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14. No member shall have a certificate but County Committees.-1. When any county by applying to the committee, who shall not shall contain three or more baronial commitgrant it, unless the member is leaving his tees, two persons shall be elected by ballot place of residence, which certificate shall be from each baronial committee to form a county lodged with the secretary on his return. 15. committee (for three months.) 2. County When this society shall amount to the num- committees shall receive delegates from barober of thirty-six members, it shall be equally nial committees of adjacent counties, if said divided by lot; that is, the names of all the counties do not contain three baronial commembers shall be put into a hat or box; mittees. the secretary or treasurer shall draw out Provincial Committees.- 1. When two or eighteen individually, which eighteen shall more counties shall have county committees, be considered the senior society, and the re- three persons shall be elected by ballot from maining eighteen the junior, who shallapply to each, to form a provincial committee (for the baronial committee, through the delegates three months.) 2. Delegates from county of the senior society, for a number, and that committees in other provinces will be received, this division shall take place only in the if such province do not contain two county months of October, January, April, and July. committees. The fund shall also be equally divided. 16.
National Committee.—That when two proThat no society shall be recognized by any vincial committees are formed, they shall committee, unless approving of, and taking elect five persons om each, by ballot, to the test, and amounting in number to seven
form a national committee, Societies first members.
meetings in November, February, May, and Order of Business at Meetings.—1st. New August, to be on or before the 5th. Baromembers read declaration and test, during nial committees on or before the 8th. Counwhich subscriptions to be collected. 2nd. ty committees on or before the 25th of the New members take the test, all members above months. Baronial, county, and prostanding and uncovered. 3rd. Minutes of vincial committees, shall meet at least once preceding meeting read. 4th. Reports of in every month, and report to their consticommittees received. 5th. Communications tuents. Names of committee men should not called for. 6th. Candidates ballotted for. be known by any person but by those who 7th. Candidates proposed.
8th. Motions elect them. made and determined. 9th. Place and time Test for Secretaries of Societies or Comof next meeting appointed.
mittees. Constitution of Committees, as adopted the 10th of May.
“ In the awful presence of God, I, A.B. Baronial Committees.-1.When any barony hold the office of secretary to this
do voluntarily declare, that, as long as I shall or other district shall contain three or more I will, to the utmost of my power, faithfully societies, three persons from cach shall be discharge the duties thereof; that all papers elected by ballot, conformable to the sixth ar- or documents received by me, as secretary, I ticle, to form a baronial committee (for three will in safety keep; I will not give any of months); their names to be returned to the them, or any copy or copies of them, to any secretary of the senior society, who shall request a deputation from the nearest baronial person or persons, members or others, but by
a vote of this
and that I will, at committee to constitute a committee for the the expiration of my secretaryship, deliver up said barony or other district. 2. When any to this
all such papers as may be barony or district shall contain eight societies, then in my possession.” they may form another committee, to be called the second committee of said barony or Certificate.-Society of the United Englishdistrict, provided each contain three or more societies. 3. Baronial committees shall re. ceive delegates from societies of a contiguous elected, and, having taken the test provided
“ I hereby certify, that A.B. has been duly barony, provided said barony do not contain in the constitution, has been admitted a memthree societies. 4. That the haronial com
Sec." mittee shall correspond with societies or individuals who have subscribed the declaration, App. (No. 14.)—Copy of Test to be used by and taken the test of the present associated
ber of this society.
the Soldiers, societies. 5. That all questions shall be determined by a majority of the members pre- I, A. B. do swear not to obey the colonel, cent. 6. That the baronial committee being but the people, not the officers, but the comregularly summoned, the one-third of its mittee of United Englishmen, then sitting members shall be deemed a quorum, and ca- in England, Ireland, and Scotland, and to pable of proceeding to business. 7. That any assist with arms, as far as lies in my power, business originating in any individual society, to establishi a republican form of government shall, at the instance of such society's dele- in this country, and others, and to assist the gates, be by the baronial committee laid be- French on their landing to free this country. fore the other socicties.
