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posed him to the continual laughter of “The fair cock was not allowed to have the town's people, and obliged him to his stand extended behind, more than his quit the place.
height and half as much more, nor much
thicker than himself, and he was not to Shying at Leaden Cocks.
extend in width more than his height, A correspondent, S. W., says, “It nor to project over the stand ; but fralla strikes me that the game of pitching at dulent cocks were made extending latercapons, practised by boys when I was ally over the side, so as to prevent his young, took its rise from this sport, (the lying down sideways, and with a long throwing at cocks,) indulged in by the stand behind ; the body of the cock was matured barbarians. The capons were made thinner, and the stand thicker, by .eaden representations of cocks and hens which means the cock bent npon being pitched ai by leaden dumps."
struck, and it was impossible to knock Another correspondent, whose MS. him over." This information may seem collections are opened to the Every-Day trifling to some, but it will interest many. Book, has a similar remark in one of his We all look back with complacency on common-place books, on the sports of the amusements of our childhood ; and boys. He says, “ Shying at Cocks. “ some future Strutt," a century or two Probably in imitation of the barbarous hence, may find this page, and glean froni custom of shying' or throwing at the it the in:portant difference between the living animal. The 'cock' was a repre- sports of boys now, and those of our sentation of a bird or a beast, a man, a grandchildren's great grandchildren. horse, or some device, with a stand projecting on all sides, but principally be
Cock-fighting. hind the figure. These were made of lead cast in moulds. They were shyed at The cruelty of cock-fighting was a chief with dumps from a small distance agreed ingredient of the pleasure wbich intoxupon by the parties, generally regulated icated the people on Shrove Tuesday. by the size or weight of the dump, and Cock-fighting was practised by the the value of the cock. If the thrower Greeks. Themistocles, when leading his overset or knocked down the cock, he troops against the Persians, saw two wou it; if he failed, he lost his dump. cocks fighting, and roused the courage of
“ Shy for shy. This was played at by his soldiers by pointing out the obstinacy two boys, each having a cock placed at with which these animals contended, a certain distance, generally about four though they neither fought for their counor five feet asunder, the players standing try, their families, nor their liberty. The behind their cocks, and throwing alter Persians were defeated ; and the Athenians, nately; a bit of stone or wood was gener as a memorial of the victory, and of the ally used to throw with : the cock was incident, ordered annual cock-fighting in won by him who knocked it down. the presence of the whole people. BeckCocks and dumps were exposed for sale mann thinks it existed 'even earlier. on the butchers' shambles on a small Pliny says cock-fighting was an annual board, and were the perquisite of the exhibition at Pergamus. Plato laments apprentices, who made them; and many that not only boys, but men, bred fighting a pewter plate, and many an ale-house birds, and employed their whole time in pot, were melted at this season for shying similar idle amusements. Beckmann men at cocks, which was as soon as fires were tions an ancient gem in sir William Ha. lighted in the autumn. These games, milton's collection, whereon two cocks and all others among the boys of London, are fighting, while a mouse carries away had their particular times or seasons; the ear of corn for which they contest": and when any game was out, as it was “ a happy emblem," says Beckmann, "of termed, it was lawful to steal the thing our law-suits, in which the greater part played with; this was called smugging of the property in dispute falls to the and it was expressed by the boys in a dog lawyers." "The Greeks obtained their grel : viz.
fighting cocks from foreign countries; ac"Tops are in. Spin 'em agin.
cording to Beckmann, the English imTops are out. Smuggin about.
port the strongest and best of theirs from or
abroad, especially from Germany. Tops are in. Spin 'em agiu.
Cæsar mentions the English cocks in Dumps are oat, &c
his « Commentaries ;" but the earliest notice of cock-fighting in England is by crowned as king of christmas, on horse Fitz-Stephens, who died in 1191. He back, having his horse bedizened with mentions this as one of the amusements tinsel and flauntery, and preceded by the of the Londoners, together with the game twelve months of the year, each month of foot-ball. The whole passage is worth habited as the season requied ; after transcribing. “ Yearly at Shrove-tide, him came Lent, clothed in white and her. the boys of every school bring fighting- ring-skins, on a horse with trappings o cocks to their masters, and all the fore- oyster-shells, “ in token that sadnesse noon is spent at school, to see these cocks shulde folowe, and an holy tyme;" and fight together. After dinner, all the youth in this sort they rode through the city, of the city goeth to play at the ball in the accompanied by others in whimsical fields; the scholars of every study have dresses, “ makyng myrth, disportes, and their balls; the practisers also of all the playes." Among much curious observa. trades have every one their ball in their tion on these Shrove-tide mummings, in hands. The ancienter sort, the fathers, the “ Popish Kingdome" it is affirmed, and the wealthy citizens, come on horse- that of all merry-makers, back, to see these youngsters contending at their sport, with whom, in a manner,
The chiefest man is he, and one they participate by motion; stirring their
that most deserveth prayse
Among the rest, that can finde out own natural heat in the view of the active
the fondest kinde of playes. youth, with whose mirth and liberty they
Ou him they look, and gaze upon, seem to communicate.”
