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ch. x.] CONCLUSION. 573

born. Through its institutions, public opinion has free expression and controlling influence,—the laws are justly and impartially administered,—legislation rises and expands with the advance of knowledge, and proposes as its true end, the happiness of the people. May these blessings be zealously guarded and long preserved by Englishmen ; and when called upon to alter and adapt the Constitution to the exigencies of advancing civilization, may they be restrained to moderation and prudence, by reverence for institutions won by the fortitude and moulded by the generous spirit and sagacity of our ancestors, and under which England has become prosperous, happy, and free!

ERRATA.

Page 167, note 1, for Edward IV. read Edward VI.

182, line 4, insert spiritual and before temporal.
424, line 9, for monarch read monarchy.
426, note 1, for 1848 read 1858.
456, line 27, for accused read accusers.

INDEX.

Accounts national, annual and
quarterly publication, 496.
Administration of justice, courts
for, 109, 113.
Aids, when claimable, 28, 82.
Allegiance, oaths of, 444.
Allodial lands, what, 24.
Anglo-Saxons, their origin, 9, 13;
cyning or king, 12; Wittena-
Gemote, 12; eorls, ceorls, and
theowes, 13 ; Were-geld, 14;
ecclesiastical institutions, 15 ;
territorial divisions, 16; courts,
17; laws, 19; their institutions
aristocratic, 20.
Apology of the Commons, temp.
James I., declaring constitu-
tional rights, 237.
Appeal, courts of, in law and
equity, 113, 456; in criminal
cases, 542.
Appropriation Act, described, 493.
Aristocracy, its defects as a system
of government, 2; its admission
into the constitution, 4; repre-
sented by House of Lords, 107,
457.
Arms, right to bear, 431.
Army, standing, contrary to the
constitution, 201; proposed by
James II., 417; recital against,
in Mutiny Acts, 497.
Articuli super Chartas, 66.
Articuli Cleri, 140.
Attaint of juries abolished, 534,
note.
Augmentations, Court of, 190.

Aula Regis, as a Court of Justice,
33, 110 ; superseded by King's
Bench, 111.

Axioms, constitutional, of Magna
Charta, 58.

Bail, when allowed, 541.
Bankrupt law, first passed, 195.
Baronets, created, 244.
Baroniam, tenure per, 26.
Barons, their origin, 26; majores
et minores, 72; summoned to
Parliament by writs, 75; created
by letters - patent, 100. See
Peers.
Bates's case, protest of Commons
against impositions, 240.
Benevolences, described, and sta-
tute concerning, 136; granted
to Henry VII., 161; resorted
to by Henry VIII., 169.
Bill of Rights, 423,429.
Billeting of soldiers, evils of, de-
scribed, temp. Car. I., 279; act
concerning, 411.
Bills in Parliament, origin of, 107.
Bishops, how elected by Constitu-
tions of Clarendon, 41; after
King John's submission to the
Pope, 139 ; mode of election
by statute of Henry VIII., 180;
new bishoprics created by him,
192; Bills to remove bishops
from Parliament, 355; Act de-
priving them of all temporal
authority, 356; restored, 381;
trial of the seven bishops, 420.
Boroughs, Saxon, 16; in Domes-
day Book,31; charters to, temp.
Rich. I., 43; liberties granted
by Magna Charta, 54; rise of,
representation of, in Parliament,
73 ; ancient elections for bo-
roughs, 128; state of, before
Reform Act, 586; voters for,
by Reform Act, England, 510;
Scotland, 518; Ireland, 521 ;
* self-government in,
571.
Breda, Declaration of Charles II.
from, 366, 372.
Britain, peopled by Celts from
Gaul, subdued by Romans, S.
Britons, their origin; invaded by
Picts and Scots, succumbed te
Saxons, 8.
Bulls from Rome, statutes against,
151, 181, 211.
Burgage-tenure, what, 30.
Burke, Edmund ; his speech on
the duties of members of Par-
liament, 479.

Cabinet council; its origin, 434;
how selected, 435; cabinet mi-
nisters, 436 ; their duties, 437;
effect of 438. See Ministers of
the Crown.
Campbell's (Lord) Libel Act, 535,
Candidates, for House of Commons,
defined, 469; their responsibi-
lities, 470-472.
Capite, tenants in, 25.
Ceorls, their social condition, 13.
Chancellor, Lord, how appointed,
112 ; president of House of
Lords, 452.
Chancery, Court of ; how created,
112 ; nature of 113.
Charles I. : constitutional ques-
tions of his reign, 259; its cha-
racteristic features, 260 ; first
Parliament, 261; adjourned to
Oxford, 262; statement of grie-
vances, 262; King urges sup-
plies, 263; Parliament dissolved,
264; second Parliament, 264;
his view of his relation to Par-

