« ZurückWeiter »
supported a piece of mechanism somewhat like the modern weathercock. It consisted of a brass Triton, which turned on a pivot, and pointed with its rod to the side of the tower on which was represented the wind that then happened to blow. From the bad style of the architecture of the figures, it is supposed to have been constructed posterior to the time of Pericles. Being built of large blocks of marble it has withstood the ravages of time, and the upper part only is destroyed, but the whole has sunk about twelve feet. As each of the sides had a sort of dial, it is conjectured that it formerly contained a clypsedra, or water-clock. The roof was of marble, shaped in the form of tiles, a mode which was invented by Byzes, of Naxos, in 580 B. C. It now serves as a mosque to some dervises. Spon, Wheeler, Leroi, and Stuart, have given ample descriptions of this ancient structure.
ANDRONICUS LIVIUS is said to have been the first who wrote theatrical pieces, or what were called regular plays, for the Roman stage, about the year 240 B. C. It is also said that he was a slave, of Greek origin, and that he received his name from Livius Salinator, whose children he taught, and who at length gave him his liberty. His dramatic productions were probably rude both in plan and style. Livy, the historian, aseribes to him the barbarous invention of dividing the declamation and gestures, or speaking and acting, between two persons, which was never thought of by the Greeks. Andronicus, who was a player as well as a writer, it is supposed, adopted it to save himself the fatigue of singing in his own piece, to which he, like other authors of his time, had been accustomed. But being often encored, and hoarse with repeating his canticle or song, he obtained permission to transfer the vocal part to a young performer, retaining to himself only the acting : Duclos, however, and after him Dr. Burney, are inclined to think that the words of the historian mean no more than that the singing was separated from the dancing, a thing credible enough, but absurd in the highest degree, when applied to speaking and acting. Andronicus also composed hymns in honour of the gods. There are fragments of his verses, collected from the grammarians and critics, in the “Comici Latini," the “ Corpus poetarum," and the “ Collectio Pisaurensis." 3.
1 Biog. Universelle, and authors mentioned in the text. 9 Vossius de Poet, Latin.-Fabr. Bibl. Lat.-Burney's Hist. of Music, vol. I. Biog. Universelle.-Moreri.
in he was pre, Wurk he
· ANDROUET-DU-CERCEAU (JAMES), an eminent French architect, was born at Orleans, or, according to some, at Paris, in the sixteenth century. Cardinal d’Armagnac was among the first who patronised him, and furnished him with money for the expences of his studies in Italy. The triumphal arch, which still remains at Pola in Istria, was so much admired by him, that he introduced an imitation of it in all his arches. He began the Pont Neuf, at Paris, May 30, 1578, by order of Henry III. but the civil wars prevented his fivishing that great work, which was reserved for William Marchand, in the reign of Henry IV. 1604. Androuet, however, built the hotels of Carnavalet, Fermes, Bretonvilliers, Sully, Mayenne, and other palaces in Paris. In 1596, he was employed by Henry IV. to continue the gallery of the Louvre, which had been begun by order of Charles XI. but this work he was obliged to quit on account of his religion. He was a zealous protestant, of the Calvinistic church, and when the persecution arose he left France, and died in some foreign country, but where or when is not known. Androuet is not more distinguished for the practice, than the theory of his art. He wrote, 1. “ Livre d'Architecture, contenant les plans et dessins de cinquante Batiments, tous differents," 1559, fol. reprinted 1611. 2.“ Second livre d'Architecture," a continuation of the former, 1561, fol. 3. “ Les plus excel·lents Batiments de France," 1576, 1607, fol. 4. “Livre d'Arc. chitecture auquel sont contenues diverses ordonnances de plans et elevations de Batiments pour seigneurs et autres qui voudront batir aux champs," 1582, fol. 5.“ Les Edifices Romains,” a' collection of engravings of the antiquities of Rome, from designs made on the spot, 1583, fol. 6. “ Leçons de Perspective," 1576, fol. He was also bis own engraver, and etched his plates in a correct but somewhat coarse style.'
ANDRY (NICHOLAS), surnamed Bois-REGARD,a French physician and medical writer, was born at Lyons in 1658, and came to Paris without any provision, but defrayed the expences of his philosophical studies in the college of the Grassins by teaching a few pupils. He was at length a professor in that college; and, in 1687, became first known to the literary world by a translation of Pacatus' panegyric on Theodosius the Great. Quitting theology,
