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consecratory prayers begins : “ O Lord Mr. Fosbroke shows, from catholic autho Jesu Christ, bless this creature of wax tc rities, that light-bearing on Candlemas us thy suppliants; and infuse into it, by day is an old Pagan ceremony; and the virtue of the holy cross, thy heavenly from Du Cange, that it was substituted benediction; that in whatsoever places it by pope Gelasius for the candles, which shall be lighted, or put, the devil may in February the Roman people used to depart, and tremble, and fly away, with carry in the Lupercalia. all his ministers, from those habitations, Pope Innocent, in a sermon on this fes. and not presume any more to disturb tival, quoted in “ Pagano Papismus," in. them," &c. There is likewise this bene- quires, “Why do we (the catholics) in diction: “I bless thee, () wax, in the this feast carry candles?" and then he exname of the holy trinity, that thou may'st plains the matter by way of answer. be in every place the ejection of Satan, «Because," says he, “the gentiles dediand subversion of all his companions, cated the month of February to the infernal &c. During the saying of these prayers, gods, and as, at the beginning of it, Pluto various bowings and crossings are inter- stole Proserpine, and her mother, Ceres, jected; and when the ceremonies of con- sought her in the night with lighted cansecration are over, the chiefest priest dles, so they, at the beginning of this goes to the altar, and he that officiates month, walked about the city with lighted receives a candle from him; afterwards, candles; because the holy fathers could that priest, standing before the altar to not utterly extirpate this custom, they orwards the people, distributes the candles, dained that Christians should carry about first to the priest from whom he received candles in honour of the blessed virgin a candle, then to others in order, all kneel- Mary: and thus,” says the pope, “what ing (except bishops) and kissing the can- was done before to the honour of Cedle, and also kissing the hand of the res is now done to the honour of the priest who delivers it. When he begins Virgin." to distribute the candles, they sing, “A Polydore Vergil, observing on the pagan light to lighten the gentiles, and the processions and the custom of publicly glory of thy people Israel." After the carrying about images of the god's candles are distributed, a solemn proces- with relics, says, “ Our priests do the sion is made; in which one carries a same thing. We observe all these cerecenser, another a crucifix, and the rest monies, but I know not whether the cusburning candles in their hands.
tom is as good as it is showy; 1 fear, I The practice is treated of by Butler in fear, I say, that in these things, we rather his notice of the festival under this please the gods of the heathen than Jesus head, “On blessing of Candles and the Christ, for they were desirous that their Procession." It is to be gathered from worshippers should be magnificent in their him that “St. Bernard says the procession processions, as Sallust says; but Christ was first made by St. Joseph, Simeon, and hates nothing more than this, telling us, Anne, as an example to be followed by When thou prayest, enter into thy closet, all the earth, walking two and two, hold- and when thou hust shut thy door pray to ing in their hands candles, lighted from thy Father. What will then become of fire, first blessed by the priests, and sing- us, if we act contrary to his commanding.” The candle-bearing has reference to ment? Surely, whatever may become of Simeon's declaration in the temple when he us, we do act contrary to it." took Jesus in his arms, and affirmed that Brand shows, from “Dunstan's Concord he was a light to lighten the gentiles, and of Monastic Rules," that the morks went in the glory of Israel. This was deemed surplices to the church for candles, which sufficient ground by the Romish church, were to be consecrated, sprinkled with whereon to adopt the torch-bearing of holy water, and censed by the abbot. the pagans in honour of their own deities, Every monk took a candle from the saas a ceremony in honour of the presenta- crist, and lighted it. A procession was tion of Jesus in the temple. The pagans made, thirds and mass were celebrated, used lights in their worship, and Constan- and the candles, after the offering, were tine, and other emperors,endowed churches offered to the priest. The monks' canwith land and various possessions, for the dles signified the use of those in the pamaintenance of lights in catholic churches, rable of the wise virgins. and frequently presented the ecclesiastics In catholic countries the people joined with coffeis full of candles and tapers. the priests in their public processious to the churches, every individual bearing a her hand; whereat she marvelled, and burning candle, and the churches them- returned thanks to the glorious virgin, selves blazed with supernumerary illumi- who had not suffered her to be without a nations at mid-day.
mass on Candlemas-day, and all her life It is to be noted, that from Candlemas kept the piece of candle for a relic; and the use of tapers at vespers and litanies, all they that were touched therewith were which prevailed throughout the winter, healed of their maladies and sicknesses. ceased until the ensuing ALL HALLOW Mass; and hence the origin of an old
Poetry is the history of ancient times. English proverb in Ray's Collection
We know little of the times sung by Ho. « On Candlemas.day
mer but from his verses. To Herrick Throw candle and candlestick away.”
