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factured at the royal establishment in the good year. In the hilarity of the season deighbourhood of Versailles during the let him not forget that to the needy it is preceding year.
a season of discomfort. Undoubtedly, new year's gifts originated in heathen observances, and were
There is a satisfaction grossly abused in after ages ; yet latterly
In Joing a good action : they became a rational and pleasant mode and he who devises liberal things will of conveying our gentle dispositions to find his liberality return to him in a ful! wards those we esteein, Mr. Audley, in tide of happiness. An economist can his compendious and useful “ Companion afford to be generous. “ Give me neither to the Almanack," says, with truth, that poverty nor riches," prayed the wise man. they are innocent, if not praiseworthy; To him who is neither encumbered by and he quotes this amiable sentiment from wealth, nor dispirited by indigence, the Bourne : “ If I send a new year's gift stores of enjoyment are unlocked. to my friend, it shall be a token of my friendship; if to my benefactor, a token
He who holds fast the Golden Mean,
And lives contentedly between of my gratitude ; if to the poor, which at
The little and the great, this season must never be forgot, it shall
Feels not the wants that pinch the poor, be to make their hearts sing for joy, and
Nor plagues that haunt the rich man's door, give praise and adoration to the Giver of
Embitt'ring all his state. all good gifts.” The Jews on the first day of their new year give sumptuous enter
The tallest pines feel most the pow's tainments, and joyfully wish each other
Of wintry blasts; the loftiest tow'r
Comes heaviest to the ground; “ a happy new year.” This salutation
The bolts that spare the mountain's side is not yet obsolete even with us; but the
His cloud-capt eminence divide, new year's gift seldom arrives, except to
And spread the ruin round. honest rustics from their equals; it is scarcely remembered with a view to its
The well-inform'd philosopher
• Rejoices with a wholesome fear, use but by young persons, who, “unvexed with all the cares of gain," have read or
And hopes, in spite of pain ;
If Winter bellow from the North, heard tell of such things, and who, with
Soon the sweet Spring comes dancing innocent hearts, feeling the kindness of
And Nature laughs again. the sentiment, keep up the good old custom among one another, till mixture with
If hindrances obstruct thy way, the world, and “ long experience, makes
l'hy magnanimity display,
And let thy strength be seen; them sage," and sordid.
But oh! if fortune fill thy sail New year's day in London is not ob
With more than a propitious gale, served by any public festivity ; but little Take half thy canvass in. social dining parties are frequently formed
Cowper. amongst friends; and convivial persons
CHRONOLOGY. may be found at taverns, and in publicans' parlours, regaling on the occasion. Dr 1308. On the 1st of January in this Forster relates, in his “Perennial Calen- year, William Tell, the Swiss patriot, asdar,” that many people make a point to sociated himself on this day with a band wear some new clothes on this day, and of his countrymen, against the tyranny of esteem the omission as unlucky: the their oppressors. For upwards of three practice, however, from such motives, centuries the opposition was carried on, must obviously be confined to the unin- and terminated by the treaty of Westformed. The only open demonstration phalia in 1648, declaring the independof joy in the metropolis, is the ringing of ence of Switzerland. merry peals from the belfries of the nu- 1651. On the 1st of January Charles II. merous steeples, late on the eve of the was crowned at Scone king of the Scots, Acw year, and until after the chimes of Charles, when a child, was weak in the the clock have sounded its last hour. legs, and ordered to wear steel - boots.
