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manuscript," Lond. 1711, 8vo. This pamphlet is uncommonly scarce. Besides these, the late Dr. Flesman as-, sured Dr. Kippis that the following pieces may be attributed to our author, « Theses Theologicæ de ultimo judi. cio," Salmur, 1660, 4to, probably academical exercises; “A discourse concerning Penance," Lond. 1688, 8vo; “ An historical discourse concerning the necessity of the Ministers' intention in administering the Sacrament,' 1688, 8vo; “ An Examination of the scruples of those who refuse to take the Oaths,” 1689, 4to; “ Animadversions on Mr. Hill's Vindication of the primitive Fathers, against the right rev. Gilbert, bishop of Sarum, 1695, 4to.'

ALLOISI (BALTHAZAR), called GALANINO, an eminent painter of history and portraits, received his education in the school of the Caracci, and in all his compositions retained the admirable style of his master. He had naturally a melancholy turn of mind, and was of a retired and solitary disposition: this induced him to avoid the conversation of his friends, and devote hiinself to the study of his art; but by this plan he became so necessitous, that he was compelled to paint portraits to procure a subsistence. In this branch, however, his success was astonishing; and he grew into the highest esteem, not only for the resemblance visible at first sight, and the beauty of his colouring, but also for a new and unusual boldness of manner, by which his portraits seemed absolutely to breathe. None of his contemporaries could enter into competition with him; and the Italian writers place him in the same rank of merit with Vandyck. He was born at Bologna in 1578, and died in 1638.2

ALLORI (ALEXANDER), called BRONZINO, an eminent painter, was born at Florence in 1535, and was the disciple of Agnolo Bronzino, likewise a distinguished painter, who. educated him with all the tenderness of a parent, Allosi having been deprived of his own father, when he was but five years old. He was very studious, and applied himself diligently, not only to imitate the manner of his master, but the different manners of those masters who were in the greatest reputation. When he commenced painter, his first work was a crucifixion, intended for an altar-piece, which was much praised, but his success in portrait-painting induced him to employ a great deal of his time in that

· Biog. Brit. . .Pilkington's Dict.

ture of the last greatest attention anster whose works he

branch. Michael Angelo was the master whose works he studied with the greatest attention, and he designed a picture of the Last Judgment, after the manner of that great genius, which is preserved at Rome, and will perpetuate the honour of Allori. He died in 1607, aged 72. It is said that he wrote some burlesque poems, and a dialogue on Design. The existence of this last is denied by his French biographer, but we find its title in Haym's Biblioteca Italiana, 66 Dialogo di Alessandro Allori pittore Flo. rentino sopra l'arte del disegnare le figure principiando da Muscoli, Ossa, Nervi, Vene, Membra, Notomia, e figura perfetta,” Florence, 1590.

ALLORI (CHISTOPHANO), called also BRONZINO, was the son and disciple of the preceding, and born in Florence in 1577. For some time he followed the manner of Alexander, but, afterwards studying design from the works of Santi di Titi, and colouring from the lively and elegant tints of Cigoli, he formed to himself a manner entirely different. He executed several large designs for altars, yet had a particular excellence in painting small pictures, in which he introduced a number of minute figures, so exquisite for correotness of drawing, so round and relieved by the colouring, and touched with so much delicacy, that it seemed surprising how either the hand or the eye could execute them. His portraits were also in high esteem. His best pictures were those of Judith, St. Francis, and St. Julian. The last mentioned, long one of the chief ornaments of the Pitti palace, is now in the imperial collection at Paris, and shews him to have been one of the finest colourists of the Florentine school. He died at the age of forty-two, in consequence of a wound in his foot. Amputation was recommended, but he refused his consent, and continued deliberately using his pencil to the last moment of his life.”

ALMAIN (JAMES); professor of divinity in the college of Navarre, at Paris, and one of the most able scholastic writers of his time, was a native of Sens, and died young at Paris in 1515. During his short life, he published a considerable number of works, on logic, physics, morality, and divinity. The two which procured him most fame are, 1. “ De autoritate Ecclesiæ, &c.” Paris, 1512, 4to, in which he defends the doctrine of the council of Pisa, against

1 Pilkington's Dict ----Biog. Universelle. . . Ibid. .

Cajetan, who had raised the pope's authority above that of the councils. 2. De potestate ecclesiastica et laicali contra Ockam.”—These are both in the edition of his works, published at Paris, 1517, fol. ; but in that edition we do not meet with his “ Moralia,” Paris, 1525, 8vo.' ,'

ALMAMON, caliph of Bagdat, a philosopher and astronomer in the beginning of the ninth century, ascended the throne in the year 814. He was the son of Harun-AlRashid, and the grandson of Almanzor. His name is otherwise written Mamon, Almaon, Almamun, Alamoun, or Al-Maimon. Having been educated with great care, and with a love for the liberal sciences, he applied himself to cultivate and encourage them in his own country. For this purpose he requested the Greek emperors to supply him with such books on philosophy as they had among them; and he collected skilful interpreters to translate them into the Arabic language. He also encouraged his subjects to study them ; frequenting the meetings of the learned, and assisting in their exercises and deliberations. He caused Ptolemy's Almagest to be translated in the year 827; and in his reign, and doubtless by his encouragement, an astronomer of Bagdat, named Hovash, composed three sets of astronomical tables. Almamon himself, however, made many astronomical observations, concerning the obliquity of the ecliptic, and caused skilful observers to procure proper instruments to be made, and to exercise themiselves in such observations. Under his auspices also a degree of the meridian was measured ; and he revived the sciences in the East so successfully that many learned men were found, not only in his own time, but after him, in a country where the study of the sciences had long been forgotten. This learned king died near Tarsus in Cilicia, by having eaten too freely of dates, on his return from a military expedition, in the year 833, in the 48th or 49th year of his age. ?

