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narrow channel, where a number of which was quietly basking in the sun, beautiful birds, especially parrots, were fled at the sound of the oars. They soon flying about, and the fine red maccaws came to several islands, upon which the produced a singularly striking effect as people of Linhares had made plantathe setting sun illumined their scarlet tions; for it is only on these islands plumage. The banks of these islands that they are quite safe from the savages, and of the channel were for the most who have no canoes, and therefore canpart thickly overgrown with the high not cross, except where the breadth and fan-like reed, the sheath of whose flower depth of the river are inconsiderable. is used by the Botocudos for their ar-. The officer, called Guarda Mor, resides TOWS. When evening approached, the in the Ilha do Boi (Ox Island), and the soldiers deliberated whether it would be priest of Linhares on the Ilha do Bom better to pass the night on the Ilha Jesus. Towards noon they came in Conprida (long island), or on one of the sight of Linhares, and landed on the others. The first was rejected, because north bank, after having with great exit is divided from the shore by only a ertion made their way against the rapid narrow and shallow channel, and they current. would not have been secure against a Nearly opposite to the inconsiderable visit from the savages. They therefore settlement of Linhares on the banks of proceeded to the Ilha de Gambin, where this river, is the fazenda and sugar-houso ihe governors used formerly to pass the of Bomjardin, belonging to Lieutenant night when they visited the colony on Joao Felippe Calmon. When he was the Rio Doce. The present governor going to settle here opposite to Linhares, has not continued these visits, and the he took thirty or forty arıned men, and bushes on the shore were found so attacked the Botocudos, who were as. thickly grown together, that one of the sembled in a body, resolved to dispute hunters was obliged to clear a place the ground with him. One of these with his wood-knife, before they could savages was killed ; but it soon appeared set foot on shore. A large and cheerful that this horde, which numbered 150 fire was soon blazing in an open spot, bows, could not be driven away by whence a large owl (curuja) and a Mus- force alone; another mode was therefore covy-duck flew away, affrighted at the adopted; they were threatened in the unexpected guests. They suffered some rear, and by this stratagem induced to inconvenience from the swarms of mos- retreat. Since that time they have given quitges, but slept quietly till the morning. him no farther molestation during the
They left the island very early, pro three years that he has resided here. If ceeded up the river past several other this place had any trade, the various islands, and into a channel between the valuable kinds of wood, which these Ilha Comprida and the north bank of forests produce in abundance, might be the river. The current was by no means turned to as good an account as the ferso strong here, but then they met with tile soil of his fazenda. Peroba, an exmany fallen trunks of trees and large cellent timber for ship building, is inbranches, which they had to clear away, deed considered as crown property, but before they could advance farther. The Mr. Calmon obtained permission to bushes and lofty ancient trees, which build, of this timber, some large handborder this channel, present the most some sca-canoes, which he sends to diversified and magnificent spectacle. Capitania and other places, laden with Various kinds of cocoas, especially the the produce of his fazenda, and many elegant palmillo, in other parts called other valuable kinds of wood. jissara,) with its tall slender stem, and In order to protect this scttlement in the small bright green, beautiful feathery general from the attacks and cruelties of crown, adorn these dark forests, from the Botocudos, eight stations have been the recesses of which the calls of un- established, which are pushed forward known , birds strike the car. Below, in different directions into the great close to the water, were some splendid forests : they are also at the same time flowers, still, new to the Europeans; especially destined to protect the comamong which were a convolvulus (or a mercial intercourse, which it has of late plant of that genus) with a remarkably been attempted to open up the river large white flower, and a plant resem- with Minas Gerais. In fact, soldiers bling a bean, of the class diadelphia, with have already come down from that proa large deep yellow flower, which twined vince, who were in sufficient numbers, about the bushes in thick close wreaths. well armed, and provided with the deA jucaré, (the alligator of this country), fensive coat called gibuo d'armas. These