On new year's day the man of business Their weight so annoyed him that he opens new account-books. “A good be- pined till recreation became labour. An ginning makes a good ending." Let every old rocker took off the steel-boots, and man open an account to himself; and concealed them ; promising the countess so begin the new year that he may expect of Dorset, who was Charles's governess, 'n sny at its termination-it has been a that she would take any blame for the act
on herself. Soon afterwards the king, in. It is very cold this morning, is it Charles I., coming into the nursery, and not?'--'ery cold, sir.'- Very cold seeing bis boy's legs without the boots, indeed, isn't it?'- V'ery cold indeed, angrily demanded who had done it? “ It sir.'— More than usually so, isn't it, was I, sir," said the rocker, “ who had even for this weather? (Here the serthe honour, some thirty years since, to at- vant's wit and good nature are put to a tend on your highness, in your infancy, considerable test, and the inquirer lies on when you had the same infirmity where- thorns for the answer.) "Why, Sir ... with now the prince, your very own son .. I think it is.' (Good creature! There is troubled; and then the lady Cary, is not a better, or more truth-telling ser(afterwards countess of Monmouth) com- vant going.) 'I must rise, howevermanded your steel-boots to be taken off, Get me some warm water.'-Ilere comes who, blessed be God, since have gathered a fine interval belween the departure of strength, and arrived at a good stature.” the servant and the arrival of the hot Clare, chaplain to Charles II., at the time water; during which, of course, it is of the affair happened, related this anecdote 'no use' to get up. The hot water to old Fuller, who in 1660, contemplating comes. “Is it quite hot ?'—'Yes, sir.' “ the restoration," tells the story, and — Perhaps too hot for shaving: I must quaintly exclaims, “ the nation is too wait a little?'—'No, sir; it will just do.' noble, when his majesty shall return from (There is an over-nice propriety someforeign parts, to inipose any other steet times, an officious zeal of virtue, a little boots upon him, than the observing the troublesome.) • Oh — the shirt - you laws of the land, which are his own stock- must air my clean shirt :-linen gets very ings, that so with joy and comfort he may damp this weather.'— Yes, sir. Here enter on what was his own inheritance.” another delicious five minutes. A knock The nation forgot the “ steel-boots," and at the door. “Oh, the shirt—very well. Charles forgot the “ stockings.”
My stockings—I think the stockings had 1801. January 1. The Union of Great better be aired too.'- Very well, sir.' Britain with Ireland coinmenced accord- - Here another interval. At length every ing to act of parlianient, and the event thing is ready, except myself I now was solemnized by the hoisting of a cannot help thinking a good deal-who new royal fag on the Tower of London, can ?-upon the unnecessary and villain. accompanied by the firing of guns there ous custom of shaving; it is a thing so and in St. James's Park. On the 3d the unmanly (here I nestle closer)-so effeking received the great seal of Great minate, (here I recoil from an unlucky step Britain from the lord chancellor, and into the colder part of the bed.)-No woncausing it to be defaced, presented to him der, that the queen of France took part a new great seal for the United Kingdom. with the rebels against that degenerate On the same day, January 1st, 1801, king, her husband, who first affronted her Piazzi, the astronomer at Palermo, dis- sinooth visage with a face like her own. covered a new primary planet, making an The emperor Julian never showed thie eleventh of that order: he called it Ceres, luxuriancy of his genius to better advanfrom the goddess of that name, who was tage thar in reviving the flowing beard. highly esteemned by the ancients of Sicily. Look at cardinal Bembo's picturemat
Michael Angelo'smat Titian'sat Shak. speare's—at Fletcher's—at Spenser's—at
Chaucer's—at Alfred's—at Plato's. I Usually at this period the rigour of cold could name a great man for every tick of is severely felt. The indisposition of lie-a- my watch. Look at the Turks, a grare beds to face its severity is pleasantly pic- and otiose people-Think of llaroun Al tured by Mr. Leigh Hunt, in a paper in the Raschid and Bed-ridden Hassan, Think Indicator. He imagines one of those of Wortley Montague, the worthy son of persons to express himself in these terms: his mother, a man above the prejudice or
“ On opening my eyes, the first thing his tinie-Look at the Persian gentlemen, . that meets them is my own breath rolling whom one is ashamed of meeting abon forth, as if in the open air, like smoke out the suburbs, their dress and appearance of a cottage-chimney. Think of this are so much finer than our own-Lastly, symptoio. Then. I turn my eyes side. think of the razor itself-low totally opsays and soe the window all frozen over. posed to every sensation of bed-how, Think of that. Then the servant comes cold, how eagy, how hard ! how utterly