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liament, 265; impeachment of
Buckingham, and resentment of
it by Charles, 266; supply con-
ditionally voted, 267; Commons'
remonstrance, 26S ; imprison-
ment of members, 269; debate
thereon and release, 270 ; com-
laint of lords of breach privi-
eges, 271; complaint by King
of delay of supplies, and Parlia-
ment dissolved, 272 ; forced
loans, and imprisonment of
members for refusing payment,
273 ; third Parliament, 274;
King's speech, 275; debate on
grievances, 276 ; resolutions
thereon, 277; Commons vote
supply, 278; Speaker expounds
the Commons' liberties, 279;
Lords require the ju to ex-
plain their refusal of Habeas
Corpus, 280; offers his word to
observe laws, in lieu of Petition
of Right, 280; Secretary Cook's
explanation, 281 ; Commons re-
fuse to rely on King's word, 283;
urges the Lords to refuse to con-
cur in petition, 283 ; Petition
of Right, 284; royal assent in-
formally given, 287 : Main-
waring's political preaching,
287; King restricts any debate
on ministers, 288; debate
thereon, 289; King gives the
royal assent to Petition of Right,
290 ; Bill of Supply passed,
291; impeachment of Main-
waring, 291; complaint of Com-
mission of Excise, 291 ; Buck-
ingham declared by Commons
the cause of the evils and dan-
gers of the nation, 292; re-
monstrance prepared against col-
lection of tonnage and poundage,
and King's speech thereon, 293;
Parliament prorogued, 294;
King's proceedings in vacation,
295; Parliament re-assembled,
and complaint of Commons, of
illegal taxation, 296 ; Ki

presses for grant of tonnage an
_*

INDEX.

poundage, 297; Commons pro-
ceed against the customers and
officers of the Crown, 298 ;
Rolles's case, 299; Speaker re-
fuses to put Commons' resolu-
tions to the vote, 300; King
tries to force the House to ad-
journ, 301; dissolves Parliament
in anger, 302; Lord Claren-
don's opinion of that step, 303;
royal proclamation as to future
Parliaments, 305; proceedings
against members, 306 ; takes
ministers from Puritan party,
307; enforced taxation, tonnage
and poundage, 307; forest-laws,
308; ship-money, 309; Claren-
don's opinion thereon, 311 ;
fourth Parliament ; war with
the Scotch, 312 ; Parliament
opened, 313 ; Commons' de-
bate on grievances, 314; King
presses his necessities, 315 ;
Commons admit their urgency,
but do not remove them, 316;
Charles applies to the Lords,
who interfere, 317; the Com-
mons resent interference, 318;
Parliament dissolved, 318; Cla-
rendon's opinion on the proceed-
ing, 389; Charles's proceedings
in the recess, 320 ; his army
defeated by the Scotch at New-
castle, 321 ; Long Parliament
opened, 322; King's speech,
323 ; Lords' proceedings for
breach of privileges, 324; im-
peachment of Lord Strafford
and Sir Francis Windebank,
324; convocation censured, and
ship-money declared illegal,325;
impeachment of Laud, and the
judges, 325; Commons frater.
nize with the Scotch, 327; peti-
tion of city of London, 327;
King's speech promising amend-
ments, 328; takes Puritan lea-
ders into office, 329; alters
judges' appointments, and passes
several Acts, the Triennial Act,
330 ; Acts for Relief of the

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Army, and to prevent untimely
dissolving of Long Parliament,
331; Act of Attainder of Earl
Strafford, and Act yielding ton-
nage and poundage, 332; Act
abolishing Star-chamber, 334;
abolishing High Commission
Court, 335; Act declaring ship-
money illegal, 336; Act for cer-
tainty of forests, and for preven-
tion of vexatious knighthoods,
336 ; Charles's return from
Scotland, and joyful entry into
London, 337; grand Remon-
strance passed, 338; character-
ized by historians, 339; analysis
of the Remonstrance, 340–344;
estimate of it, 344; Charles's
collision with Parliament about
privileges, 345; new sources of
dispute, 347; new ministers,
348 ; charge against the five
members, 349 ; Charles's at-
tempt to seize them,350; Pym's
vindication, 351; Charles fol-
lows them into the city, 352;
separation of King and Parlia-
ment, 353; Charles's efforts to
produce a reconciliation, 354;
royal assent, by commission, to
act removing bishops from Par-
liament, 355; Commons require
control of the militia, 356 ;
Charles's answer, 357 ; estimate
of the conduct of the King and
the Parliament, 358; Civil war,
359; Cromwell, 360 ; principal
events during the interregnum,
360–362.
Charles II. : the Restoration, 364;

the Convention Parliament met,
366; its communications with
Charles, and his entry into Lon-
don, 367; his royal assent to
Acts, 368; speech on his want
of money, 370; recovery of mo-
narchical element, 370; his de-
claration from Breda, 372; cre-
ates Hyde Baron Hendon, and
afterwards Earl Clarendon, 374;
declaration on ecclesiastical af.

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