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CONTENTS.

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12

Introduction.

The English Language. · · · · · · · · · ·

First Part. The Doctrine of the Word.

Section the First; Prosody, or, the Doctrine of Sounds.

I. The Word, according to its Ingredients.

The Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Vowels in General . . . .

The Pronunciation of the Vowels and Diphthongs in detail . .

I, Y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

U.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Silence of Vowels . ..

Consonants in general . . .

The Pronunciation of the Consonants in detail . .

1) The Nasal and the Liquid sounds (m, n, l, r). . . . .

2) The Lipsounds (p, b, f (ph, gh) v, w, (wh) . .

3) The Tooth-sounds (t. d, th, 8, c, 2, ch, sh, j, g) . . . .
4) The Throat-sounds (c, k, q, qu, ch, 9, (gh, gu) h, y and x). .

Silence of Consonants . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Silence of Vowels with Consonants . . . . . . . . . .

The Syllable, and the Division of Syllables . . . . . . . . .

The Word and its Accent . . . : : :

A) The Doctrine of the Accent, as Principal Accent . . . . .

i) The Accent of the Simple Word . .

. . . . . . .

2) The Accent of the Compound Word . . . . . .

B) of the Subordinate Accent . . . . .

II. The Elements of the Word according to their Origin.

Origin of the Vowels and Diphthongs.

(le). · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

Y.

E (Ee, Ei, Ey, Ea, Eo, Eu, Ew) . . . . . . . . . .

A (Ai, Ay, Au, Aw) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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126

163

164

226

09. O rg. 20 R, . . . . . . .

114

. .
( C , . . . • • • • • • •

124

1, The 122) at the Liçad sa

L . . . . . . 128

2, The L u is D. 5 P . , .

131

3, Tse Turkut I di, #. , , . . . . . . . 136

4, Ire Itratas keka. e, care a i. . . . 144

Charge of the Primitive Word through its Costructia and Azpification

163

1, 1: Parg Vores. . . . . . . . . . . .

2, The 1 of Consonants . . . . . . . . . .

%, The (misch of Toxes and Consonants . . . . . . .
B, Ampatuna of Woris. .
1, Ading a Core's . . .

.
.

.
. . .

.

. .

177

2, Addir on of Consonants . ..

Aseimiat. of Consonants . ..

Transportin of Soulos, or, Metathesis

193

Assimilatus of Different Words and Double Forms of the same Word. 196

A, Assimilation of Different Words . . . . . . . . . . 196

B, Double Forms of the Same Word . . . . . . . . . .

213

Second Section The Doctrine of Forms.

L The Parts of Speech and their Inflective Forms.

A) The Noun.

1) The Substantive. .

219

Declension of the Substantive in General . . .

220

The Regular Formation of the Plural . . . .

223

The Irregular Formation of the Plural . . .

Plural Formation of Compound Substantives. .

232

Peculiarities in the Use of the Numerals . . .

The Formation of the Genitive . . .

242

Peculiarities in the Use of genitive Forms . .

245

The Gender of Substantives . . . . . . . .

248

2) The Adjective . . . . . . . . . .

269

The Declension of Adjectives . . . . .

270

The Comparison of the Adjective . . . .

272

3) The Numeral. .

283

. . . . .

a, The Cardinal Numeral. . ..

283

b) The Ordinal Numeral . .

288

c) The Multiplicative Numeral.

290

4) The Pronoun. . . . . . ..

290

A) The Personal Pronoun . . ..

290

B) The Demonstrative Pronoun. .

301

C) The Interrogative Pronoun . . . . .

303

D) The Relative Pronoun. . . . . . .

305

E) The Indefinite Pronoun . . .

308

. . .

5) The Article . . . . . . . . .

B) The Verb. .

318

Sorts of the Verb and their Interchange

The Forms of the English Verb in general. .

323

The Weak and the Strong conjugation . . .

326

Anomalous Verbs of the Weak conjugation. .

