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Melchior, notwithstanding the complaint they breathe of decaying powers. He died at the place of his nativity, in 1574, in his sixty-eighth year. His fellow-citizens are said to have inscribed an epitaph on his tomb, in which they represent him as another Apollo, equally skilled in poesy and the healing art. His poems, together with those of his brothers, were first collected and published entire by Hieronymus Aleander, at Venice, in the year 1627, and afterwards by Grævius with those of Sannazarius at Amsterdam in 1689. . . ..

The poetical talents of JOANNES or GIOVANNI BATTISTA, the second brother, were not inferior to those of Hieronymus. We remark in his compositions equal harmony, combined with equal spirit; and critics have united them under the flattering title of." MUSARUM DELICIÆ." Be. sides the poems written in Latin, others by Giovanni Battista occur in his native language, which rank him among the best Italian poets. Some unfinished pieces of his are said to have been discovered at Rome, in the library of cardinal Ottoboni. Eminently distinguished for his accurate knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages, he passed the greater part of his life at the court of Rome, and stood high in the favour of three successive pontiffs. He discharged the office of secretary to the cardinals who were deputed to the council of Trent. We have his own evidence to prove that he was thus enabled to attain, if not to the most splendid and imposing affluence, at least to that moderate degree of it, which, combined with temperance and integrity, conducés mosť to real happiness. He died at Rome at the early age of forty-seven years.

CORNELIUS, the youngest of the AMALTHEI, has left a few Latin poems, which serve to manifest the conformity of his taste and talents with those of his learned brothers. He probably died in the prime of life, and some accounts fix the decease of all the three brothers in the same year. But these, according to the editor of the General Dictionary, must not be confounded with Amaltheus Attilius, archbishop of Athens, who was born of a family in Italy eminent for producing men of the greatest merit and learning. He lived in the sixteenth century, and made a considerable progress in the study of the civil and canon law, and in that of divinity. He was a man of a noble, generous, and disinterested spirit, was raised to the see of Athens by pope Paul V. and sent to Cologne in the character of nuncio, which office he discharged with much applause; and died about 1600.

AMAMA (SIXTINUS), professor of the Hebrew tongue in the university of Franeker, was born in Frieslayd in the end of the sixteenth century (according to Saxius in 1593), and studied under Drusius. The university of Leyden en. deavoured, by offering him a larger salary, to draw him from the university of Franeker, in order to succeed Erpenius: Amama, without absolutely refusing this offer, yet would not accept of it unless he obtained permission from his superiors of Friesland, which they refused, and perhaps gave him such additional encouragement, that he had no reason to repent of not going to Leyden. The first book he published was a specimen of a great design he intended, viz. to censure the Vulgate translation, which the council of Trent had declared authentic; but before he had finished this work, he publisheda criticism upon the translation of the Pentateuch, entitled « Censura Vulgatæ Latinæ editionis Pentateuchi,” 4to, 1620, Franeker, as a specimen of his more elaborate work. Whilst he was carlying on this, he was obliged to engage in another work, which was, to collate the Dutch translation of the scripture with the originals and the exactest translations: this Dutch translation had been taken from Luther's version. He gave the public an account of this labour, in a work which appeared at Amsterdam, entitled, “ Bybelsche conferencie," Amsterdam, 1623. This employment of collating so much engaged Amama, that he was hindered for a considerable time from applying to his intended general censure of the Vulgate. However, he resumed his undertaking upon hearing that father Mersennus had endeavoured to refute his critical remarks on the first six chapters of Genesis, and he gave himself up entirely to vindicate his criticisms against that author. His answer is one of the pieces contained in the “ Anti-barbarus Biblicus," which he published in 1628; the other pieces are, his Censure of the Vulgate on the historical books of the Old Testament, on Job, the Psalms, and the books of Solomon, with some particular dissertations, one of which is on the famous passage in the Proverbs, “ The Lord created me in the be. ginning of all his ways," wherein he shews that those who,

1 Gresswell's Memoirs of Politianus, &c.--Moreri.--Chaufeyie.--Gen. Dicha co Erytıræi Pinacotheca.m-Saxij Onomasticoile

accused Drusius of favouring Arianism were notorious calumniators. The “ Anti-barbarus Biblicus" was to have consisted of two parts, each containing three books; the author, however, only published the first part. It was reprinted after his deatb in 1656, and a fourth book was added, containing the criticism of the Vulgate upon Isaiah and Jeremiah. It is impossible to answer the reasons, by which he shews the necessity of consulting the originals. This he recommended so earnestly, that some synods, being influenced by his reasons, decreed that none should be admitted into the ministry, but such as had a competent knowledge of the Hebrew and Greek text of the scripture. He published also another dissertation, entitled “ De No* mine Tetragrammato," Franeker, 1620, 8vo. When Sixtinus came to Franeker, drunkenness and debauchery reigned in that university to a very great degree; he tells us, that all the new students were immediately enrolled in the servíce of Baochus, and obliged to swear, with certain ceremonies, by a wooden statue of St. Stephen, that they would 'spend all their money: if any one had more regard to the oath he had taken to the rector of the university than to this bacchanalian oath, he was so perseouted by the other students, that he was obliged either to leave the university, or comply with the rest. Sistinus contributed greatly to root out this vice, and he inveighed against it with great energy in a public speech made in 1621. He was so much beloved by the people of Friesland, that after his death, they shewed themselves very generous to his children; as Nicholas Amama, who was one of them, acknowledges in the epistle dedicatory to his “ Dissertationum Marinarum decas," 1651. For one circumstance in the life of Amama, we are indebted to Anthony Wood, who informs us that about the year 1613, he came over to England, and resided for some years at Oxford, in Exeter col. lege, under the patronage of Dr. Prideaux, the rector of that college, afterwards bishop of Worcester. Amama died in 1629, in the thirty-sixth year of his age, if the date of the birth above assigned, be correct."