So help me God.
App. (No. 15.) --Resolutions and Constitution world, that we will never desist till we proof the Society of United Scotsmen.
cure this our national right, the wart of which
is probably the source of all our national grievIn the present age, when knowledge is ances. Impressed with these sentiments, we making rapid strides among mankind, and have collectively and individually agreed to neighbouring nations have been under the form an association, to be called The United necessity of meliorating their condition, ow- Scotsmen; and we do pledge ourselves to our ing to the stubbornness and perfidy of the go- country, and mutually to each other, to carry vernments under which they lived, by de- into effect, by all just means, the following spising and rejecting the reiterated and just Resolution:-An equal representation of all calls of the people for reform; it becomes us, the people in parliament. as friends to peace and good order, at the Constitution.--1. This society is constituted present awful crisis, when we are engaged in for the purpose of forwarding a brotherhood an unprecedented bloody and expensive war, of affection, a communion of rights, and a to investigate with calmness and deliberation union of power, among Britons of every deinto the system of our own government, on scription, — for the purpose of obtaining a purpose to discover its errors and defects; so complete reform in the legislature, founded that whatever abuses may exist, they may on the principles of civil, political, and relibe rectified by a timely reform, and the like gious liberty. 2. The members of this socalamities which have befallen a neighbouring ciety shall not be confined to any description nation may be prevented.-Conscious of the of men, but extended to all persons who may rectitude of our association and intentions, be deemed eligible. 3. Every candidate for and regardless of the threats of the venal and admission into this society shall be proposed interested, we will inquire into our grievances by one member, and seconded by another; with a determined anI manly freedom, know- both of whom shall vouch for his character ing that we have no other object in view, but and principles, and be ballotted for, before he the peace and happiness of our native coun- can be admitted a member. 4. Each memtry. Possessing such ideas, we cannot but ber shall pay not less than sixpence on enterexclaim with astonishment, What a multitude ing the society; and not less than threeof ages have mankind been kept in complete pence per month during his continuance in ignorance with respect to their natural rights ! ihe said society. 5. The one-half of the inRights of which no association of men have a come to be paid into the hands of the secret power to deprive them, whatever foolish titles committee, the other half to defray exthey may assume. Was the human race penses of delegates attending their duty in created with reasoning faculties by the Su- different committees. 6. The officers of this preme Being, for no other purpose than to be society shall be, a secretary and treasurer, possessed and made tools by corrupt govern. who shall be chosen by ballot, and continue ments, for the destruction of their own spe- in office two months. 7. No member shall cięs? No. It was for a more noble end. speak more than twice to one question, withWe disdain the principles of corrupt courtiers out leave from the chairman, whom he shall and their satellites, who propagate such ne- address standing. 8. A president to be chosen farious doctrine. Mankind are naturally by ballot each meeting, whose business it friends to each other; and it is only the cor- shall be to keep order, and not to enter into ruptions and abuses in governments that debate. 9. When any society amounts to make them enemies.- We profess ourselves sixteen members, they shall divide into two friends to mankind, of whatever nation or re- societies, the new society taking along with ligion. National and party distinctions have them a secretary properly constituted. been created and supported by tyrannic men,
Parochial Committees.-1.When any parish on purpose to maintain their unjust usurpa- or district shall contain three societies, two tions over the people. We will ask any un- persons from each shall be appointed, by balprejudiced person, if the people in Britain are lot, to form a parochial committee, one of fairly, fully, or equally represented ? Have whom shall go out each month, and another the people in general any control or concern ballotted for. 2. When any parish or district in the election of magistrates in the different shall contain ten societies, they shall divide boroughs in Scotland? Are clergymen, in into a second committee of said parish. 3. many parts of Scotland, forced on the people Parochial committees shall receive delegates against their inclination? Are there any in- from societies of a neighbouring parish, protricacies or inequalities in law procedure that viding said parish does not contain three so- . could be rectified? We decline enumerating cieties. 4. That all questions shall be determany other abuses, all of which could be re. mined by a majority of the members present. moved by a timely and radical reform in the None to sit in the committee but delegates. House of Commons. We abhor ard detest 5. That any business originating in any society all riots and tumults. Our armour shall be shall, at the instance of such society's dele. reason and truth, which we will not swerve gates, be, by the parochial, laid before the from on any account. Our whole aim is to other societies. procure annual parliaments and universal suf- County Committees.-1. When any town or frage. Till this is done, we declare to the county contains three or more parochial com
mittees, they shall elect two persons from God, I, A. B. do declare, that neither hopes, each to form a county committee. 2. When fears, rewards, or punishments, shall ever inany county shall contain twelve parochials, it duce me, directly or indirectly, to inform or shall divide into a second committee of said give any evidence against any member or county. 3. County committees shall receive members of this or similar societies, for any delegates from parochials of adjacent counties, act or expression of theirs, done or made colif said county does not contain three parochial lectively or individually, in or out of this socommittees.