ALMARUS (ELMARUS, ELMERUS, or ÆLMERUS), was abbot of the monastery of St. Austin in Canterbury, at the time that Alphage, the archbishop, was barbarously murdered by the Danes, in 1011, when the city was betrayed to them. Almarús, however, was suffered by those plunderers to go at liberty; and in the year 1022, was made

iberty; ander was sufferedity was betram

" Moreri.--Du Pin.--Cave, vol. II.-Biog. Universelle.
? Univ. History,--Brucker.-Hutton's Mathematical Dictionary.

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bishop of Sherborne in Dorsetshire, which bishopric was afterwards translated to Salisbury. Godwin mentions him as a bishop, but adds that he knows nothing of him but his name. Almarus was not inclined either to leave his abbey, or to become a bishop; but was 'at last prevailed on to take upon him that dignity, which he discharged with great constancy and vigour, until he had the misfortune to lose his sight. On this he resigned his bi. shopric with more alacrity than he had accepted it, returning back to his abbey, where he lived in a cell in the infirmary, in great innocence and devotion to his last hour. When he was near his death, he directed that he should be buried not as a bishop, but as a monk, which was complied with. He was interred in the church of the monastery, before the altar of St. John, and his memory held in great veneration. The chronicles relate some superstitious stories of him, to which little credit will now be given.'

ALMEIDA (FRANCIS), count d'Abrantes, a Portugueze, was the first governor of India, to which place he was dispatched in 1505, by king Emanuel, with the high character of viceroy. His feet had a dangerous passage out, and almost continual storms off the Cape of Good Hope, without being able to make it, but at last reached Quiloa. The king of that place having given some cause to suspect his conduct, Almeida resolved to besiege the city, and after landing 500 men, the natives fied, and the Portugueze entered and plundered it. The plunder was however deposited in one house, and shared among the soldiers, Almeida" taking as his own share, only one arrow. He then began to build a fort, and offered the people the protection of the Portugueze, which they accepted, and received a king from them, who promised to be. obedient to king Emanuel. .

From hence they sailed to Mombassa, and immediately attacked that place. A shot from the Portugueze set fire to the powder magazine, which sò terrified the inhabitants that they abandoned the fort. Having caused the port to be sounded, and finding water sufficient, he entered the harbour, and then sent a message to require the king to submit himself to the king of Portugal; but the messenger was refused" admittance, Almeida then endeavoured to seize some of the natives, and took prisoner a domestic of

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1 Biog. Brit.

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the king, from whom he had intelligence that the king had received into his pay 4000 auxiliaries, and expected more. On this intelligence he resolved to besiege the place; and set fire to a part of the city. The natives attacked the Portugueze, although at the same time employed in extinguishing the flames; which however proved their best friends, and obliged the enemy, to retire. Next day, when the fames abated, the Portuguèze again entered the city, and were much annoyed by the narrowness of the streets, and the darts of the enemy flung from the houses. However, Almeida having soon secured the palace, the Portugueze joined their strength, and obliged the natives to seek their safety by flight, and betake themselves to, a wood, to which the king had retreated. The city was plundered, but most of the valuable effects had been carried away. The Portugueze writers tell us, they killed in this action 1500, and took 2000 prisoners, with the loss only of five men killed, and several wounded. . From hence he sailed with his fleet for Melindą, but by tempestuous weather was driven three leagues beyond; from thence they proceeded to the island of Anchidive, where he built a fort, and sent some of his ships out to cruize. Here he received deputies from the king of Onor, to treat of peace, and also the submission of a piratical chief, of the name of Timoia; but a circumstance soon happened to shew the former was not sincere, and the viceroy sailed to Onor, and burned some ships in the harbour. A day or two after, he sent his son to burn the other ships, when a smart action ensued, and the Portugueze were obliged to retreat. Almeida sailed next day to Cananor, where he found it necessary to build a strong fort to protect his countrymen against the Arabians, who, jealous of the Portugueze, did them every injury in their power. While Almeida remained here, he had the happiness to receive an embassy from the king of Narsinga, offering friendship, and his daughter as a wife for John the son of Emanuel." He had also a visit from the king of Cananor, from whom he obtained liberty to build his fort. From this place he dispatched his son on an expedition to Caulan.

On the arrival of Cugna with a reinforcement from Portugal, and on receiving intelligence of several Arabian ships richly laden being in the port of Panama (about 50 miles off) escorted by a fleet of ships of war of Calicut, he

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