coats, some of which are kept at all the It was at. Villa Viçosa that the author stations, are an indispensable covering first saw these sayages, of whom he against the arrows which the savages says, “The sight of the Botocudos asto, discharge, with great force. They are nished us beyond all expression; we wide, made of cotton, and thickly lined had never before seen such strange and with several layers of cotton wadding, singularly ugly beings.. Their original have a high suiff collar, which covers countenances were farther disfigured by the neck, and short sleeves that protect large pieces of wood which they wore the upper part of the arm; they come in their lower lips, and in their ears: the down to the knee, but are very incon- lip is thus made to project very much, venient on account of their weight, es and the ears of some of them hang like pecially in hot weather. The strongest large wings down to their shoulders: arrow, even when discharged near at their brown bodies were covered with hand, does not easily penetrate such a dirt. They were already very familiar coat, and it never has force enough to with the ouvidor, who had them always inflict any serious wound. The people in the room with him, in order to gain indeed place too much confidence in their confidence more and more. He these coats, for they assured us that had some persons who spoke the Botos even a ball would not pierce them. cudo language, and let us hear some
In the woods on the banks of the specimens of their singing, which reriver St. Matthew, the uncivilised In- sembles an inarticulate howling. Most dians are very numerous, and they all of these young Indians had lately bad live in constant warfare with the whites the small-pox : they were still covered in this part of the country. In the all over with marks and scars, which, as course of the last year seventeen persons their bodies were emaciated by the diswere killed by them. The northern ease, considerably increased their natubank is haunted by the Patachos, Cu- ral ugliness.” manachos, Machacalis (called by the During his stay on the Rio Grande Portuguese Machacaris, they themselves de Belmonte, he became more inticannot pronounce the r well), and other mately acquainted with this tribe. On tribes, as far as Porto Seguro. The Bo- his way to explore a grave for the purtocudos also are numerous, and said to pose of getting one of their skulis, he be chiefly in possession of the south was surprised by the sayages. - . gir bank; they are feared by the other tribes, “It was our intention to complete our and are considered as enemies by the examination as speedily as possible, but rest, who on account of their inferior in the narrow serpentine path, between numbers make common cause against the lofty trees, appeared many interestthein. The plantations belonging to a ing birds, which detained us: we shot fazenda higher up the river were fre. some of them, and I was just about to quently robbed by the savages, till the pick one up, when I was suddenly surproprietor devised a singular expedient prised by the short but harsh tone of a to get rid of these hostile visitors. He fough voice. I instantly turned round, loaded an iron cannon, which was at and lo! close behind me were several the fazenda, with pieces of old lead and Botocudos! naked, and brown like the iron, fastened the lock of a musket to it, beasts of the forest, they stood with placed it in the narrow path, by which their great plugs of white wood in their the savages always used to come in a ears and lower lips, and their bows and column, and laid a piece of wood across arrows in their hands. My surprise, I the path which was connected with the confess, was not small: had they been trigger by means of a string. The sa- inimically disposed, I should have been vages appeared in the dusk of the even- pierced by their arrows before I could ing, and trod on the piece of wood, as have suspected they were near. As it had been intended. When the people was, I advanced toldly towards them, of the fazenda hastened to the spot to and repeated what words I knew of see the result, they found the cannon their language: they pressed me, after burst, and thirty Indians killed and the manner of the Portuguese, to their mutilated, some still on the spot and bosoms; clapped me on the shoulder, others scattered in the woods. The cries and pronounced in a loud tone some of the fugitives are said to have been harsh words ; but particularly on seeing heard far around. Since this terrible my double-barrelled gun, they repeatedly destruction the fazenda is said not to exclaimed with astonishment, pun uruhú, have been again disturbed by the savages. (several guns).
Some women laden with heavy sacks for arrows. He panted under his load, now came up one after another, sur and ran quickly away with his body veyed me with equal curiosity, and com- much inclining forwards, His first municated their remarks to each other. question likewise was, whether his Both men and women were entirely countrymen had returned froin Rio de destitute of clothing : the former were of Janeiro ; and the most lively joy was exthe middle size, strong, muscular, and pressed in his whole appearance, when well made, yet in general rather slender, we answered him in the affirmativc. but the great plugs of wood in their ears When I soon afterwards returned to and lips disfigured them much: they the Quartel, I found a great number of carried bundles of bows and arrows Botocudos, lying at their case, in all the under their arms, and some had also rooms of the house. Some were sitting water-vessels made of taquarussu. They at the fire, and roasting unripe mainmao wore their hair cropped close, except a fruit; others were eating Hour which round tuft on the crown of the head; they had received from the commandthis was the case even with the young ant; and a great part of them were conchildren, a considerable number of whom templating with astonishment, my people, the mothers carried on their shoulders, whose appearance was very singular to or led by the haud.
