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resolved to attack them in the harbour. He sailed for that purpose with 12 ships of war. On his passage he was in formed that the ships were not yet afloat, but lay in the docks, under cover of a rampart, and a strong garrison of 4000 men. Almeida had only 700, and with these her resolved to attack the enemy. He attempted to land and burn the ships; and after a violent conflict succeeded. This was a strong proof of the superiority of the Portugueze at this time in war, for the enemy fought with desperate courage, there being many among them who had taken an oath to conquer or die. These devotees had all their heads shaven, and were destroyed to a man. Almeida, having made good his landing, advanced to the city, and set it on fire, being fearful of the consequences of permitting his men to plunder it. The men murmured at being deprived of such a rich booty, but this the viceroy disregarded; and to keep them employed, dispatched his son with a squadron to cruize against the Arabians, who in an engagement with the enemy's fleet lost his life. Almeida, who had often shewn that he possessed great fortitude, now gave a striking proof of it; and to those who lamented the death of young Almeida with too much sor. row, he said, “That he had never wished a long, but a glorious life for his son ; and for his part, he thanked God for honouring him with so glorious a death.”
While he commanded in India, Albuquerque was making conquests for his country to the northward, but as he did not act under Almeida's instructions, the laiter was offended, and even wrote to some of the enemy's chiefs, that Albuquerque acted without his orders. Notwithstand. ing this, the exploits of the latter drew the attention of the court of Portugal, and he was appointed to supersede. Ale meida in his viceroyship. When the order for the viceroy's return was brought, he was employed in fitting out a fleet to revenge the death of his son. This furnished him with an excuse for not delivering up his government; and he sailed on an expedition to Dabul, landed there, de feated the enemy, and made a most dreadful slaughter, not sparing even the infants. The next day the city was given up to be plundered, and afterwards burned. This was the fate of many other places on these shores. He then cruized along the coast until he fell in with the enemy's fleet, and engaged and totally defeated it, killing 4000 men. The sultan had taken great pains in fitting out
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this fleet, and it is supposed had engaged Europeans of several nations to act on board it, as books in the Italian, German, French, and Spanish languages were found on board the captured ships. This victory procured a peace.
In the mean time a set of men, who had their own advantage in view, inflamed the animosity between Almeida and Albuquerque ; and the former not only still refused to deliver up his government, but ordered Albuquerque to be confined. Contigna, however, another commander, arrive ing from Portugal, reconciled them to each other, and Almeida to the surrender of his government. The viceroy immediately embarked, and soon after sailed for Portugal. Unfortunately stopping at a place not far from the Cape of Good Hope, a slight quarrel arose between the Portugueze and natives, and in an action with them, Almeida received a wound in his throat with a javelin, March 1, 1509, and died immediately. — Thus expired this brave, honest, and renowned commander by his own imprudence. Before he went to India, he had distinguished himself greatly in the wars of Grenada. In India his exploits have been spoken of. As soon as he fell, the rest of the Portugueze fled. Two officers who saw him fall endeavoured to persuade their countrymen to recover his body; but finding entreaties ineffectual, they rushed upon the enemy, were soon overpowered by numbers, and fell, ?
ALMEIDA (LAWRENCE) was son of the former, and had he enjoyed longer life, would probably have equalled him in fame. His first exploit was against Caulan, in India, whither he was dispatched by his father to đestroy all the ships in that harbour; he execated his orders with so much 'expedition, that he came in sight of the town before they were apprized of his arrival, and destroyed 27 ships. Soon after he was sent on a cruize against the Maldive islands, to intercept all Arábian ships. The strength of the currents in those seas, drove him as far south as Cape Comorin, and the island of Ceylon, and he put into a port in the latter. The king hearing of his arrival, and having before heard of the fame of the Portugueze in those parts, treated him with great respect, and entered into a treaty, by which he agreed to pay a yearly tribute to the king of Portugal, on condition of receiving protection and defence. The tribute was to be 250,000 16.
weight of cinnamon; and the first year's payment was immediately put on board. On his return, he was ordered to the Anchidiye islands; when being informed of a large feet fitting out at Calicut, Lawrence immediately sailed to that place, engaged it, and after a fierce conflict, gave them a total defeat. He then returned to Cananor, where he was received by the king of that place, who was a friend of the Portugueze, with great honour: he afterwards continued with his father, until he sailed on the fatal expedition in which he lost his life. He was dispatched with eight ships to annoy the Arabians, and at first was successful. He put into the port of Chaul, a large and opulent city, adjoining to the kingdom of Cambaya. Here he received advice that the sultan of Egypt had fitted out a considerable force, manned with his bravest soldiers. It consisted of five large ships, and six galleys, to which the king of Cambaya joined 30 sloops of war. When they appeared off Chaul, the Portugueze concluded they were the ships of Albuquerque, and made no preparation to engage; the Egyptian admiral entered the river, but his allies remained out at sea.