ciety, in pursuance of the spirit of this obliProvincial Committees.—1. When any pro- gation. So help me God. vince contains three county committees, they shall elect two from each to form a provincial King's Proclamation respecting Persons committee. 2. Provincial committees shall coming from Ireland.], March 18., Mr. receive delegates from adjacent provinces, if Pitt presented the following Proclamasaid provinces do not contain three county
tion : committees.—3. Every provincial committee shall send not less than two delegates to the By the King a PROCLAMATION. supreme national committee. National Committees.—The national com
66 GEORGE R. mittee shall elect a secret committee of seven
66 Whereas we have reason to appremembers, all residing in or near the place hend that divers persons, engaged in the where the National holds its sittings; two of treasonable conspiracy against us in our them to go out by rotation each national kingdom of Ireland, which lately mani. meeting, and two others elected in their fested itself in open acts of rebellion and place.
Ordinary Business at Meetings.-1. Presi- war against us in our said kingdom, have dent elected. 2. Reports of delegates received. not abandoned their treasonable designs 3. Communications called for. ° 4. Candidates against us; and acting in concert with voted for. 5. Motions made and determined. our foreign enemies, are preparing to as6. Time and place of Dext meeting ap- sist our said enemies, in an invasion of our pointed.
kingdoms, and for that purpose are endea. Plan of Discipline.-That there shall be a vouring to incite and stir up rebellion and committee of three elected out of every so
war against us in this kingdom: we have ciety, consisting of the secretary and two of the members, chosen for the following pur
therefore thought it necessary, for the poses, namely, to receive such persons as have safety of our kingdoms, to prevent all perbeen approved by the society, and to admo- sons engaged in such treasonable designs, nish members who have behaved impro- from passing from our said kingdom of perly.
Ireland into this kingdom, and we do for Test for Members.—In the awful presence that purpose, by and with the advice pf of God, I, A. B. do voluntarily declare, that our privy council, order, and do hereby I will persevere in endeavouring to form a stricily charge and command, that from brotherhood of affection amongst Britons of and after the 20th day of March instant, every description; and that I will also perse no person whatsoever be permitted to pass
my full, and adequate representation of all the from our said kingdom of Ireland into this people in Great Britain: I do farther declare, kingdom, except such persons as shall be that whatever misfortunes may befall any in our service, and actually so employed ; member or members of this or similar socie- and such persons as shall obtain a passties, in legally pursuing the objects of this port for that purpose from our lord lieuunion, I will esteem it my duty to support tenant of our said kingdom of Ireland, them lawfully, to the utmost of my ability. his chief or under secretaries, the mayor So help me God. Test for Sccretary. In the awful presence
or other chief magistrate of some city or of God, I, A. B. đo voluntarily declare, that town in Ireland, or one of our general as long as I shall hold the office of secretary
officers commanding our forces within the to this
I will, to the utmost of several districts in our said kingdom: and my abilities, faithfully discharge the duties by and with the advice aforesaid, we do thereof. That all papers or documents, re- further order, and hereby strictly charge ceived by me as secretary, I will in safety and command, that no person whatsoever keep: I will not give any of them, or any (except as aforesaid) coming from our said copy or copies of them, to any person or per kingdom of Ireland, be permitted to land sons, members or others, but by a vote of in this kingdom without our licence for that this ration of my secretaryship, deliver up to this purpose first obtained ; and that all such
all such papers as may be then in persons (except as aforesaid) who shall my possession. So help me God.