and laugh with lustie cheere, Cock-fighting was prohibited in Eng
Whom boys do follow, crying foole, land under Edward III. and Henry VIII.,
and such like other geare. and even later : yet Henry himself in He in the mean time thinkes himselfe dulged his cruel nature by instituting
a wondrous worthie man, &c. cock-fights, and even James I. took great delight in them; and within our own
It is further related, that some of the time, games have been fought, and at
rout carried staves, or fought in armour; tendance solicited by public advertise
others, disguised as devils, chased all the ment, at the Royal Cock-pit, Whitehall,
i people they came up with, and frightened which Henry VIII. built.
's the boys : men wore women's clothes, Beckmann says, that as the cock roused
and women, dressed as men, entered their Peter, so it was held an ecclesiastical duty
neighbours' or friends' houses ; some were “ to call the people to repentance, or at
apparelled as monks, others arrayed least to church;" and therefore, “ in the
themselves as kings, attended by their ages of ignorance, the clergy frequently
guards and royal accompaniments; some called themselves the cocks of the Al
disguised as old fools, pretended to sit on mighty.”
nests and hatch young fools; others wear
ing skins and dresses, became counterfeit Old Shrove-tide Revels.
bears and wolves, roaring lions, and
raging bulls, or walked on high stilts, with On Shrove Tuesday, according to an wings at their backs, as cranes : old author, “ men ate and drank, and
Some like filthy forme of apes, abandoned themselves to every kind of sportive foolery, as if resolved to have
and some like fools are drest,
which best beseeme those papistes all, their fill of pleasure before they were to
that thus keep Bacchus' feast die.” The preparing of bacon, meat, and the
Others are represented as bearers of an making of savoury black-puddings, for
unsavoury morselgood cheer after the coming Lent, pre
- that on ceded the day itself, whereon, besides
a cushion soft they lay, domestic feasting and revelry, with dice
And one there is that, with a flap and card-playing, there was immensity of
doth keepe the flies away mumming. The records of Norwich tes. Some stuffed a doublet and hose with tify, that in 1440, one John Gladman, rags or strawwho is there called “a man who was ever Whom as a man that lately dyed trewe and feythfull to God and to the
of honest life and fame, . kyng" and constantly disportive, made In blanket did they beare about, a public disport with his neighbours,
and streightways with the same
They hurl him up into the ayre,
and thus furiously they drove without not sufl'ring him to fall,
stopping for people to ge! out of their And this they doe at divers tymes, the citie over all.
Yea, sometimes legges or arms they breake, The Kentish “holly boy,” and “ivy girl”
and horse and cart and all are erroneously supposed (at p. 226,) to They overthrow, with such a force. have been carried about on St. Valentine's
they in their course do fall! day. On turning to Brand, who also cites the circumstance, it appears they
The genteel “wagon"-drivers ceased no! were carried the Tuesday before Shrove with the cessation of the vulgar sports Oy Tuesday, and most probably were the unrecognised remains of the drest mawkin But even till midnight holde they on, of the “ Popish Kingdome,” carried
their pastimes for to make, about with various devices to represent Whereby they hinder men of sleepe, the “ death of good living," and which
and cause their heades to ake our catholic neighbours continue. The But all this same they care not for, Morning Chronicle of March the 10th,
nor do esteemne a heare, 1791, represents the peasantry of France
So they may have their pleasure, &c. carrying it at that time into the villages, collecting money for the “funeral,” and,
APPRENTICES' HOLIDAY. “after sundry absurd mummeries,” com Shrove Tuesday was until late years mitting the body to the earth.