we must confess our obligation for acCandlemas candle-carrying remained quaintance with some of the manners in England till its abolition by an order pertaining to this « great day in the in council, in the second year of king calendar.” Perhaps, had he not written, Edward VI.
we should be ignorant that our forefathers
fared more daintily during the Christmas The “ Golden Legend” relates, that a
holidays than at other seasons; be unlady who had given her mantle to a poor
aware of the rule for setting out the due man for the love of our lady, would not go
quantum of time, and orderly succession, to church on Candlemas-day, but went into
to Christmas ever-greens; and live, as her own private chapel, and kneeling be
most of us have lived, but ought not to fore the altar, fell asleep, and had a mira
live longer, without being informed, that culous vision, wherein she saw herself at
the Christmas-log may be burnt until this church. Into this visionary church she
day, and must be quenched this night imagined that a troop of virgins came,
till Christmas comes again. with a noble virgin at their head, “ crown
Candlemas Eve. ed ryght precyously," and seated themselves in order; then a troop of young
End now the white-loafe and the pye, men, who seated themselves in like order;
And let all sports with Christmas dye. then one, with a proper number of can
Kindle the Christmas Brand, and then dles, gave to each a candle, and to the
Till sunne-set let it burne, lady herself he gave a candle of wax; Which quencht, then lay it up agen, then came St. Laurence as a deacon, and Till Christmas next returne. St. Vincent as a sub-deacon, and Jesus
Part must be kept wherewith to teend Christ as the priest, and two angels bear The Christmas Log next yeare, ing candles ; then the two angels began And where 'tis safely kept, the fiend the Introit of the mass, and the virgins
Can do no mischiese there. Herrick. sung the mass; then the virgins went and each offered the candle to the priest, How severely he enjoins the removal and the priest waited for the lady to offer of the last greens of the old year, and yet her candle; then “the glorious quene of how essential is his reason for their disvirgyns” sent to her to say that she was placement : not courteous to make the priest tarry so
Candlemas Eve. long for her, and the lady answered that
Down with the Rosemary, and so the priest might go on with the mass, for
Down with the Baies and Misletoe ; she should keep her candle herself, and Down with the Holly, Ivie, all not offer it; and the virgin sent a second Wherewith ye drest the Christmas Hall; time, and the lady said she would not That so the superstitious find offer the candle; then “the quene of vir No one least Branch there left behind : gyns" said to the messenger, “ Pray ber to For look, how many leaves there be offer the candle, and if she will not, take Neglected there, maids, trust to me, it from her by force;" still she would not So many goblins you shall see. offer the candle, and therefore the mes
Herrick senger seized it; but the lady held so Hearken to the gay old man again, and fast and long, and the messenger drew participate in his joyous anticipations or and pulled so hard, that the candle broke, pleasure from the natural products of the and the lady kept half. Then the lady new year. His next little poem is a col. awoke, and found the piece of candle in lyrium for the mind's eye ;
Ceremonies for Candlemasse Eve. . England this day is called the “ Wives' Down with the Rosemary and Bayes,
Feast Day;" and he quotes a singular Down with the Misleto;
old custom from Martin's book on the Instead of Holly, now up-raise
Western Islands, to this effect:-“ The The greener Box (for show.)
mistress and servants of each family dress The Holly hitherto did sway;
a sheaf of oats in women's apparel, put Let Box now domineere,
it in a large basket, and lay a wooden Untill the dancing Easter-day,
club by it, and this they call Brüd's Bed; On Easter's Eve appeare.
and the mistress and servants cry three Then youthful Box, which now hath grace,
times, · Brüd is come, Brüd is welcome !! Your houses to renew,
This they do just before going to bed. Grown old, surrender must his place
In the morning they look among the Unto the crisped Yew.
ashes, and if they see the impression of
Brüd's club there, they reckon it a preWhen Yew is out, then Birch comes in, And many Flowers beside,
sage of a good crop, and prosperous year; Both of a fresh and fragrant kinne,
if not, they take it as an ill omen." To honour Whitsontide. Green Bushes then, and sweetest Bents,
A Dorsetshire gentleman communiWith cooler Oken boughs,
cates a custom which he witnessed at Come in for comely ornaments
Lyme Regis in his juvenile days; to To re-adorn the house.
what extent it prevailed he is unable to Thus times do shift ; each thing his turne do's
say, his knowledge being limited to the hold;
domestic circle wherein he was included. New things succeed, as former things grow
The wood-ashes of the family being sold old.