land, or attempt to land, in this kingdom Test of Secrecy.--In the awful presence of without such license as aforesaid, shall be
forthwith taken into custody, and detained | ture should be duly respected; and sein custody until our pleasure shall be fur condly, that it is essential to the interests ther known: and we do further order and of the empire at large, and indeed, in the require, that all persons having such pass- present state of things, to the existence of ports as aforesaid, shall produce the same civilized society in Europe, that the conto some officer of our customs, at the port nexion between the two kingdoms should or place to which such persons shall come, be strengthened and improved. He was before such persons shall be permitted to aware, that there were some who would land at such port or place and we do argue vehemently against the adoption of hereby, by and with the advice aforesaid, the measure at any time, and under any strictly enjoin, require, and command, all circumstances. Without attending at that and singular justices of the peace, mayors, moment to objections in toto, he would sheriffs, bailiffs, constables, and all other consider whether or not the present was a our officers and subjects, to use their ut time proper for bringing forward the dismost endeavours for the due execution of cussion; and in this view he would simply these our commands.-Given at our court ask, whether it was not wise and politic, at St. James's the 15th day of March, by urging with as little delay as the na1799, in the 39th year of our reign.-God ture of the case would admit of, a fair and save the King."
temperate discussion of the general ques
tion to endeavour to do away the misKing's Message relative to Persons taken prejudices which have prevailed brought in Custody from Ireland.) April against the measure in Ireland ? In making 3. Mr. Secretary Dundas presented ihe this observation, nothing was farther from following Message from his Majesty : his intention than to offend the Irish par« GEORGE R.
liament, or irritate the feelings of that “ His Majesty thinks it proper to ac- nation ; neither did he think the present quaint the House of Commons, that, in proceeding on the part of the British par. consequence of representations received liament could fairly have that effect. And from his lord lieutenant of Ireland; his here he must remark upon the way in Majesty has judged it important, for the which the question stood in the parliament peace and security of that kingdom, to of Ireland. The resolution of their Comgive directions that several persons, who mons (for more it could not be called) were in custody at Dublin and Belfast, on certainly was not conclusive. The proaccount of the active part they took in ceeding was taken in consequence of the the rebellion, or for treasonable practices measure being alluded to in a speech from committed in promoting the same, should the throne. What passed in their lower be immediately removed to some place of House of Parliament, so far from amount. safe custody out of that kingdom ; and his ing to a law, was, in fact, a dead letter Majesty has therefore ordered that they upon the Journals. In such case, should the should be brought over to this country, British parliament be precluded from doin; and should for the present be kept in cus- what wisdom and national policy dictated. tody in Fort George. G. R.”
The conduct of their ancestors, upon au
occasion nearly similar, offered the bes: Debate in the Lords on the Resolutions rule to them.° Let them see what that relative to a Union with Ireland.] March conduct was upon the affair of the Union 19. The order of the day being read for with Scotland. If the resolutions of the the Lords to be summoned,
parliaments of either country had been at Lord Grenville rose for the purpose of that time considered as a bar to farthe calling their lordships attention to the proceedings, that salutary measure would very important resolutions, communi. never have been perfected. The quescated to that House by the Commons re- tion, therefore, was, whether, in the partilative to a Union with Ireland. In bringing cular circumstances of both countries, forward this subject for the consideration there was a necessity for the adoption of a of their lordships, he had the satisfaction plan, whereby their strength and resources of being convinced that the two main might be consolidated and improved? The points upon which the question could be necessity of a change in the system of the properly argued had been already esta- Irish government was allowed on all blished; namely, that whatever steps hands. The grand difference of opiniot they should take on the present occasion, was, with respect to the remedy for the the exclusive rights of the Irish legisla- grievances complained of in that country, (VOL. XXXIV.]
