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modern, with observations," 1789, 8vo, and a supplement to it, 1790. This went rapidly through several editions ; prefixed is a portrait, bearing some resemblance to himself, of a man distilling anecdotes from an alembic. This was designed by Mr. Andrews, drawn by Grimm, and engraved by Macky. The volume is inscribed to his brother, sir Joseph Andrews, and he acknowledges having received assistance from Mr. Pye, the present laureat, captain Grose, and others. In the same year he is said, but we believe without authority, to have written a small pamphlet, entitled “ Advice to the Prince of Wales.” His next work was entitled “The History of Great Britain, connected with the Chronology of Europe; with notes, &c. containing anecdotes of the times, lives of the learned, and specimens of their works, vol. I from Cæsar's invasion to the deposition and death of Richard II." 1794, 4to. In this work he proved himself a very accurate and industrious collector of facts, the result of a long course of diligent reading. Throughout the part of the work which is strictly historical, the histories of England and of the rest of Europe are carried on collaterally, a certain portion of the former being given in one page, and a corresponding portion of the latter on the opposite page. The English story is concisely told, with a careful attention to the insertion of minute circumstances. The corresponding page of general chronology is extended to comprehend the annals of every European state, but seldom wanders into other parts of the globe, except when led by circumstances closely connected avith the affairs of Europe. In order to condense as much matter as possible into his volume, he carefully avoids unnecessary amplification, and expresses himself with a happy, yet forcible". brevity. The notes contain a great variety of curious and amusing particulars not immediately connected with the main story. To the historical varrative are added, at proper intervals, appendixes of two kinds; the first, containing relations of such incidents as could not properly be thrown into the notes, and biographical sketches of distinguished British writers, with specimens of poetical productions; the second presenting an analysis of the times, under the respective heads of religion, government, manners, arts, sciences, language, commerce, &c. There are other arrangements adopted by the author, which render the work not less useful for reference, than for continued reading. In 1795, he published a second volume, or rather a se
cond part to vol. I. continuing his plan from “ The deposition and death of Richard II. to the accession of Edward VI.” It is much to be regretted that he did not live to complete this plan. It may, indeed, be undertaken by another, but there is always a certain portion of enthusiasm in the original contriver of a scheme, which it is impossible to impart.
Mr. Andrews appears to have been for a time diverted from his own work, by being engaged to continue Henry's History of Great Britain, which was published accordingly, in 1796, in one volume 4to, and 2 vols. 8vo, and formed an useful supplement to the labours of the Scotch historian, but one more corresponding to Henry's plan is yet wanting.
Besides these elaborate works, Mr. Andrews displayed his antiquarian knowledge in " An account of Saxon Coins found in Kintbury church-yard, Berks,” which was printed in the 7th volume of the Archæologia ; “ The account of Shaw,” in Mr. Mores's Berkshire Collections. He translated also “ The Savages of Europe," a popular French novel, illustrated with prints from his own designs. To the Gentleman's Magazine he was a very liberal and intelligent contributor.
On the institution of the new system of London police, Mr. Andrews was appointed one of the commissioners for the district of Queen's square and St. Margaret's Westminster, and discharged the duties of that office with great industry and integrity, until his death, which happened at his house in London, August 6, 1797, in his sixtieth year. He was buried at Hampstead. He marrried Miss Anne Penrose, daughter of the rev. Mr. Penrose, late rector of Newbury. By this lady, whom he survived 'twenty years, he had two sons and a daughter : one of the former is dead; the other in 1800 succeeded to the title and estates of his uncle, sir Joseph Andrews, bart.' a man of a most amiable and exalted character.
Since writing the above, we learn from Mr. Lysons's Supplement to his 6 Environs," that Mr. Andrews's first publication was a humane pamphlet in behalf of the chimney-sweepers' apprentices, in 1788, which led to the act of parliament, passed not long afterwards, for the purpose of meliorating their condition, Mr. Andrews had a large circle of literary acquaintance, who frequently met at his hospitable table, at Brompton-row, in the parish of Ken-, sington, where he resided many years; and he had the
happiness of being able to enjoy his friends and his library, which contained a very valuable and entertaining collection of books, almost to the last moment of his existence,
ANDREWS (LANCELOT), an eminent divine, and bishop of Winchester in the reigns of James I. and Charles I. was born at London, in 1555, in the parish of Allhallows Barking, being descended from the ancient family of the Andrews in Suffolk. He had his education in grammarlearning, first in the Coopers' free-school at Ratcliff under Mr. Ward, and afterwards in Merchant Taylors' school at London, under Mr. Mulcaster. Here he made such a proficiency in the learned languages, that Dr. Watts, residentiary of St. Paul's, and archdeacon of Middlesex, who about that time had founded some scholarships at Pembroke hall in Cambridge, sent him to that college, and bestowed on him the first of those exhibitions. After he had been three years in the university, his custom was to come up to London once a year, about Easter, to visit his father and mother, with whom he usually stayed a month ; during which time, with the assistance of a master, he applied himself to the attaining some language or art, to which he was before a stranger : and by this means, in a few years, he had laid the foundation of all the arts and sciences, and acquired a competent skill in most of the modern languages. Having taken the degree of bachelor of arts, he was, upon a vacancy, chosen fellow of his college, in preference upon trial to Mr. Dove, afterwards bishop of Peterborough. In the mean time Hugh Price, having founded Jesus college in Oxford, and hearing much of the fame of young Mr. Andrews, appointed him one of his first, or honorary fellows on that foundation. Having taken the degree of master of arts, he applied himself to the study : of divinity, in the kuowledge of which he so greatly excelled, that being chosen catechist in the college, and have ing undertaken to read a lecture on the Ten Commandments every Saturday and Sunday at three o'clock in the afternoon, great numbers out of the other colleges of the university, and even out of the country, duly resorted to Pembroke chapel, as to a divinity lecture. At the same time, he was esteemed so profound a casuist; that he was often consulted in the nicest and most difficult cases of conscience; and his reputation being established, Henry, earl of Huntington, prevailed upon him to accompany him
* Gent. Mag. 1797 and 1801.-Lysons's Supplement to Environs, 1811.