338

The Strong Conjugation . . . . . . .

353

Irregular Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

376

Compound and Periphrastic tenses . . . ..

C) Particles . . . . .

. . . . .

386

1) The Adverb . . . . . . . . . .

386

Origin and Form of Adverbs :::

388

233

............

315

318

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a) Substantive Adverbs . . . . . . .

b) Adjective Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . .

c) Adverbs of Number . . . . . . . . . . . .

d) Pronominal Adverbs . . . . . . . .

e) Prepositional Adverbs . . .

f) Negative and Affirmative Particles . .

2) Thr Preposition . . . . . . . . . . . .

3) The Conjunction. . . . . . . .

4) The Interjection . . . .

II. The Formation of Words.

A) Derivation . . . .

1) Improper Derivation . .

2) Derivation Proper . ..

a) Germanic Derivative Terminations . . .

b) Romance Derivative Terminations . . . .

1) Derivative Terminations of Nouns . . .

2) Derivational Suffixes of the Verb. . .

A) Verbs derived from Verbs . . . . . . . .

B) Verbs derived from Nouns . . . . . .

B) Compounding

1) The Compounding of Nouns . . . . . . . . . .

The Compound Substantive . . . . . .

a) Compounding of Two Substantives. ..

b) Compounding of an Adjective and a Substantive.

ve . . . .

c) Compounding of a Verb and Substantive . . . .

The Compound adjective . . . . . . .

a) Compounding of Two Adjectives . .

b) Com pounding of a Substantive and an Adjective.

c) Compounding of a Verb and an Adjective . . . .

2) The Compounding of the Verb . . . . . . . . .

a) Compounding of Two Verbs. . . . . . . . . .

b) Compounding of a Substantive and a Verb .

c) Compounding of an Adjective and a Verb. , .


3) The Compounding of the Verb and of Nouns with Particles .

a) Compounding with Anglosaxon Particles . . .

1) Inseparable Particles. . . . . . . . . . . .

2) Separable Particles . . .

b) Compounding with Romance Particles . . . . . . .

1) Inseparable Particles . . . . . . . .

. .

2) Separable Prepositional Particles .

les . . . . . .

3) Adverbial Particles . . . . . . . . .

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INTRODUCTION.
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

The English language, at present diffused not only over Great Britain, Ireland and the surrounding islands, but also throughout the English colonies out of Europe, as well as throughout the commonwealth of North America, is a peculiar mixed language, formed within Great Britain. Its most essential constituent, the Anglosaxon, after the expulsion of the Celtic language, coalesced with Normanfrench elements, and has established itself as its formative power.

The primitive inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland were Celts. Immigrant Belgie populations, which, even before Julius Caesar's time occupied the coasts of Britain, were likewise of Celtic stock, the most civilized among them being the inhabitants ot Kent. The Celtic language, peculiar to the whole of western Europe when the Romans took possession of Britain, is still spoken, as the language of the people, in Ireland, in the highlands and islands of Scotland, where subsequent immigrants from Ireland in the third century (Picts and Scots) displaced the ancient Caledonians from the West onwards; also in Wales and in the Isle of Man, as well as in French Lower Brittany. The Celtic literature of the druidical era has perished; a modern one has arisen only under the influence of foreign culture; its monuments extend up to the eighth and ninth centuries, but only in our own age have they become the subject of research. L. Dieffenbach and Zeuss, among the Germans, have devoted to it most comprehensive investigations (Celtica, in two parts. Stuttgart 1839 and Grammatica Celtica. Leipzig 1852. Two parts) while its modern idioms have been variously explored by English and French scholars.

Even in antiquity a distinction was drawn between the two main branches of the Celtic tongue, the Gaelic (the same as Gaedelic, with a mute d) and the British. To the Gaelic branch belong: first, the present Irish, frequently called Erse; secondly, the Highland-Scotch, or Erse, commonly called the Gaelic; and, thirdly, the Manx. To

Mätzner, engl. Gr. I.

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