them. They were not a little surprised One of my people, named George, at their white skin, light hair, and blue who understood something of the lan- eyes. They crept through every corner guage of these savages, had come up in of the house, in quest of provisions, and the mean time and entered into conver- their appetite was always keen : they sation with them, on which they im- climbed up all the mammao trees, and mediately became extremely familiar. where their fruit shewed by its yellowish They inquired after their countrymen, green colour that it was beginning to whom the ouvidor had sent to Rio, and ripen, it was immediately plucked; nay, expressed great joy on hearing that they many ate it quite unripe, either roasted would find them at the post (destaca- on the hot coals, or boiled. meente). Their impatience was now so I immediately began to barter with great, that they hurried quickly away. these savages, giving them knives, red ! was heartily glad that we had loitered handkerchiefs, glass beads, and other on the way; for if the savages, who had trifles, for their arms, sacks, and other to pass close by the grave, had surprised utensils. They manifested a decided us when engaged in our intended exa- preference for every thing that was made mination, their resentment might have of iron; and, like all the Tapuyas on the involved us in great danger. *
east coast, immediately fastened the I now resolved to defer my purpose knives they had obtained, to a string till some inore favourable opportunity; tied round their necks. ' A very inteand had gone but a few steps, when the resting scene was afforded us, by the releader of the party, Captain June, an ception which they gave to their counold man of rough appearance, but of a trymen and relations, the young Botocugood disposition, suddenly met me. He dos, who had been with the ouvidor to saluted us in the same manner as his Rio, and now came in successively. countrymen ; but his appearance was They were welcomed with the greatest still more extraordinary than that of the cordiality; old Captain June sung a joyothers, for he wore plugs in his ears and ful song, and some even affirmed, that lip four inches and four lines English, in they saw him shed tears of joy. It has diameter; he was likewise strong and been asserted that the Botocudos are muscular, but already wrinkled with accustomed, by way of welcome, to age. As he had left his wife behind, smell each others' wrists; Mr. Sellow he carried on his back two heavy sacks, among others says, he has observed this and a great bundle of arrows, and reeds practice; but though I was long and
often among these savages, and fre
quently witnessed their interviews with According to the accounts since received from Mr. Freyreiss from Brazil; my of any thing of the kind.
new comers, I never observed, or heard apprehensions of the consequences of being surprised by the savages, in the act of open
The old Captain and his chief friends ing their grave, were ill founded ; for he has had taken up their quarters in a shed, since opened several graves, in which opera- open on all sides, and merely covered tion the Botocudos themselves assisted him. with a thatched roof, which was de-Note of the Author.
signed for the preparation of mandiocca
Aour; here they had kindled a great fito, tocudos were too swift of foot, and let near the mandiocca wheel and the great them hunt alone.” stove for drying the four, and lay, A combat between two parties of around it involved in thick smoke, on this savage horde is thus described : the ashes, which gave to their brown “One Sunday morning, when the wear, skin a grey appearance. The Captain , ther was most beautifully serene, we himself frequently rose, roughly de- saw all the Botocudos of the Quartel, manded an axe, and went to fetch fuel; some with their faces painted black, and from time to time too, he ventured an others red, suddenly break up, and wade attack upon us or the Portuguese to ob- through the river to the north bank, all tain flour, or shook the melon trees to with bundles of poles on their shoulders. , get their fruit.
Soon afterwards Captain June, with his These Botocudos, who manifest such people, came out of the wood, where a irreconcileable hostility on the Rio Doce, number of women and children had are so little feared here on the Belmonte, sought refuge in some Jarge huts. that people have even ventured to go Scarcely had the news of the approach, several days' journey with them into the ing combat become known in the Quar-, great woods to hunt, and to sleep with tel, when a crowd of spectators, anrong them there in their huts; such experi- whom were the soldiers, an ecclesiastic ments however are not yet very fre- from Minas, and several strangers, whom quent, as the distrust entertained of I also joined, hastened over to the field them cannot easily be quite overcome. of battle. Each took for his security a This mistrust and the fear of putting pistol or a knife under his coat, in case, themselves wholly in their power, are ihe combat should be turned against,,, not the only circumstances which make us. the Europeans averse to such excur When we landed on the opposite sions in the woods in company with the bank, we found all the savages standing savages ; to these must be added their close together, and formed a half circle great muscular strength, and ability to about them. The combat was just be endure fatigue ; for our people always ginning. First, the warriors of both returned quite exhausted from every ex- parties uttered short rough tones of de-, cursion with the Botocudos. Their fiance to each other, walked sullenly muscular strength enables them to go round one another like angry dogs, at very swiftly in the hottest weather, both the same time making ready their poles. up and down hill; they ijenetrate the Captain Jeparack then came forward, thickest and most entangled forests; walked about between the men,
