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apcients in their temples, employed him to execute the sculpture of the gates of the baptistery, from designs by Giotto. These gates were accordingly covered with basreliefs, representing the whole history of John the Baptist. The composition is excellent, and the attitudes of the figures natural and expressive, although with some degree of stiffness, but the minute parts are executed with great skill. These gates, which were begun in 1331, were finished, polished, and gilt in eight years, and at first were placed at the principal entrance, but they were afterwards removed to one of the side entrances, where they now are, and the admirable gates of Laurent Ghiberti substituted in their room. Andrea also executed in bronze the tabernacle of San Giovanni, the bas reliefs, and statues belonging to the campanile of St. Marie del Fiore, and many others. At Venice, his works are, the sculpture on the façade of the church of St. Mark; the model of the baptistery of Pistoia, executed in 1337; and the tomb of Cino d'Angibolgi ; and he was employed in many fortifications by Gaultier de Brienne, duke of Athens, during his usurpation at Florence; but Andrea did not suffer by the duke's disgrace in 1343; and the Florentives, who looked only to his merit, admitted him a citizen of Florence, where he died in 1345, and was buried in St. Marie del Fiore. His son Nino, also a sculptor of considerable note, erected a monument to his memory."
ANDREW, or more properly ANDREA DEL SARTO, so called from his father's trade, that of a tailor, but whose family name was VENUCCI, was born at Florence in 1488, and at first instructed in his art by Barile, a mean painter, with whom he spent three years, at the end of which Barile placed him with Peter Cosimo, then accounted one of the best painters in Italy. Under him, he made astonishing proficiency, and his abilities began to be acknowledged, but Cosimo's morose temper obliged him to leave him, and seek instruction in the works of other artists. As he had, while with Cosimo, employed himself in designing after Vinci, Raphael, and Buonaroti, to whose works he had access at Florence, he persisted in the same practice, formed an admirable taste, and excelled his young rivals at home or abroad, in correctness, colouring, and knowledge of his art. Having contracted a friendship
1 Biog. Universelle.
with Francesco Bigio, they determined to live together, and painted a great many works in the churches and convents of Florence, jointly, but Andrea's reputation began to predomiuate, and seemed fixed by his representation of the preaching of St. John, executed for the Carmelites at Florence. Some time after this, he went to Rome to study the models of art in that city, but it is thought he did not remain there long enough to reap all the benefit which he might. The excellence of his pencil, and his power of imitation, were remarkably displayed in the copy he made of Leo X. between cardinal Medici and cardinal Roffi, the head and hands by Raphael, and the draperies by Julio Romano. The imitation was so exact, that Julio, after the most minute inspection, and being told that it was a copy, could not distinguish it from the original. His superior talents might have raised him to opulence, if his imprudence had not reduced him to shame and poverty. The French king, Francis I. who was extremely partial to his works, invited him to his court, defrayed the expences of his journey, and made him many valuable presents. For a portrait, only, of the Dauphin, an infant, he received three hundred crowns of gold, and he painted many other pictures for the court and nobility, for which he was liberally rewarded. While employed on a picture of St. Jerome, for the queen dowager, he received letters' from his wife, soliciting his return to Florence, and, to indulge her, of whom he was excessively fond, he asked, and obtained a few months absence. It was on this occa. sion that the king, confiding in his integrity, made him several princely presents, and intrusted him with large sums of money to purchase statues, paintings, &c.; but Andrea instead of executing his commission, squandered away not only his own, but the money intrusted to him, became poor, and despised, and at last died of the plague, in his forty-second year, abandoned by his wife, and by all those friends who had partaken of his extravagance. His principal works were at Florence, but there were formerly specimens in many of the palaces and churches of Italy and France. All the biographers and critics of painters, except perhaps Baldinucci, have been lavish in their praises of Andrea Mr. Fuseli, in his much improved edition of Pilkington, observes, that, on comparing the merits of his works, they seem to have obtained their full share of justice. As a Tuscan, says that judicious critic,
the suavity of his tone, and facility of practice, contrast more strikingly with the general austerity and elaborate pedantry of that school, and gain him greater praise than they would, had he been a Bolognese or Lombard. It cannot, however, be denied, that his sweetness sometimes borders on insipidity; the modesty, or rather pusillanimity of his character, checked the full exertion of his powers; his faults are of the negative kind, and defects rather than blemishes. He had no notions of nature beyoud the model, and concentrated all female beauty in his Lucrezia (his wife), and if it be true that he sacrificed his fortune and Francis I. to her charms, she must at least have equalled in form and feature his celebrated Madonna del Sacco; hence it was not unnatural that the proportions of Albert Durer should attract him more than those of Michael Angelo. His design and his conceptions, which seldom rose above the sphere of common or dontestic life, kept pace with each other; here his observation was acute, and his ear open to every whisper of social intercourse or emotion. The great peculiarity, perhaps the great prerogative, of Andrea appears to be that parallelism of composition, which distinguishes the best of his historical works, seemingly as natural, obvious, and easy, as inimitable. In solemn effects, in alternate balance of action and repose, he excels all the moderns, and if he was often unable to conceive the actors themselves, he gives them probability and importance, by place and posture. Of costume he was ignorant, but none ever excelled, and few approached him in breadth, form, and style of that drapery which ought to distinguish solemn, grave, or religious subjects."