The next day Lawrence Almeida weighed anchor and attacked the admiral's ship, but in the action he was wounded. His officers, finding they were becalmed, and could not come to close quarters with the enemy, advised him to return. This he declined, and soon received another desperate wound in the face with a dart. The action continued at a distance, Almeida not being able to get near his eneiny. Other captains were more fortunate, as they boarded and took two ships. The next day, the fleet from sea came in and joined the enemy. The Portugueze. held a council, and were almost unanimously of opinion, that they ought to put to sea in the night, which they endeavoured to effect, but the enemy pursued and came up with the admiral's ship, in the rear, and surrounded her. An unfortunate shot rendering it impossible to steer her, she ran aground. The Portugueze captains had a strong desire to assist their admiral, but the violence of the tide prevented them. However, they sent a boat to bring Almeida away; but he refused to quit his fellow-soldiers in this distress, hoping also that he should be able to defend himself until the tide returned. The enemy did not dare to board his vessel, but continued a fierce cannonade at a. distance, which was returned with spirit, Almeida at last
received another wound, in his thigh, which quite disabled him, and being placed in a chair which was lashed to the mast, he continued to animate his men, until a shot in the breast killed him. The Portugueze on board this unfortunate ship were now reduced to 20, who still continued to defend themselves, but the enemy succeeded in boarding her, and to their honour, treated the few brave survivors with great humanity.'. :: ALMEIDA (MANOEL or EMMANUEL), a Portuguese historian, was born at Vizeu in that kingdom, in 1580, and after an education among the Jesuits, was sent to tiie Indies, where, having completed his studies, he became rector of the college of Bacaim. In 1622, Vitteleschi, general of the Jesuits, sent him as anibassador to the king of Abyssinia, who received him with much respect; but his successor having banished the Jesuits from his dominions, Almeida returned to Goa in 1634, and became provincial of his order in India, and inquisitor. He died at Goa in 1646. His works are : 1 “A history of Upper Ethiopia,” to which his brother Jesuit, Bathazar Tellez, added many facts and documents, and published it at Coimbra, 1660, fol. 2. “ Historical letters," written from Abyssinia to the general of the Jesuits, and published at Rome, in Italian, 1629, 8vo. He left also some manuscripts on the errors of the Abyssinians, and the misrepresentations of the dominican Urreta in his history of Ethiopia. · ALMEIDA (THEODORE), a Portugueze priest, who had the courage in Portugal to study and teach philosophy, upon more rational and experimental principles than had ever been known in that country, was born in 1722. His most celebrated work, written in Portuguese, and entitled u Recreaceo Filosofica,” 5 vols. 8vo, 1751, occasioned a revolution in the philosophical studies of the Portugueze, and would probably have involved the author in much danger, had not the Jesuits been soon after banished from that kingdom. He was nevertheless a zealous advocate for the pretensions of the court of Rome, at the time of the famous rupture between Joseph II. and that court; and this rendered him so obnoxious to the marquis de Pombal, that he was obliged to seek an asylum in France, during the ministry of that nobleman. On his return to Portugal, the royal acadeny of sciences of Lisbon was eager to ad
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mit him a member; but it was soon evident that Almeida had not kept pace with the progress which the nation had made in twenty-five years, and he was suffered to eclipse himself, although without losing any of the respect due to his former services in promoting liberal science. He published, after his return to Lisbon, a moral romance, called “ The Happy Independant,” which had little success; and it was said that a better title would have been “ The Happy Impertinent." He died in 1805, leaving behind him several manuscripts, for the publication of which he had obtained the permission of the Censor. His works altogether are said to amount to forty volumes, besides five of translations; but we have not been able to obtain a list of their titles or subjects. At the time of his death he was a member of the Royal Academy of Lisbon, and of the Royal Society of London.'
ALMELOVEEN (THEODORE JANSSON VAN), an emi. nent Dutch physician, but more eminent as a general scholar and editor, was born July 24, 1657, at Midrecht, or Mydregt, near Utrecht, where his father was a Protestant clergyman. His grandfather was Cornelius Almeloveen, a senator of Utrecht, who died in 1658. His mother was Mary Janson, daughter of the celebrated Amsterdam printer, so well known for his many fine editions, and for the atlas which he published in six 'folio volumes. As the printer had no male issue, the name of Janson was added to Almeloveen, probably by our author's father. He studied first at Utrecht, and then at Goude or Tergou, where James Tollius was at the head of the schools of that place, and when Tollius removed to Noortwick, near Leyden, Almeloveen followed him, and it appears by his writings that he always acknowledged him as his master. In 1676, he returned to Utrecht, and studied the belles let. tres in that city under the celebrated Grævius, and as his father intended him for the church, he also studied Hebrew under Leusden, and philosophy under De Uries; but, taking disgust at the violence and illiberality with which theological disputes were sometimes conducted, he gave a preference to medicine, and attended the instructions of Vallan and Munniks. In 1680, he maintained a thesis on sleep, and the following year, one on the asthma, and was then admitted to his doctor's degree in that fa
printer heloveen; Utrecht