1 Moreri.---Biog. Universelle, Strutt's Dictionary.
greatly to his merit, and admitted of thdoctor's de
however, to which he had hitherto applied, he turned to the study of medicine, received his doctor's degree at Rheims, and in 1697 was admitted of the faculty at Paris. Some share of merit, and a turn for intrigue, contributed greatly to his success, and he became professor of the Royal College, censor, and a contributor to the Journal des Savants; and, although there were strong prejudices against him on account of the manner in which he contrived to rise, and his satirical humour, which spared neither friend or foe, he was in 1724, chosen dean of the faculty, His first measures in this office were entitled to praise ; convinced of the superiority of talent which the practice of physic requires, he reserved to the faculty that right of inspecting the practice of surgery, which they had always enjoyed, and made a law that no surgeon should perform the operation of lithotomy, unless in the presence of a physician. After this he wished to domineer over the faculty itself, and endeavoured to appoint his friend Helvetius to be first physician to the king, and protector of the faculty. But these and other ambitious attempts were defeated in 1726, when it was decided, that all the decrees of the faculty should be signed by a majority, and not be Jiable to any alteration by the dean. After this he was perpetually engaged in disputes with some of the members, particularly Hecquet, Lemery, and Petit, and many abusive pamphlets arose from these contests. Andry, however, was not re-elected dean, and had only to comfort himself by some libels against his successor Geoffroy, for which, and his general turbulent character, cardinal Fleury would no longer listen to him, bụt took the part of the university and the faculty. Andry died May 13, 1742, aged eighty-four. His works were very numerous, and many of them valuable : 1.“ Traite de la generation des Vers dans le corps de l'homme," 1710, often reprinted, and translated into most languages. It was severely attacked by Lemery in the Journal de Trevoux, in revenge for Andry's attack on his “ Traite des Aliments ;” and by Valisnieri, who fixed on him the nickname of Honio vermiculosus, as he pretended to find worms at the bottom of every disorder. Andry answered these attacks in a publi, cation entitled “ Eclaircissements sur le livre de generation, &c.” 2. “ Remarques de medicine sur differents sujets, principalement sur ce qui regarde la Saignée et la Purgation," Paris, 1710, 12mo. 3. Le Regime du Ca
de chemie touchamo, another medicale."
and Cleon à Euchirurgie.”phar" et de corri741,
ble instrolite lition, wh The grelati
reme," Paris, 17410, 12mo, reprinted 1713, 2 vols. and afterwards in three, in answer to the opinions of Hecquet. 4. “ Thé de l'Europe, ou les proprietes de la veronique,” Paris, 1712, 12mo. 5. “Examen de differents points d'Anatomie, &c.” Paris, 1723, 8vo, a violent attack on Petit's excellent treatise on the diseases of the bones. 6. “ Remarques de chemie touchant la preparation de certains remedes,". Paris, 1735, 12mo, another professional and personal attack on Malouin's " Chimie medicale." 7. “ Cleon à Eudoxe, touchant la pre-eminence de la Medicine sur la Chirurgie.” Paris, 1738, 12mo. 8.“ Orthopedie; ou l'art de prevenir et de corriger, dans les enfants, les Difformites du corps," Paris, 1741, 2 vols. He published also some theses, and his son-in-law, Dionis, published a treatise on the plague, which he drew up by order of the regent. ?
ANEAU, in Latin ANULUS (BARTHOLOMEW), a man of eminent learning in the sixteenth century, was born at Bourges in France, and educated under Melchior Volmar, a very able instructor of youth. He made great advances under him in polite literature, and imbibed the principles of the protestant religion, which Volmar professed, and Aneau afterwards embraced. The great reputation which he soon gained by his skill in the Latin and Greek languages and poetry, induced some of the magistrates of Lyons, who were his countrymen, to offer him a professorship'in rhetoric in the college which they were going to erect in that city. Aneau accepted this offer with pleasure, and went thither to take possession of his place, which he kept above thirty years till his death. He discharged his professorship with such applause, that, in 1542, he was chosen principal of the college. . In this situation he propagated the doctrines of the reformation among his scholars, which was done secretly for a long time, and either was not perceived, or was overlooked; but an accident which happened on the festival of the sacrament in 1565, put a period to all his attempts in favour of protestantism by a very fatal catastrophe. Upon that day, 21st of June, as the procession was passing on towards the college, there was a large stone thrown from one of the windows upon the host and the priest who carried it. Whether Aneau was the author of this insult or not, is not certain, but the
1 Biog. Universelle.--Haller Bibl. Med. Praot.
people, being enraged at it, broke into the college in a body, and assassinated him as the guilty person, and the college itself was shut up the next day by order of the city.
Aneau wrote a great many verses in Latin and Greek, and other works; the principal of which are, 1.“ Chant Natal,” containing the mystery of the nativity, Lyons, 1539, 4to, and 1559, with the title “Genethliac musical et his, torical de la Conception et Nativité de J.C.” 2. " Lyon marchand,” a French satire, or drama of the historical kind, 1542, 4to. 3.“ Alciati's emblems translated,” Lyons, 1549, 8vo, 1558, 16mo. 4.“ Picta poesis,” Leyden, 1552, 8vo, a collection of emblems, with Greek and Latin verses. 5. A translation of șir Thomas More's “ Utopia,” Paris and Lyons. 6.“ Alector; ou le Coq," a fabulous history, pretendedly from a Greek fragment, Lyons, 1560.
ANELLO (THOMAS), commonly called Massaniello, one of the names introduced in biographical collections, although more properly belonging to history, was a fisherman of Naples, and the author of a temporary revolution, which ended as such tumultuous measures generally end, without meliorating the state of the people who have been induced to take an active part in them. In 1623, when this man was born, the kingdom of Naples was subject to the house of Austria, and governed by a viceroy. The Neapolitans had supported the government in this house with great loyalty and liberality, and submitted themselves to many voluntary impositions and burthensome taxes in support of it. But in 1646, the necessities of the king feminino fititBent in nation the necie requiring it, a new donative was projected, and a design was formed to lay a fresh tax upon fruits, comprehending all sorts, dry or green, as far as mulberries, grapes, figs, apples, pears, &c. The people, being thus deprived of their ordinary subsistence, took a resolution to disburden themselves, not only of this, but of all other insupportable exactions formerly imposed. They made their grievances known to the viceroy by the public cries and lamentations of women and children, as he passed through the market place, and petitioned him, by means of the cardinal Filomarino, the archbishop, and others, to take off the said tax. He promised to redress the grievance, and convened pro, per persons to find out some method to take off the tax on fruits. But the farmers, because it was prejudicial to their
* Gen. Dist.Moreri. --Biog. Universelle.