looked they wade and swim through every gloomily and directly before him, with river, if it be not too rapid ; perfectly wide staring eyes, and sung, with a trenaked, therefore not incommoded by mulous voice, a long song, which
proclothing, never getting into perspiration, bably described the affront that he had carrying only their bow and arrows in received. In this manner the adverse their hand, they stoop with facility; parties became more and more inflamed; and with their hardened skin, which suddenly two of them advanced, and fears neither ithorns nor cther injury, pushed one another with the arm on the they creep through the smallest
breast, so that they staggered back, and the bushes, and can thus pass over a then began to ply their poles. One first great extent of ground in a day. My struck with all his might at the other, hunters had experience of this their regardless where the blow fell : his anbodily superiority, among others, from tagonist bore the first attack seriously a young Borocudo, named Jukeräcke: and calımly, without changing countehe had learned to be a very good marks- nance; he then took his turn, and thus man with his gun, and was at the same they belaboured each other with severe time uncommonly skilful in the use of blows, the marks of which long remainthe bow. I sometimes sent him with ed visible in the large wheals on their other Botocudos into the wood to kill naked bodies. As there were on the animals; for a little four and brandy poles many sharp stumps of branches they willingly hunted a whole day. which had been cut off, the effect of the Jukeräcke in particular was very service- hlows was not always confined to bruises, able, as he was agile and shewed much but the blood flowed from the heads of aptness to all bodily exercises. At first many of the combatants. When two my hunters accompanied these people; of them had thus thrashed each other but they soon complained that the Bo- handsomely, two more came forward ;
dopo l ' opolnil sa
13 and several pair were often seen , en- tel; where we found our old acquaintgaged' at once! but they never laid ance Juketăcke, Medcanni,'' Aho, and hands on one another. When these others, sadly coyered with braises'; 'but'. combats had continued for some time, they showed to what a degree inan can they again walked about with a serious 'harden himself, for none of them paid look, uttering tones of defiance, till he- any regard to his swollen limbs; but! soic enthasiasm again seized them, and they sat or lay down on their open set their poles in motion,
on wounds, and ate with a hearty appetite Meanwhile, the women also fought the flour which the commandant gave valiantly;? amidst continual weeping them. The bows and arrows of all these and howling, they seized each other by savages had stood, during the whole the hair, struck with their fists, scratch- combat, leaning against the neighbouti ed with their nails, tore the plugs of ing trees, without their touching them; wood out of each other's ears and lips, but it is said sometimes to have happenand scattered them on the field of battle ed, on similar occasions, that they have as trophies. If one threw her adversary thrown aside the poles, and taken to down, a third, who stood behind, seized their arms, for which reason the Portu-:' her by the legs, and threw her down guese do not much like to have such likewise, and then they pulled each combats in their neighbourhood. It other about 'on the ground. The men was not till some time afterwards that I did not degrade themselves so far as to heard the cause of the combat, of which stnke the women of the opposite party, we had been spectators. Captain June, but only pushed them with the ends of with his people, had been hunting on their poles, or kicked them on the side, the south bank of the river, in the so that they rolled over and over. The grounds of Jeparack, and killed soine lamentations and howlings of the women wild swine. This was considered by and children likewise resounded from the latter as a great insult; for the Boo' the neighbouring huts, and heightened tocudos always observe, more or less' the effect of this most singular scene. strictly, the boundaries of a certain
In this manner the combat continued hunting-district, beyond which they are for about an hour; when all appeared in general careful not to trespass : such weary, some of the savages showed their offences are the usual occasions of their courage and perseverancc, by walking quarrels and wars.” about among the others, uttering their The Botocudos, and all the other tones of defiance. Captain Jeparack, tribes of Tapuyas, have some religious as the principal person of the offended notions without being idolators. They! party, held out to the last; all seemed believe in several mighty supernatural fatigued and exhausted, when he, not beings, of whom the most potent is the yet disposed to make peace, continued God of Thunder, called by them Tupa, isa to sing his tremulous song, and encou- or Tupan. The attempts which have razed his people to renew the combat, hitherto been made to reclaim these till we went up to him, clapped him on people from their wild and wandering the shoulder, and told him that he was habits have constantly failed, because a valiant warrior, but that it was now slavery was proposed to them as the time to make peace; upon which he price of civilization. We hope that a at length suddenly quitted the field, and more liberal and humane policy will went over to the Quartel. Captain June be pursued in future, and have no had' tiot shown so much energy ; being doubt that if settled independently and an old man, he had taken no part in the engaged in agricultural pursuits, à combat, but constantly remained in the friendly intercourse with them would be back-ground.'
far more profitable to the Portuguese . All of us then left the field of battle, Brazilians, than the labour which might which was covered with car-plugs and be extorted from them by an unjustifi. broken poles, and returned to the Quar- able invasion of their natural liberty.