throughout the year as they were made,
the person who purchased them annually Brand cites a curious anecdote con- sent a present on Candlemas-day of a cerning John Cosin, bishop of Durham, large candle. When night came, this on this day, from a rare tract, entitled candle was lighted, and, assisted by its “ The Vanitie and Downefall of supersti- illumination, the inmates regaled themtious Popish Ceremonies, preached in the selves with cheering draughts of ale, and Cathedral Church of Durham, by one sippings of punch, or some other aniPeter Smart, a prebend there, July 27, mating beverage, until the candle had 1628," Edinborough, 4to. 1628. "Thé burnt out. The coming of the Candlestory is, that “on Candlemass-day last mas candle was looked forward to by the past, Mr. Cozens, in renuing that popish young ones as an event of some conseceremonie of burning Candles to the ho- quence; for, of usage, they had a sort of nour of our lady, busied himself from right to sit up that night, and partake of two of the clocke in the afternoon till foure, the refreshment, till all retired to rest, in climbing long ladders to stick up was the signal for which was the self-extinccandles in the said Cathedral Church: the tion of the Candlemas candle. number of all the Candles burnt that evening was two hundred and twenty, besides sixteen torches; sixty of those
Bishop Hall, in a Sermon on Candleburning tapers and torches standing upon,
mas-day, remarks, that “ it hath been an and near, the high Altar, (as he calls it,)
old (I say not how true) note, that hath where no man came nigh."
been wont to be set on this day, that if A contributor to the Gentleman's Ma
it be clear and sun shiny, it portends a gazine informs Mr. Urban, in 1790, that
i hard weather to come; if cloudy and having visited Harrowgate for his health
louring, a mild and gentle season ensu. a few years before, he resided for some
ing.” This agrees with cne of Ray's time at that pleasant market-town Rip
proverbs : pon, where, on the Sunday before Can " The hind had as lief see dlemas day, he observed that the colle
his wife on the bier, giate church, a fine ancient building, was
As that Candlemas-day one continued blaze of light all the after
should be pleasant and clear." noon from an immense number of can- So also Browne, in his “ Vulgar Erdles.
rors," affirms, that “ there is a general Brand observes, that in the north of tradition in most parts of Europe, that inferreth the coldness of succeeding win- pened that they came while he was at ter from the shining of the sun on Can- prayer, they did not interrupt him, but dlemas-day, according to the proverbial waited till he had ended, and never dedistich:
parted without his benediction. He was • Si Sol splendescat Mariâ purificante,
discovered in his retirement, imprisoned, Waior erit glacies post festum quam fuit ante.'s and cured a youth who had a fish-bone
stuck in his throat by praying." RibaThe “ Country Almanac" for 1676, in the deneira further says that Ætius, an ancient month of February, versifies to the same Greek physician, gave the following effect:
Receipt for a stoppage in the throat : “ Foul weather is no news,
" Hold the diseased party by the hail, rain, and snow, Are now expected, and
throat, and pronounce these words :esteem'd no woe;
Blase, the martyr and servant of Jesus Nay, 'tis an omen bad,
Christ, commands thee to pass up or The yeomen say,
down!” JI Phæbus shows his face
The same Jesuit relates, that St. Blase the second day."
was scourged, and seven holy wonen Country Almanac, (Feb.) 1676.
anointed themselves with his blood; Other almanacs prophesy to the like pur whereupon their flesh was combed port:
with iron combs, their wounds ran no“ If Candlemas-day be fair and bright,
thing but milk, their flesh was whiter Winter will have another flight;
than snow, angels came visibly and healed But if Candlemas-day be clouds and rain, their wounds as fast as they were made; Winter is gone, and will not come again." and they were put into the fire, which The next old saw is nearer the truth than
would not consume them; wherefore either of the preceding:
they were ordered to be beheaded, and
beheaded accordingly. Then St. Blase " When Candlemas-day is come and gone, was ordered to be drowned in the lake; The snow lies on a hot stone."
but he walked on the water, sat down on
it in the middle, and invited the infidels FLORAL DIRECTORY.
to a sitting; whereupon threescore and Snowdrop. Galanthus Nivalis eight, who tried the experiment, were Dedicated to the Purificution of thc drowned, and St. Blase walked back to be Virgin Mary.
The “ Golden Legend" says, that a
wolf having run away with a woman's February 3.
swine, she prayed St. Blase that she Holiday at the Exchequer.
might have her swine again, and St.
