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and M. J. G. Buhle (in a dissertation read in 1803 before the Royal Society of Gottingen, on the same subject, and published in 1804, in German), are of opinion, that if Andreas was not the founder, he at least gave that new organization to the Rosicrucians which identified them with the free-masons, in whose societies the memory of Andreas is still held in veneration. And if we find no'proofs of the fact in the life which he left of himself, and which Seybold published in 1799, in the second volume of his Autobiography, it must on the other hand be confessed, that in the works which he published in his life-time, he is perpetually reasoning on the necessity of forming a society solely devoted to the regeneration of knowledge and manners. The question, however, is not yet absolutely determined, nor, 'except in Germany, will it perhaps appear a matter of much consequence. There is nothing in the history of the Rosicrucians to excite much respect for its founder, or for those who fancied they improved upon it by the late more mischievous society of the Illuminati.

The works of Andreas are said to amount to a hundred, the titles of part of which are given by Adelung, and the whole by M. Burk, pastor of Weiltingen, and printed in a pamphlet at Tubingen, in 1793, 8vo. Some of the principal are, l. “ De Christiani Cosmoseni genitura judicium," Montbelliard, 1612, 12mo, a satire on astrology. 2. « Collectaneorum mathematicorum decades XI." Tubingen, 1614, 4to. 3. “Invitatio ad fraternitatem Christi," 1617, part II. 1618, 12no. 4. “ Rosa florescens, contra Menapii calumnias," 1617, 8vo. This defence of the Ro. sicrucians is signed Florentinus de Valentia, a name sometimes given to Andreas, as well as that of Andreas de VaJentia, but it is not quite certain that he was the author (See Walch’s Bibl. Theol.). 5. “ Menippus : Dialogorum Satyricorum centuria inanitum nostratium speculum,” Helicone juxta Parnassum, 1617, 12mo. It is in this work that Andreas is said to display a mind superior to the age in which he lived, by pointing out the numerous defects which prevent religion and literature from being so useful as they might under a better organization. 6. “ Civis Christianus, sive Peregrini quondam errantis restitutiones," Strasburgh, 1619, 8vo. 7. “Mythologiæ Christianæ, sive yirtê tum et vitiorum vitæ humanæ imaginum, libri tres," Strasburgh, 1619, 12mo. 8. “ Republicæ Christiano-poli, tanæ descriptio; Turris Babel; Judiciorum de fraternitate Rosacea Crucis chaos; Christiane societatis idea ;" published together at Strasburgh, 1619, 12mo. They contain very evident proofs of his design to establish a secret society. It is impossible not to perceive that he is always aiming at something of the kind, and this, with some other works attributed to him, seem to confirm the opinion of Messrs. Buhle and Murr.' Some also appeal to his frequent travels, as having no other object. Whatever may be in this, Andreas is allowed'a very high rank among the writers of German. At a time when that language had received very little cultivation, when most learned men wrote in Latin, and when the idiom of the country was only to be heard in familiar conversation, he gave his verses, for he was likewise a poet, a particular ease and grace. They are not perhaps remarkable for elegance, correctness, or harmony, but they frequently discover a poetical fancy, and a very happy use of the dialect of Suabia. .

ANDREAS (John), a famous canonist of the fourteenth century, born at Mugello, near Florence. He was very young when he went to Bologna to pursue his studies, and would have found great difficulty to maintain himself, had he not got a tutor's place, by which means he was cnabled to apply himself to the study of the canon law, in whichi he made great progress under the professor Guy de Baïf. He had always a particular respect for this professor, pays ing as great deference to his giosses as the text itself. Guy de Baïf, perceiving that Andreas, for want of money, could not demand his doctor's degree, procured it him gratis, which Andreas himself acknowledges. The same professor urged him to stand for a professorship, which he obtained, and was professor at Padua about the year 1930; but he was recalled to Bologna, where he acquired the greatest reputation. We are told wonderful things con. cerning the ansterity of his life, that he macerated his body with prayer and fasting, and lay upon the bare ground for twenty years together, covered only with a bear-skin: but according to Poggius, he was not afterwards so extremely rigid in discipline or morals. "

Andreas had a beautiful daughter, named Novella, whom he is said to have instructed so well in all parts of learning, that when he was engaged in any affair, which hindered him from reading lectures to his scholars, he sent bis

. . Biog. Universelle.--Saxii Onomasticon,

daughter in his room; when, lest her beauty should pre: vent the attention of the hearers, she had a little curtain drawn before her. To perpetuate the memory of this daughter, he entitled his commentary upon the Decretals of Gregory X. " the Novellæ.” He married her to John Calderinus, a learned canonist. The first work of Andreas was his Gloss upon the sixth book of the Decretals, Rome 1476, and five editions afterwards at Pavia, Basil, and Venice. This work he wrote when he was very young. He wrote also Glosses upon the Clementines, Strasburgh, 1471, and Mentz, Rome, and Basil, four times; and a Commentary in Regulas Sexti, which he entitled “ Mercuriales," because he either engaged in it on Wednesdays, diebus Mercurii, or because he inserted his Wednesday's disputes in it. He enlarged the Speculum of Durant, in the year 1347, but this is taken literally from Ostradus. Andreas died of the plague at Bologna in 1348, after he had been a professor forty-five years, and was buried in the church of the Dominicans. Many eulogiums have been bestowed upon him: he was called archidoctor decretorum; in his epitaph he has the title of “ Rabbi doctorum, lux, censor, normaque morum;" or, rabbi of the doctors, the light, censor, and rule of manners; and it is said that pope Boniface called him “ lumen mundi," the light of the world. Bayle objects, that Andreas followed the method of the Pyrrhonists too much; that he proved his own opinion very solidly when he chose, but that he often rather related the sentiments of others, and left his readers to form their own determination.'