[ 2 U]
and on this head he would declare, that he | Britain and Ireland now. The British never yet conversed with any well-in parliament undoubtedly possessed a power formed man from Ireland, who did not of binding the American colonies in cases say that the present state of things could of general and external policy; but for not continue, consistently with the general | the internal concerns of the countries, safety of the empire. He would contend, each province possessed a separate legisthat the much-talked-of settlement of lature. When the colonies effected their 1782 was not, nor could it be from its na separation from Great Britain, in some ture conclusive. But because, in the degree the old system was continued; peculiar circumstances of that day, it was but they found it so inefficient to all the thought prudent to make certain tempo- purposes of good government, that two rary arrangements were they not to be years had scarcely elapsed before it was revised at a fitter opportunity? The coun- set aside, and a new form of government try was at that time engaged in one of the substituted, in which the bond of union most calamitous wars ever known in his was made closer than the connexion which tory. Discontent, to a very high degree, now subsisted between Great Britain and was prevalent in Ireland ; the nation was Ireland; and the executive and legislative called upon to arm itself, and it took that were made the same in a great degree opportunity to claim those concessions throughout the whole United States : which were then made by this country as yet, notwithstanding, every well-informed a right. From these considerations, it statesman would acknowledge, that the might easily be implied, that the settle-grand defect in the American constitution ment was imperfect; and it was considered is, that the executive authority is not yet as such at the time. The parliament of rendered sufficiently strong. However, England declared that farther measures other countries, besides America, had were necessary. It was therefore, the to complain of such defect. Had the duty of parliament to come forward and Swiss provinces possessed an adequate supply the defects of the former settle- bond of union, they would have been able ment.
successfully to oppose the designs of In looking farther into the relative state France. With respect to the supposed of the two countries, he would examine existing bond of connexion between Great into the nature of their connexion, and Britain and Ireland he was not afraid to what was the bond which held together say that it was absolutely null. If the countries ruled by separate and indepen. two parliaments were suffered to remain in dent legislatures—it was merely this, that their present state ; if the countries hung one common sovereign reigned over them together by no other bond of connexion ma sovereign constituted equally by the than the present, the connexion was, he laws of both countries. This identity of repeated, absolutely null. If, by the the royal power was now the only remain British constitution, the royal power could ing bond of connexion. In a pure and ab- be exercised, free from the control of solute monarchy such a bond of connexion parliament, then, indeed, the regal idonmight possibly be sufficient ; but in a iity might be a bond of connexion ; but if mixed government and limited monarchy the whole system of the regal power was as was the British, and the other compo- not only under the control, but could not inent parts of the government of the coun go on without the aid and assistance of tries distinct and separate, such a bond of parliament, and the parliaments of each union must be obviously imperfect. Nor kingdom were to remain distinct and sepawas it alone to the British empire that rate, then he repeated, the bond of consuch an objection could be applied : the nexion was obviously null. But, if we system of government of the United Pro- scrutinize the leading branches of the royal vinces laboured under a defect not dissi- powers, and see in what manner they are milar. The connexion of the different capable of being exercised under the preparts of that confederacy was by no means sent system, the insecurity of the constrong enough, and the effects of it were nexion will be still more apparent. The felt in every war those countries were en- first branch of the regal power, in order gaged in. The case of America offered and in dignity, in the British constitution, another instance. Formerly, the con- was what regarded the ecclesiastical estanexion between the different provinces of blishment: in this consideration, let the that continent and the mother country House look at the present situation of the was nearly the same as that between Great Irish parliament, the measures proposed