AMAND. See ST. AMAND.

AMARA-SINGHA, a learned Hindoo, and counsellor to the celebrated rajah Vikramaditeya, lived in the first cen

I Gen. Dict.Moreri.Foppen Bibl. Belg, where there is a more cumplete pasalogue of his works. Wood's Athena, vol. I.

tury B. C. He is the author of a Dictionary of the San scrit, which is esteemed very correct and complete. It is called " Amara-Kocha," or the treasure of Amara, and is not in the alphabetical order, but divided into sections, as the names of the gods, the stars, the elements, , &c. in the manner of some vocabularies. It is written in a species of verse, and the explanations are given in the different Indian languages. Father Paulin, of St. Bartholomew, published at Rome in 1798, the first part of this dictionary under the title “ Amara-Singha, sectio prima, de cælo, ex tribus ineditis codicibus manuscriptis,” 4to. There is a manyscript of the whole in the imperial library of Paris.? - AMASEO (ROMULUS), the son of Gregory Amaseo, Latin professor at Venice, was one of the most celebrated Italian scholars of the sixteenth century. He was born at U dina in 1489, and educated at first by his father and uncle, but finished his studies at Padua, and in 1508 had begun to teach the belles lettres there, when the war, occasioned by the league at Cambray, obliged him to leave the place. He then went to Bologna, continued to teach, and married, and had children, and was so much respected that the city admitted him as a citizen, an honour which his ancestors had also enjoyed. In 1530, he was appointed first secretary to the senate, and was chosen by pope Cle. ment VII. to pronounce before him and Charles V. a Latin harangue on the subject of the peace concluded at Bologna between the two sovereigns. This he accordingly performed, with great applause, in the church of St. Pe. trona, before a numerous audience of the first rank. He continued to teach at Bologna, with increasing popularity, until 1543, when he was invited to Rome by pope Paul III. and his nephew cardinal Alexander Farnese. The pope em-, ployed him in many political missions to the court of the emperor, those of the German princes, and that of the king of Poland; and in 1550, after the death of his wife, pope Julius III. appointed him secretary of the briefs, a place which he did not long enjoy, as he died in 1552. He wrote Latin translations of “Xenophou's Cyrus,” Bologna, 1533, fol. and of “ Pausanias,” Rome, 1547, 4to; and a volume entitled “Orationes,” consisting of eighteen Latin speeches on various occasions, Bonon. 1580, 4to. His contemporaries bestow the highest praises on his learning and elo

3. Biog. Universelle. ..

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quence. His sou POMPILIO had perhaps less reputation, but he too distinguished himself as Greek professor at Bo. logna, where he died in 1584. He translated two fragments of Polybius, Bologna, 1543, and wrote a history of his own time in Latin, which has not been published.

AMATUS (JOHN RODERIGO AMATO), a Portuguese phy: sician, and medical writer, of Jewish origin, was born in 1511 at Castel-bianco. He studied medicine at Salamanca, and afterwards travelled through France, the Netherlands, Germany, and Italy, and taught medicine with success in Ferrara and Ancona. His attachment to the Jewish persuasion having rendered him suspected by the catholics, he narrowly escaped the inquisition, by retiring to Pesaro in 1555, from which he removed to Ragusa, and afterwards to Thessalonica. From the year 1561 we hear no more of him, nor has the time or place of his death been ascertained, . but it is said that when he went to Thessalonica, he avowed Judaism openly. His works, although few, give proofs of extensive learning in his profession. 1. “Exegemata in priores duos Dioscoridis de materia medica libros," Antwerp, 1536, 4to. The second edition greatly enlarged, with learned notes by Constantin, was published under the title “ Enarrationes in Dioscoridem,” Venice, 1553, 8vo, Strasburgh, 1554, and Lyons, 1557. There is much information in this work respecting exotics used in medicine, and some plants described for the first time, but it is not free from errors; and the author having imprudently attacked Mathiolus, the latter retorted on him in his “ Apologia adversus Amatum,” Venice, 1557, fol. declaring him an apostate and a Christian only in appearance; but what connexion this had with the errors in his book, is not so easy to discover. Amatus, however, intended to have answered him in the notes prepared for a complete edition of Dioscorides, which be did not live to publish.' 2. “ Curationum medicinalium centuriæ septem," published separately, and'reprinted, at Florence, Venice, Anconia, Rome, Ragusa, Thessalonica, &c. In this work, are many useful facts and observations, but not entirely unmixed with cases which are thought to have been fictitious. Few books, however, 'were at one time more popular, for besides the separate editions of the Centuries, they were collected and published at Lyons, 1580, 12mo, Paris, 1613, 1620, 4to,

Moreri.---Biog. Universelle.--Gen. Dict.-Saxii Onomasticon.

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