cold-bath by those who had not adverted to the subfields, under a warrant from his grace the ject; for not only in progress of time new duke of Portland: that, until the 25th of circumstances had called for new laws of November last, the petitioner was confined a temporary sort ; but the former also, in a damp cell, not seven feet square: which ought, after a reasonable experience, that said cell had no article of furniture, to have been finally rejected or made perexcept a bed, laid on some oaken planks, petual, have continued to swell the mass, fastened to the wall: that, during the till we have found at present nearly 200 temfirst six weeks of his imprisonment, the porary acts of parliament passed within the petitioner had no allowance but bread and present century, and still in force as such, water : and the petitioner further begs - continued in some instances by not less leave humbly to state that he never has than fourteen or fifteen successive rebeen allowed to set his foot in the garden newals, and producing a farther series of of said prison, though his health has been subsidiary acts, which added to the former, materially injured by his confinement: and amounted nearly to 600—all of them falling the petitioner humbly begs leave to state within this general description. Out of to the House, that he verily believes it to this multiplicity many evils had resulted ; be an unusual thing, in this country, to and besides the general risk which this confine a state prisoner to a penitentiary confusion must bring upon those who house, however proper it may be for con. were to advise, and those who were to act victed persons or vagrants : and the peti- upon that advice in the daily occurrences tioner humbly begs leave further to state, of life, several of the most important inthat the hon. Val. Lawless, John Reeves, terests of the country, as they affected esq. and John Jackson, esq. can give evi- the safety of the state, or the rights of dence of the facts mentioned in this peti- individuals, had been occasionally put into tion: and the petitioner humbly begs the greatest jeopardy, and some of them leave farther to state, that the affairs of had actually suffered irreparable injury. his family are entirely ruined by his long Thus, the power of the crown to summon confinement: the petitioner therefore hum- parliament, and call out the militia upon bly prays to be examined, at the bar of any sudden occurrence of rebellion or in, the House, touching the matters afore. vasion, a power happily created in the said; and that the House will be pleased present reign, and which in 1794 was to take his case into consideration, and found to be of the utmost constitutional afford such relief, as to the House in its importance, was accidentally suffered to wisdom shall seem meet."

expire at the end of the term for which it Ordered to lie upon the table.