ANDREAS (John), was born a Mahometan, at Xativa, in the kingdom of Valencia, and succeeded his father in the dignity of alfaqui of that city. He enibraced Christianity on being present at a sermon in the great church of Valencia the day of the assumption of the blessed Virgin, in 1487. Upon this he desired to be baptised, and in memory of the call. ing of St. John and St. Andrew, he took the name of John Andreas. “Having received holy orders," says he, “ and from an alfaqui and a slave of Lucifer become a priest and minister of Christ, I began, like St. Paul, to preach and publish the contrary of what I had erroneously believed and asserted; and, with the assistance of almighty God, I converted at first a great many souls of the Moors, who were

Gen. Dict. Moreri.--Cave, vol. II.-Saxii Onomasticon..

in danger of hell, and under the dominion of Lucifer, and conducted them into the way of salvation. After this, I was sent for by the most catholic princes king Ferdinand and queen Isabella, in order to preach in Grenada to the Moors of that kingdom, which their majesties had conquered; and by God's blessing on my preaching, an infinite number of Moors were brought to abjure Mahommed, and to turn to Christ. A little after this, I was made a canon by their graces; and sent for again by the most Christian queen Isabella to Arragon, that I might be employed in the conversion of the Moors of those kingdoms, who still persisted in their errors, to the great contempt and dishonour of our crucified Saviour, and the prodigious loss and danger of all Christian princes. But this excellent and pious design of her majesty was rendered ineffectual by her death." At the desire of Martin Garcia, bishop of Barcelona, he undertook to translate from the Arabic, into the language of Arragon, the whole law of the Moors; and after having finished this undertaking, he composed his famous work of “ The Confusion of the Sect of Mahommed;" it contains twelve chapters, wherein he has collected the fabulous stories, impostures, forgeries, brutalities, follies, absurdities, and contradictions, which Mahommed, in order to deceive the simple people, has dispersed in the writings of that sect, and especially in the Koran. Andreas tells us, he wrote this work, that not only the learned among Christians, but even the common people, might know the different belief and doc. trine of the Moors; and on the one hand might laugh at and ridicule such insolent and brutal notions, and on the other might lament their blindness and dangerous condition.—This book, which was published at first in Spanish at Seville, 1537, -4to, has been translated into several languages, and is frequently quoted as authority in writings against the Mahometan religion.'

ANDREAS, or ANDREA (ONUPHRIUS), a Neapolitan poet, flourished about the year 1630, and died in 1647. Although he is not free from the prevailing corruption of style in his time, Crescembini and Le Quadrio rank him among the best poets of the seventeenth century. He wrote two poems : “ Aci," in ottava rima, Naples, 1628, 12mo, and “ Italia liberata,” a heroic poem, Naples, 1626, 12mo; two theatrical pieces, “ Elpino, favola boscherec.

1 Gen. Dict-Moreri.

4to, has bees published

agages, and is

cia,” and “ La Vana gelosia," a collection of lyric poems, in-two parts, and “ Discorsi in prose” on different subjects of morality and philosophy, Naples, 1636, 4to:'. . : ANDREAS (Valerius), a biographer, to whom works of this description are highly indebted, was born Nov. 25, 1588, at Desschel, a small town in Brabant, from which he has been sometimes called Desselius. He studied polite literature, first in his own country, under Valerius Hon. tius, a very able teacher, and afterwards for three years at Antwerp, under Andreas Schottus, a learned Jesuit, who taught him Greek; and he was taught Hebrew at the same time by John Hay, a native of Scotland, and likewise one of the society of Jesuits. After having attended a course of philosophy at Douay, he was appointed Hebrew professor at Louvain in 1612. In 1621. he was created. LL. D. In 1628 he was appointed regius professor of civil law, and, in 1638, keeper of the newly-founded university. library. , His life appears to have been principally devoted to the compo. sition of his numerous works, and the care of the press in publishing other works of celebrity. He died at Louvain, 1656, leaving behind him the character of a man of amiable manners and extensive

His principal works are, l. “Orthographiæ ratio, et de ratione interpungendi ac distinctionum notis,” Douay, 1610, 12mo. 2. “ Clarorum Catalogus Hispaniæ Scripto, rum,” Mentz, 1607, 4to. 3. “ Imagines doctorum viro, rum e variis gentibus, elogiis brevibus illustratæ,” Antwerp, 1611, 12mo.': These two last he appears to have undervalued, as he did not insert them in the list of his writings in the Bibl. Belgica. 4. “ De initiis ac progressu Collegii Trilinguis Buslidiani, deque vita et scriptis profes. soruin ejusdem collegii," 1614, 4to. 5. “De Linguæ Heo braicæ laudibus, antiquitate, &c." ibid. :: 6. “ Dissertatio de Toga et Sago, sive de litterata armataque militia," Cologn, 1618, 8vo. 7. "Topographia Belgica.” 8. “Fasti Academici Studii Generalis Lovaniensis," 1635, 4to, and in 1648, an improved edition; but afterwards a much more correct edition was published under the title of “ Historia Universitatis Lovaniensis.” 9. “ Bibliothecæ Lovaniensis primordia," 1636, and in 1638, with a catalogue of the library. His other works were on the subject of the canon law, and some editions of the canonists with improvements;

ping. Upirerselle

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