This engraving represents simple me- plates to his work, for teaching which thods by which, at this season especially, his explanations are numerous and clear. the health of young persons may be maintained, and the constitution invigorated. Two round parallel hars at two An unseasonable occurrence in the feet distance from each other, on round cellar of the late sir Joseph Banks may be standards three or four feet high, firmly acceptable in the mention, and excite fixed in the ground, will afford boys the particular sympathy in persons who reineans of actively exerting their limbs and create with the juice of the vine: as a fact, muscles : and if the ends of a pole be let it may tend to elucidate the origin and into opposite walls or fastened to trees, nature of vegetable fungi, particularly of the boys may be taught to climb single that species termed mushroom. The ropes, and hold on while swinging by worthy baronet had a cask of wine rather them. The engraving is placed before too sweet for immediate use; he therefore the eyes of parents and teachers with the directed that it should be placed in a celhope of directing their attention to gym- lar, in order that the saccharine matter it nastic exercises, as diversions for youth, contained might be more perfectly decomand they are referred to a practical trea- posed by age. At the end of three years, he tise on the subject by Mr. Clias, that may directed his butler to ascertain the state of be safely used. His judicious reasoning the wine, when, on attempting to open the must convince every reader of their im- cellar door, he could not effect it, in conseportance to the rising generation, and quence of some powerful obstacle. The that it is within the means of all classes door was cut down, and the cellar found of persons to let boys acquire a know- to be completely filled with a firm fungous ledge of the feats represented in the vegetable production—so firm that it was
necessary to use the axe for its removal. anticipate with calm delight the entrance This appeared to have grown from, or of the new year, and lift his eyes to the have been nourished by, the decomposed living lustres of the firmament with grateparticles of the wine: the cask was empty, ful feelings. They shine out their prismatic and carried up to the ceiling, where it colours through the cold thin air, keeping was supported by the surface of the watch while man slumbers, or cheering fungus.
him, who contemplates their fires, to purAt the close of this day he who can poses of virtue. In this season reflect with satisfaction on the past, may
- The night comes calmly forth,
the devil answered, to give drink to the
hermits; and that the phials contained a St. Macarius; St. Concordius ; St.
variety of liquors, that they might have Adalard or Alard.
a choice, and so fall into temptation. On St. Macarius. A.D. 394. Alban Butler the devil's return, the saint inquired how says he was a confectioner of Alexandria, he had sped; and the devil answered very who, in the flower of his age, spent evil, for they were so holy that only one upwards of sixty years in the deserts in Theodistus would drink : on this informlabour, penance, and contemplation. “Our ation Macarius found Theodistus under saint,” says Butler, “ happened one day the influences of the phial, and recovered inadvertently to kill a gnat, that was biting him. Macarius found the head of a pagan, bim in his cell; reflecting that he had lost and asked where the soul of its body the opportunity of suffering that mortific was: in hell, said the head: he asked the cation, he hastened from his cell for the head if hell was deep ;-the head said marshes of Scete, which abound with deeper than from heaven to earth: he degreat flies, whose stings fierce even wild manded again, if there were any there boars. There he continued six months, lower than bis own soul—the head said exposed to those ravaging insects; and to the Jews were lower than he was: the such a degree was his whole body dis- saint inquired if there were any lower figured by them, with sores and swellings, than the Jews—the head answered, the that when he returned he was only to be false Christian-men were lower than the known by his voice." The Golden Legend Jews, and more tormented: there the relates of him, that he took a dead pagan dialogue between the saint and the head out of his sepulchre, and put him under appears to have ended. Macarius seems, his head for a pillow; whereupon certain by the Golden Legend, to have been much devils came to affight the saint, and called annoyed by the devil. In a nine days' the dead pagan to go with them; but the journey through a desert, at the end of body under the saint said he could not, every mile he set up a reed in the earth, because a pilgrim lay upon him, so that to mark his track against he returned; he could not move; then Macarius, no- but the devil pulled them all up, made a thing afraid, beat the body with his fist, and bundle of them, and placed them at Matold him to go if he would, which caused carius's head, while he lay asleep, so that the devils to declare that Macarius had the saint with great difficulty found his Fanquished them. Another time the way home again. devil came with a great scythe on his Št. Adalard, according to Butler, was shoulder, to smite the saint, but he could grandson of Charles Martel, brollier 10 not prevail against him, on acco.nt of his king Pepin, and cousin-german to Charlevirtues. Macarius, at another time, being magne, who created him a count: he left tempted, filled a sack with stones, and his court in 773, became a monk at Corbie bore it many journies through the desert. in Picardy, died in 827, aged seventySeeing a devil before him in the shape of three, and wrought miracles, which proa man, dressed like “ a herawde," with cured his body to be enshrined with great his clothing full of holes, and in every hole pomp in 1010, a history of which solema phial, he demanded of this devil whither nity is written by St. Gerard, who com: be went; and why he had so many phials? posed an office in St. Adalard's honour, he
cause through his intercession he had mission to return to Rome. Whatever been cured of a violent head-ache.- subject (vid wrote on, he exhausted; he The same St. Gerard relates seven other painted nature with a masterly hand, and miracles by S. Adalard of the same nature. his genius imparted elegance to vulgarity; Butler says, his relics are still at Corbie, but he defiled the sweetness of his numm a rich shrine, and two smaller cases, bers by impurity, and though he ranks except a small portion given to the abbey among the splendil ornaments of ancient of Chelles.