Blase promised her, with a smile, she St. Blasc. St. Anscharius, A. D. 865.
should, and the wolf brought the swine St. W'ereburge, Patroness of Chester.
back; then she slew it, and offered the St. Margaret, of England.
head and the feet, with some bread and St. Blase.
a candle, to St. Blase. “And he thanked This saint has the honour of a place in God, and ete thereof; and he sayd to the church of England calendar, on what her, that every yere she sholde ottre in account it is difficult to say. All the his chirche a candell. And she dyd all facts that Butler has collected of him is, her lyf, and she had moche grele prosthat he was bishop of Sebaste in Armenia, peryte. Aud knowe thou that to the, receiver of the relics of St. Eustratius, and to all them that so shal do, shal and executor of his last will; that he is well happen to them." venerated for the cure of sore throats; It is observed in a note on Brand, that principal patron of Ragusa, titular patron the candles offered to St. Blase were said of the wool-combers; and that he was to be good for the tooth-ache, and for ‘ormented with iron combs, and martyred diseased cattle. ander Licinius, in 316.
Ribadeneira is more diffuse. He re- « Then followeth good sir Blase, who doth lates, that St. Blase lived in a cave, whi
a waxen Candeli give, ther wild beasts came daily to visit him, Sud holy water to his men, and be cwed by him; “ and if it hap whereby they safely live
I divers Barrels oft have seene,
ed into Bradford from the surrounding drawne out of water cleare,
towns and villages, in such numbers as Through one small blessed bone
to line the roads in every direction; and of this same holy Martyr heare :
almost all the vehicles within twenty And caryed thence to other townes
miles were in requisition. Bradford was and cities farre away, Ech superstition doth require
never before known to be so crowded such earnest kinde of play."
with strangers. Many thousands of indi
viduals must have come to witness the The origin of St. Blase's fame has baf
scene. About ten o'clock the procession fied the inquiry of antiquaries; it seems was drawn up in the following order :to have rolled off with the darkness of
Herald bearing a flag. former ages, never to be known again. Woolstaplers on horseback, each horse capaTo the wool-combers this saint is indebted
risoned with a fleece. for the maintenance of his reputation in Worsted Spinners and Manufacturers on England, for no other trade or persons horseback, in white stuff waistcoats, with have any interest in remembering his each a sliver over the shoulder, and existence; and this populanty with a a white stuff sash ; tbe horses' body of so much consequence may pos
Decks covered with nets sibly have been the reason, and the only
made of thick yarn. reason, for the retention of his name in
Merchants on horseback, with coloured
sashes. the church calendar at the Reformation.
ThreeGuards. Masters'Colours. ThreeGuards. That it is not in the wane with them, is
Apprentices and Masters' Sons, on horreclear from a report in the Leeds Mercury,
back, with ornamented caps, scarlet stuff of the 5th of February, 1825. The article
coats, white stuff waistcoats, and furnishes the very interesting particulars
blue pantaloons. in the subjoined account:
Bradford and Keighley Bands.
Mace-bearer, on foot.
Six Guards, Kino. Queen. Six Guards.
Guards. Jason. PRINCESS Medea. Guards. Bishop Blase's Festival,
BISHOP BLASE. AT BRADFORD, 3d FEBRUARY, 1825.
Shepherd and Shepherdess.
Shepherd Swains. The sentennial festival, held in honour Woolsorters, on horseback, with ornamented of bishop Blase, and of the invention of
caps, and various coloured slivers, wool.corbing attributed to that person
Comb Makers. age, was on this day celebrated at Brad
Charcoal Burners. ford with great gaiety and rejoicing.
Combers' Colours. There is no place in the kingdom where
Band. the bishop is so splendidly commemo
Woulcombers, with wool wigs, &c.
Band. raied as at Bradford. In 1811, 1818, and at previous septennial periods, the Dyers, with red cockades, blue aprons, ap' occasion was celebrated with great pomp
crossed slivers of red and blue. and festivity, each celebration surpassing The following were the numbers of the the preceding ones in numbers and brile different bodies, as nearly as could be lance. The celebration of 1825 eclipsed estimated :—24 woolstaplers, 38 spinners all bitherto seen, and it is most gratifying and manufacturers, 6 merchants, 56 apto know, that this is owing to the high prentices and masters' sons, 160 woolprosperity of the worsted and woollen sorters, 30 combmakers, 470 wool-combers, manufactures, wbich are constantly add- and 40 dyers. The King, on this occaing fresh streets and suburban villages to sion, was an old man, named Wm.Clough, the town.
of Darlington, who had filled the regal The different trades began to assemble station at four previous celebrations. at eight o'clock in the morning, but it was Jason (the celebrated legend of the near ten o'clock before they all were ar- Golden Fleece of Colchis, is interwoven ranged in parching order in Westgate. with the commemoration of the bishop,) The arrangements were actively super- was personated by John Smith; and the intended by Matthew Thompson, Esq. fair MEDEA, to whom he was indebted The morning was brilliantly beautiful. for his spoils, rode by his side.-BISHOP As early as seven o'clock, strangers pour BLASE was a personage of very be