the great holiday of the apprentices; why
it should have been so is easy to imagine, Neogeorgus records, that if the snow on recollecting the sports that boys were lay on the ground this day, snow-ball allowed on that day at school. The incombats were exhibited with great vigour, dulgencies of the ancient city 'prentices till one party got the victory, and the other were great, and their licentious disturbran away: the confusion whereof trou- ances stand recorded in the annals of bled him sorely, on account of its disturb- many a fray. Mixing in every neighance to the “ matrone olde," and “soberbouring brawl to bring it if possible to man," who desired to pass without a cold open riot, they at length assumed to de salutation from the “wanton fellowes." termine on public affairs, and went in
The “rabble-rout,” however, in these bodies with their petitions and remonprocessions and mockeries, had the ho strances to the bar of the house of comnour of respectable spectators, who seem mons, with as much importance as their to have been somewhat affected by the masters of the corporation. A satire of popular epidemic. The same author says 1675 says, that,
They'r mounted high, contemn the humble - the noble men, the rich and men of hie degree,
Of trap or foot-ball on a holiday Least they with common people should
In Finesbury-fieldes. No, 'tis their brave not seeme so mad to bee,
intent, came abroad in “wagons finely framed Wisely t' advise the king and parliament. before" drawn by “a lustie horse and wift of pace,” having trappings on him
But this is not the place to notice their from head to foot, about whose neck,
manners further. The successors to their -- and every place before,
name are of another generation, they have A hundred gingling belles do hang,
been better educated, live in better times,
and having better masters will make better to make his courage more,
men. The apprentices whose situation and their wives and children being seated
is to be viewed with anxiety, are the outin these “wagons,” they
door apprentices of poor persons, who behinde themselves do stande can scarcely find homes, or who being orWell armide with whips, and holding faste phans, leave the factories or work-rooms the bridle in their hande.
of their masters, at night, to go where Thus laden and equipped
they can, and do what they please, withWith all their force throughout the streetes
out paternal care, or being the creatures and market place they ron,
of any one's solicitude, and are yet exAs if some whirlwinde mad, or tempest
pected to be, or become good members of great from skies should come society
is supposed to have had its origin in the A MS. in the British Museum quoted days of chivalry ; when an Italian is by Brand states, that in 1560, it was a reported to have come into this part of custom at Eton school on Shrove Tues- the country challenging all the parishes, day for the cook to fasten a pancake to a under a certain penalty in case of declincrow upon the school door; and as crows ing his challenge. All the parishes deusually hatch at this season, the cawing clined this challenge except Scone, which of the young ones for their parent, beat the foreigner, and in commemoration heightened this heartless sport. From a of this gallant action the game was insti. question by Antiquarius, in the “Gentle- tuted. Whilst the custom continued, man's Magazine," 1790, it appears that it every man in the parish, the gentry not is a custom on Shrove Tuesday at West- excepted, was obliged to turn out and minster school for the under clerk of the support the side to which he belonged, college, preceded by the beadle and the and the person who neglected to do his other officers, to throw a large pancake part on that occasion was tined; but the over the bar which divides the upper custom being attended with certain inconfrom the lower school. Brand mentions veniences, was abolished a few years bea similar custom at Eton school. Mr. fore Sir Frederick wrote. He further Fosbroke is decisive in the opinion that mentions that on Shrove Tuesday there is pancakes on Shrove Tuesday were taken a standing match at foot-ball in the parish from the heathen Fornacalia, celebrated of Inverness, county of Mid Lothian, beon the 18th of February, in memory of tween the married and unmarried women, making bread, before ovens were invented. and he states as a remarkable fact that the by the goddess Fornax.
married women are always successful.
Crowdie is mentioned by sir F. M. This was, and remains, a game on Eden, (“ State of the Poor,'') as a never Shrove Tuesday, in various parts of Eng- failing dinner on Shrove Tuesday, with all land.
ranks of people in Scotland, as pancakes Sir Frederick Morton Eden in the are in England ; and that a ring is put into “Statistical account of Scotland,” says that the basin or porringer of the unmarried at the parish of Scone, county of Perth, folks, to the muder of which, by fair means, every year on Shrove Tuesday the bache- it was an omen of marriage before the rest lors and married men drew themselves up of the eaters. This practice on Fasten's at the cross of Scone, on opposite sides ; à Eve, is described in Mr. Stewart's “ Poball was then thrown up, and they played pular Superstitions of the Highlands," from two o'clock till sun-set. The game with little difference; only that the ring was this: he who at any time got the ball instead of being in “ crowdie" is in into his hands, run with it till overtaken “brose," made of the “bree of a good fat by one of the opposite party; and then, if iigget of beef or mutton." This with he could shake himself loose from those on plenty of other good cheer being desthe opposite side who seized him, he run on; patched, the Bannich Junit, or “sauty if not, he threw the ball from him, unless bannocks" are brought out. They are it was wrested from him by the other made of eggs and meal mixed with salt party, but no person was allowed to kick to make them“ sauty,” and being baked it. The object of the married men was to or toasted on the gridiron," are regarded by hang it, that is, to put it three times into old and young as a most delicious treat." a small hole in the moor, which was the They have a “charm" in them which endool or limit on the one hand : that of ables the highlander to “spell" out his the bachelors was to drown it, or dip it future wife: this consists of some article three times in a deep place in the river, being intermixed in the meal-dough, and the limit on the other : the party who he to whom falls the “gauty bannock" could effect either of these objects won which contains it, is sure if not already the game; if neither won, the ball was married to be married before the next cut into equal parts at sun-set. In the anniversary. Then the Bannich Brauder, course of the play there was usually some or “ dreaming bannocks” find a place. violence between the parties ; but it is They contain “a little of that substance a proverb in this part of the country that which chimney-sweeps call so ot." In "All is fair at the ball of Scone." Sir baking them “ the baker must be as mute Frederick goes on to say, that this custom as a stone-one word would destroy the whole concem." Each person has one, neva, being at Rome on Ash Wednesday, slips off quietly to bed, lays his head on he fell at the feet of pope Boniface VIII., his bannoek, and expects to see his sweet- who blessed and gave out the ashes on heart in his sleep.