literature, he sullied his fame by the
grossest immorality in some of his finest The first Monday after new year's day
productions. is called Handsel Monday in some parts
Livy, the Roman historian, died at Padua of Scotland, and is observed by merry
on the same day and in the same year with
Ovid. His history of the Roman Empire inaking. In sir J. Sinclair's “ Statistical
was in one hundred and forty books, of Account," it is related of one William
which only thirty-five are extant. Five of Hunter, a collier, that he was cured in
these were discovered at Worms in 1431, he year 1758 of an inveterate rheuma
and some fragments are said to have been tism or gout, by drinking freely of new
lately discovered at Herculanæum. Few ale, full of barm or yeast. “The poor man had been confined to his bed for a
particulars of his life are known, but bis year and a half, having almost entirely
fame was great even while he lived, and lost the use of his limbs. On the evening
his history has rendered him immortal, of Handsel Monday, as it is called, some
He wrote some philosophical treatises
and dialogues, with a letter to his son on of his neighbours came to make merry with him. Though he could not rise, yet
the merit of authors, which Dr. Lemhe always took his share of the ale, as it
priere says, ought to be read by young passed round the company; and, in the
men. end, became much intoxicated. The consequence was, that he had the use of his limbs the next morning, and was able to in the Literary Pocket Book there are walk about. He lived more than twenty some seasonable facts which may be years after this, and never had the smallest transplanted with advantage to the reader, return of his old complaint." This is a and, it is hoped, without disadvantage to fact worth remembering, as connected
the writer of the articles. He says that with chronical complaints.
a man is infinitely mistaken, who thinks there is nothing worth seeing in winter
time out of doors, because the sun is not CHRONOLOGY.
warın, and the streets are muddy. “Let On the 2d of January, A. D. 17, Ovid him get, by dint of good exercise, out of the celebrated Roman poet died; he was the streets, and he shall find enough. In born at Sulmo on the 20th of March, the warm neighbourhood of towns he may forty-three years before the Christian era. still watch the field-fares, thrushes, and His father designed him for the bar, and blackbirds; the titmouse seeking its food he became eminently eloquent, but every through the straw-thatch; the red-wings, thing he wrote was expressed in poetical field-fares, sky-larks, and tit-larks, upon numbers ; and though reminded by his the same errand, over wet meadows; the father, that even Homer lived and died sparrows and yollow-hammers, and chaf. in poverty, he preferred the pleasures of finches, stiil beautiful though mute, gleanimagination to forensic disputation le ing from the straw and chaff in farmgained great admiration from the learned. yards; and the ring-dove, always poetical, Virgil, Horace, Tibullus, and Propertius, coming for her meal to the ivy-berries. were his friends, and Augustus became About rapid streams he may see the vahis liberal patron, till be banished him for rious habits and movements of herons, some unknown cause. In his exile he wood-cocks, wild-dicks, and other waterwas cowardly, and prostituted his pen to fowl, who are obliged to quit the frozen tatter haseness; and though he desired marshes to seek their food there. The the death of the emperor, he fawned upon ced-breast comes to the windows, and him in his writings to meanness. He died often into the house itself, to be rewarded at Tomos on the Euxine sea, the place of for its song, and for its far-famed paint his bunishment, uuder the reign of Tibe. ful' obsequies to the Children in the rius, who had succeeded Augustus, and Wood." was deaf to the poet's entreaties for pero