was first enacted, and the country, for an interval of some years, was deprived of tute law. He then moved, “ That a comthis valuable safeguard and protection. mittee be appointed to inquire, what pubThe trading interests which are deeply lic general laws have expired within twelve concerned in the laws of bankruptcy and months preceding the commencement of insolvency have repeatedly suffered by the the present session of parliament, and also expiration of acts of this nature, as the what laws are about to expire within courts of Westminster-hall well know by twelve months subsequent to the comthe long litigations which have arisen out mencement of the present session, or in of those interruptions of the system; and the course of the next session, or at the even the principal statute of the whole end thereof; and to report the same from bankrupt's code was within a few days, or time to time to the House, with their rather a few hours, of its termination at opinion which of them are fit to be revived, the close of the last parliament, when al- continued, or made perpetual." most by accident it was taken up, and the The motion was agreed to, and a comcurrent of law upon these subjects pre- mittee appointed. served its former channel.-Mischiefs of the same nature, but of still more serious The King's Message respecting the consequences, had affected even the ad. Princes Edward and Ernest Augustus, and ministration of criminal justice. In some the Princess Amelia.] March 1. Mr. Pitt cases this confusion and uncertainty had presented the following Message from his thrown impediments in the way of prose. Majesty : cutions for state offences; and in other « GEORGE R. cases, criminal convicts have been made “ His majesty being desirous of making to undergo severities in the execution of competent provisions for the honourable their sentences upon the supposed autho support and maintenance of his dearly berity of laws which in fact had long ceased loved sons, prince Edward and prince to have any existence. It was hardly ne. Ernest Augustus, which the monies apcessary to ask the House whether these plicable to the purposes of his majesty's things were fit so to remain-or whether civil government would be insufficient to being apprized of these evils, it did not defray; and being also desirous of being become the duty of the House to guard able to extend to his beloved daughter against them effectually, and prevent their the princess Amelia, the provision which recurrence in future. The remedy at the he has been enabled to make out of the same time was obvious, and its effects hereditary revenue for the other branches would be complete,--if the House, in ap- of his royal family; desires the assistance pointing this annual committee, would of parliament for this purpose ; and his always direct it to report a statement :of majesty relies on the affection of his faithall the public general laws whatever which ful Commons that they will make such häd actually expired, or were about to provision as the circumstances of the case expire within fixed and reasonable limits may appear to require. G. R.' of time, taken retrospectively as well as prospectively; and comprehending, not Debate on Mr. Wilberforce's Motion for only those which were running out in the the Abolition of the Slave Trade.] March course of the actual session, but those 1. Mr. Wilberforce said, he had so often also which might terminate in the course called the attention of the House to this of the ensuing session ; for the sake of subject, that he should think it would be bringing into notice such even as were putting both himself and the House to a approaching to their end, and the re- great deal of unnecessary trouble if he newal of which might require previous in- were to repeat all the arguments he had vestigation and research, as had recently used upon former occasions. It was just been found to be necessary in the instances twelve years since he first pointed out to of the distilleries, fisheries, &c. The the House the evils that attached to the committee should also be required to re- African Slave trade. At that time he port a distinct opinion upon the expedi- was listened to with attention, and the ency of reviving, continuing, or making House seemed to be impressed with a perpetual each of those acts respectively. sense of the injustice of that odious traffic ; By resuming this course of proceeding in but, if he was listened to with attentionevery session, the House would gradually if the topic was found interesting, he was advance towards a great and general im- much afraid that it was owing to the noprovement in the whole system of the sta- velty of the discussion Such, indeed, was the only inference that could be drawn as standing in a situation much more from the result of the various discussions backward with regard to the attainment which had taken place in that House, note of the object he had in view, than on the withstanding all the facts that had been day when he first proposed it to the brought forward, all the proofs which the House. He considered it as most blamefriends of the abolition had adduced, after able for the House to depart from the days, months, nay years, of patient and resolution they had adopted to give up laborious investigation. Facts, indeed, the abolition of slavery, which was their had been brought forward, the truth of own business, and to put it into the hands which no obstinacy could resist, and in of the West Indian colonial assemblies. 1791 the House was at last shaken from It was almost impossible that the consee its attachment to this traffic; but it was quences could have been any other than with the members of that House as with what they had been. Some gentlemen, it most other persons—when such terrible appeared, had been duped into an acquia things were mentioned, they could scarcely escence in the measure, which induced believe their own eyes and ears. Sur- the House to depart from their resolution: prised that such practices existed, there they had been induced to think, that the was then no difference of opinion as to colonial assemblies would bring about all the great question of at last completely the change that could be advantageously abolishing the trade. Whatever difference operated in the condition of the blacks: of opinion had prevailed in the House res- but if some gentlemen had been duped, those pecting the time most proper for the abo. had not who had declared that every acre Jition to take place, there certainly was of land uncultivated in our West India then but one opinion, with the exception islands should be brought into cultivation of three or four persons, as to the justice before the importation of slaves from and necessity of the measure. Those who Africa was put an end to. It was, how. opposed an immediate abolition allowed ever, allowed on all hands, that the that it ought to be carried into effect as slaves ought to be well treated; and it soon as it could be rendered compatible was conceived that the regulations drawn up with the interest of the West India pro- by the colonial assemblies would answer prietors, that was, as soon as the number this end. He should just remind the of slaves necessary for keeping up the House of the arguments he had so frestock then in the Islands should beimported. quently used upon this subject. The The number then mentioned as necessary principles he had laid down were fixed for this purpose was as much beneath the and unalterable; they belonged to human number which had since been imported, nature, and it was impossible to be de as the period to which the trade bad ex- ceived in reasoning upon them. He tended exceeded that which its warmest had observed, that the colonial assemblies friends would at that time have assigned neither could nor would abolish the slave to it. The traffic was to have been put an trade. The means, therefore, which was end to in the year 1796. That period now employed was not proportionate to arrived, and what was done? The House the end. Was it to be supposed, that the had thought better, not of their former West India gentlemen would act as spies reasoning on the subject, not of the truth, upon the conduct of each other; that not of the facts of the case, for these re- they would make minute inquiries into mained the same; but they had thought the mode in which negroes not their own better of their own resolution; they had were clothed or fed, and pry into all the thought better of the interest of the West domestic management of their neighIndia traders, and had departed from the bours? It was evident that until the resolution to which they were solemnly whole of the land should be cultivated in pledged.

these islands, the proprietors would be In such a situation he could not be ex- hostile to the abolition. They persevered pected to entertain great hopes of success in importing slaves from Africa, and this from the motion he intended to make. not so much to replace those who died, In nearly the fourth year after the period as for the purpose of forming new coloallotted' for the abolition, he saw less nies in districts formerly uncultivated, appearance of that event being brought The idea of delaying the abolition until about by the House than at any time the whole of our colonies should be cul, previous to their passing the resolution tivated was one of the most extravaganç he bad alluded to. He now felt himself ever suggested. In 1788 there were only

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