reliefs.compostalande mimich were eight but they wherribert
apcients in their temples, employed him to execute the. sculpture of the gates of the baptistery, from designs by Giotto. These gates were accordingly covered with basreliefs, representing the whole history of John the Baptist. The composition is excellent, and the attitudes of the figures natural and expressive, although with some degree of stiffness, but the minute parts are exécuted with great skill. These gates, which were begun in 1331, were finished, polished, and gilt in eight years, and at first were placed at the principal entrance, but they were afterwards removed to one of the side entrances, where they now are, and the admirable gates of Laurent Ghiberti substituted in their room. Andrea also executed in bronze the tabernacle of San Giovanni, the bas reliefs, and statues belonging to the campanile of St. Marie del Fiore, and many others. At Venice, his works are, the sculpture on the facade of the church of St. Mark; the model of the baptistery of Pistoia, executed in 1337; and the tomb of Cino d'Angibolgi ; and he was employed in many fortifications by Gaultier de Brienne, duke of Athens, during his usurpation at Florence; but Andrea did not suffer by the duke's disgrace in 1343; and the Florentives, who looked only to his merit, admitted him a citizen of Florence, where he died in 1345, and was buried in St. Marie del Fiore. His son Nino, also a sculptor of considerable note, erected a monument to his memory."
ANDREW, or more properly ANDREA DEL SARTO, so called from his father's trade, that of a tailor, but whose family name was VENUCCI, was born at Florence in 1488, and at first instructed in his art by Barile, a mean painter, with whom he spent three years, at the end of which Barile placed him with Peter Cosiiņo, then accounted one of the best painters in Italy. Under him, he made astonishing proficiency, and his abilities began to be acknowledged, but Cosimo's morose temper obliged him to leave him, and seek instruction in the works of other artists. As he had, while with Cosimo, employed himself in designing after Vinci, Raphael, and Buonaroti, to whose works he had access at Florence, he persisted in the same practice, formed an admirable taste, and excelled his young rivals at home or abroad, in correctness, colouring, and knowledge of his art. Having contracted a friendship
1 Biog. Universelle.
with Francesco Bigio, they determined to live together, and painted a great many works in the churches and convents of Florence, jointly, but Andrea's reputation began to predominate, and seemed fixed by his representation of the preaching of St. John, executed for the Carmelites at Florence. Some time after this, he went to Rome to study the models of art in that city, but it is thought he did not remain there long enough to reap all the benefit which he might. The excellence of his pencil, and his power of imitation, were remarkably displayed in the copy he made of Leo X. between cardinal Medici and cardinal Roffi, the head and hands by Raphael, and the draperies by Julio Romano. The imitation was so exact, that Julio, after the most minute inspection, and being told that it was a copy, could not distinguish it from the original. His superior talents might have raised him to opulence, if his imprudence had not reduced him to shame and po. verty. The French king, Francis I. who was extremely partial to his works, invited him to his court, defrayed the expences of his journey, and made him many valuable presents. For a portrait, only, of the Dauphin, an infant, he received three hundred crowns of gold, and he painted many other pictures for the court and nobility, for which he was liberally rewarded. While employed on a picture of St. Jerome, for the queen dowager, he received letters from his wife, soliciting his return to Florence, and, to indulge her, of whom he was excessively fond, he asked, and obtained a few months absence. It was on this occa. sion that the king, confiding in his integrity, made him several princely presents, and intrusted him with large sums of money to purchase statues, paintings, &c. ; but Andrea instead of executing his commission, squandered away not only his own, but the money intrusted to him, became poor, and despised, and at last died of the plague, in his forty-second year, abandoned by his wife, and by all those friends who had partaken of his extravagance. His principal works were at Florence, but there were formerly specimens in many of the palaces and churches of Italy and France. Al the biographers and critics of painters, except perhaps Baldinucci, have been lavish in their praises of Andrea. Mr. Fuseli, in his much improved edition of Pilkington, observes, that, on comparing the merits of his works, they seem to have obtained their full share of justice. As a Tuscan, says that judicious critic,