ANDREW, or ANDREAS (TOBIAS), professor of history and Greek at Groningen, was born at Braunfels, in the county of Solms, August 10th, 1604. His father was minister to count de Solms-Braunfels, and Inspector of the churches which belong to that county, and his mother, daughter to John Piscator, a famous professor of divinity at Herborn, in the county of Nassau. He performed his humanity-studies at Herborn, and then studied philosophy at the same place, under Alstedius and Piscator, after which he went to Bremen, where he lived seven years. He was one of the most constant auditors of Gerard de Neuville, a physician and a philosopher; and, as he had
Pilkington. -Vasari.---Abregé des Vies des Peintres, vol. 1,--&c.
a desire to attain a public professorship, he prepared himself for it by several lectures which he read in philosophy. He returned to his own country in 1628, where he did not continue long, but went to Groningen, on the invitation of his kind patron, Henry Alting. He read there, for some time, lectures upon all parts of philosophy, after which Alting made him tutor to his sons, and when they had no longer occasion for his instruction, he procured him the same employment with a prince Palatine, which lasted for three years ; part of which he spent at Leyden, and part at the Hague, at the court of the prince of Orange. He was called to Groningen in 1634, to succeed Janus Gebhardus, who had been professor of history and Greek. He filled that chair with great assiduity and reputation till his death, which happened October 17, 1676. He was library-keeper to the university, and a great friend to Mr. Des Cartes, which he shewed both during the life and after the death of that illustrious philosopher. He married the daughter of a Swede, famous, among other things, for charity towards those who suffered for the sake of religion.
His friendship for Des Cartes was occasioned by the law-suit against Martin Schoockius, professor of philosophy at Groningen. This professor was prosecuted by Mr. Des Cartes, for having accused him publicly of Atheism. Though Mr. Des Cartes had never seen our Andreas but once in his life, yet he recommended this affair to him, from the attachment which he professed. Mr. De la Thuillerie, ambassador of France, and the friends of Mr. Des Cartes, exerted themselves on one side, and the enemies of Voetius at Groningen on the other; and by this means Mr. Des Cartes obtained justice. His accuser acknowledged him to be innocent of his charge, but was allowed to escape without punishment. He also wrote in defence of him against a professor of Leyden, whose name was Revius, and published a vigorous answer to him in 1653, entitled “Methodi Cartesianæ Assertio, opposita Jacobi Revii, Præf. Methodi Cartesianæ considerationi Theologicæ.” The second part of this answer appeared the year following. He wrote, likewise, in 1653, in defence of the remarks of Mr. Des Cartes upon a Programma, which contained an explication of the human mind. He taught the Cartesian philosophy in his own house, though his professorship did not oblige him to that, and even when
his age had quite weakened him. Such were the prejudices of that age, that Des Marets, who acquaints us with these particulars, mentions a Swiss student, who dared not venture to attend upon the philosophical lectures of Tobias Andreas, for fear it should be known in his own country, and be an obstacle to his promotion to the ministry."
ANDREW, or ANDREE (YVES MARY), a French Je. suit, born May 22, 1675, at Châteaulin in the comte de Cornouailles, the country which produced the pere Ardouin, and pere Bougeant, and like them was received into the order of Jesuits. He settled himself at Caen, in the chair of professor regius of the mathematics, which be filled from 1726 to 1759; when, having attained the age of eighty-four, he found it necessary to seek repose. His laborious life was terminated Feb. 26, 1764, Nature had endowed him with a happy constitution, and he preserved it unimpaired by the regularity of his life, and the gaiety of his temper. No species of literature was foreign to him; he succeeded in the mathematical chair, and he wrote lively and elegant verses; but he is chiefly known by “ Essai sur le Beau," of which a new edition was given in the collection of his works in 1766, 5 vols. 12mo, edited by the abbé Guyot.' It is composed with order and taste, has novelty in its subject, dig: nity in its style, and force enough in its argument. Much esteem is bestowed on his “ Traite sur l'Homme," in which be philosophises concerning the union of the soul with the body, in a manner which made him be suspected of an innovating spirit. He was a great admirer of Mallebranche, and corresponded with him for many years.
ANDREWS (JAMES PETTIT), a miscellaneous writer of considerable learning and talents, was the younger son of Joseph Andrews, esq. of Shaw-house, near Newbury, Berks, and was born there in 1737. He was educated by a private tutor, the rev. Mr. Matthews, rector of Shaw, in Berks, and early distinguished himself by his application to literature and the fine arts. At the age of eighteen or nineteen, he went into the Berkshire militia, on the first calling out of that body of men, and held the rank of lieutenant until the regiment was disbanded.
His first publication was a work of uncommon pleasantry and humour. It was entitled “ Anecdotes ancient and
* Biog, Universelle.--Dict. Hist.