that day, in order to be signed with the blessed ashes as others had been. Think
ing him to be his enemy, instead of utterSnakspeare in King IIenry IV. says, ing the usual form, “ Remember, O man, Be merry, be merry, —
because thou art dust, thoi, shalt return to 'Tis merry in hall, when beards wag all
dust,” &c., the pope parodied the form And welcome merry Shrovetide.
and said “Remember thou art a Gibelline, Be merry, be merry, &c.
and with the Gibellines thou shalt return
to ashes," and then his holiness threw the It is mentioned in the “ Shepherd's Al- ashes in the archbishop's eyes. manack" of 1676, that “ some say, thunder It is observed by Mr. Fosbroke that on Shrove Tuesday foretelleth wind, store ladies wore friars' girdles in Lent. This of fruit, and plenty. Others affirm that gentleman quotes, from “ Camden's Reso much as the sun shineth on that day, mains," that sir Thomas More finding his the like will shine every day in Lent." lady scolding her servants during Tent,
endeavoured to restrain her. « Tush,
tush, my lord,” said she, “look, here is FLORAL DIRECTORY.
one step to heavenward,” showing him Cloth of Gold. Crocus sulphureus. a friar's girdle. “I fear me," said he, Dedicated to St. Sigifride.
“ that one step, will not bring you up one step higher." There are various instances
of belief in the virtues of garments that February 16.
had been worn by monks and friars;
some of them almost surpassing belief. St. Onesimus. Sts. Elias, Jeremy, Isaias,
Ash Wednesday is observed in the Samuel, and Daniel, A. D. 309. St. Ju
church of England by reading publicly liana. St. Gregory X. Pope, A. D. 1276.
the curses denounced against impenitent St. Tanco, or Tatta, of Scotland, A. D.
sinners; to each malediction the people 815.
being directed to utter, amen. Many who consider this as cursing their neigh
bours, keep away from church on the ocHoliday at the Public Offices; except the Stamps, casion ; which absence from these motives Customs, and Excise.
Mr. Brand regards as “ a folly and superThis is the first day of Lent. It is stition worthy of the after-midnight, the called Ash Wednesday, because in the Ro. spirit-walking time of popery." On this man catholic church the priest blesses eloquent remark, and Mr. Brand is selashes on this day, and puts them on the dom warmed to eloquence, it may be ob heads of the people. These ashes are served, that persons far removed from made of the branches of brushwood or superstition and who have never ap. palms, consecrated the year before. The proached “the valley of the shadow of poashes are cleaned, and dried, and sifted, pery,” deem the commination of the “Comfit for the purpose. After the priest mon Prayer Book," a departure from the has given absolution to the people, he christian dispensation, and its injunctions prays “ Vouchsafe + to bless and sanctify of brotherly kindness. + these ashes — that whosoever shall sprinkle these ashes upon them for the
FLORAL DIRECTORY. redemption of their sins, they may obtain health of body and protection of soul,"
Lilac Primrose. Primula acaulis plena. &c. Prayers ended, the priest sprinkles
Dedicated to St. Juliana. the ashes with holy water, and perfumes them thrice with incense, and the people
February 17. coining to him and kneeling, he puts ashes on their heads in the form of a cross with St. Flavian, Archbishop of Constandother ceremonies.
nople, A. D. 449. Sts. Theodulus and Platina, a priest, and librarian to the Julian. St. Silvin of Auchy, A.D Vatican, who wrote the lives of the popes 7 18. St. Loman, or Luman, Bishop relates that Prochetus, archbishop of Ge. St. Fintan, Abbot.