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time, attributes to the versatility of his man felicity, according to his perceppersonifications at this period, and the tions of what it consisted in, had he ease with which he adopted the most not, unfortunately for himself, about opposite sentiments of different writers, this period made the same discovery the corresponding versatility in political that Solomon had made before him, that opinions, and inconsistency of ideas on all was " vanity and vexation of spirit." moral and religionis subjects, which dis- He therefore fell into deep melancholy. graced him at a future period of life. From this state, as real sufferings always
“ Nature had undoubtedly endowed cure imaginary ones, he was roused by him with considerable abilities and the death of his wife, whom he protalents; but they were obscured by his fessed to idolize; and after having ventexcessive vanity. He soon lost the finest ed a part of his grief in an account of bloom of youth, innocence, simplicity, his wife's last illness and departing moand purity of heart. His mind was not ments, written with about as little taste, stimulated by the wild pranks and feeling, or delicacy, as Mr. Godwin disgay thoughtless tricks of boys; he was played on a similar subject, he went to a stranger to the sports of youth, which Paris to dissipate the remainder. by absorbing the faculties for a time, Towards the end of the year 1990, give them a greater elasticity. Human shortly before Kotzebue quitted Paris, life, not as it is, but as it appears in a pamphlet was published in Germany, good and bad comedies, and in mar- which involved him, as its author, in vellous tales and novels,-amorous de- very serious embarrassments, and renclarations tendered to grown-up young dered all his subsequent efforts to obtain ladies, who provoked the youth in order a consideration founded on moral worth to laugh at him; family circles that absolutely unavailing. It was entitled were amused by his errors, and an idle “Doctor Bahrdt with the Brass Forestriving to feed his overweening vanity head, or the German Association against on such unhallowed grounds, these Zimmerman. A Play in four acts, by were the delusions under which Kotze Baron Knigge, 1790.” This Zimmerbue reached the age of youth.” Thus man was the celebrated physician of distinguished solely for his early licen- Hanover, more especially known in tiousness, and a quickness disgraced this country by his Essay on Solitude. by obscenity and scurrility, he was Kotzebue had become intimate with forced to leave Weimar in his sixteenth him at Pyrmont, and this play was set year, in order to avoid the unpleasant forth in the dedication, as being intendconsequences of a most shameless lam- ed to avenge him against his many litepoon, replete with immoralities. From rary enemies. The dramatis personce this time his whole life was a scene of were all men much respected in Gerliterary scribbling and disputation. Even many, and whose literary fame was his theatrical pieces were made the far from being confined to their own vehicles of private scandal ;-he intro- country. In the first act they are reduced the worthiest characters upon the presented as meeting at Bahrdt's country stage, in order to hold up their pecu seat, near Halle, in Saxony, and enterliarities to ridicule; he unfolded the ing into a league against Zimmerman, most important family secrets to public which they seal with a solemn oath ; view, and drove the sensitive and high- the remainder of the piece is taken up minded to despair, by making them sub- with declarations from each of the conjects of scorn. The fecundity of his spirators, respecting the mode of attack pen was a general curse ; he took the proper to be adopted, and it is concludmanagement of several periodical and ed by a mock apotheosis, of Doctor critical works into his own hands, and Bahrdt and his accomplices, which sets disgraced them all by his virulence. all decency at defiance. It would be
The same conduct naturally producing difficult to conceive a more impudent, the same consequences, Kotzebue was scandalous, and malicious production. compelled to take refuge in Russia, Aristophanes himself might have been from the indignation of his countrymen. ashamed of it; and to add to its atrocity, In that country he was much caressed, the name which was falsely introduced and among other appointinents, was in the title-page as its author, was that made governor of the German the. of a man who was universally esteemed atre at Petersburg; he made an honour- both as a writer, and as holding an hoable marriage, was loaded with distine- nourable situation in the state. At that vions, lived among players, and might very time he was on bad terms with
regarded as at the very acné of hu- Zimmerman, who had unjustly accused
him of entertaining reprehensible poli- their author was never more pronounced, tical opinions, and who had had an except with the utmost contempt. action for defamation brought against It is not our intention to follow Kothim in consequence. To most persons, zebue through the remainder of his life, therefore, it appeared highly improbable clouded as it was by the disgrace under that Knigge should take upon him the which he laboured. One of the most task of chastising this imaginary junto important events of it, viz. his banishof Zimmesinan's enemies ; for, after all, ment into Siberia, by order of the emit was only in the imagination of the peror Paul, he has already made known author that such a junto ever existed. to the public, in a very minute account, But others thought, or affected to think, intitled, in his usual spirit of egotism, that he assumed the mask of generosity “ The most memorable year of my life.” in order to wound Zimmerman more After his return from his dreary exile he severely in this secret manner. “Whilst took up his residence at Berlin, where public indignation was every where the natural compassion excited by his toused, and the police of several states sufferings caused him to be received in interfering, to stop the circulation of society with somewhat more of outward this atrocious libel, the Regency of respect than had been shewn to him of Hanover felt itself particularly com later years. Here he increased his litepelled to take every possible step for the rary assiduity, but not his literary prudiscovery of the audacious libeller. dence. It was at that moment a peculiar Klockenburg, who was at the head of epoch for Germany. In the cause of the police in Hanover, enjoyed the es- liberty all her leading states had comteem of his superiors, and the confidence bined together against the gigantic enof his fellow citizens, and lived on the croachments of the French, then exbest terms with Zimmerman, against tending even into Russia. Kotzebue whom he never wrote a syllable. In fanned the sacred flame, by which this farce he was, however, ranked every breast seemed animated with his among his enemies, and accused of the utmost breath, and put the whole most odious vices. This imputation strength of his facility and practice into distressed him to such a degree, that he the Russico-German weekly journal, lost his senses, and died in a state of which he began to publish in April insanity. Several persons were suspect- 1813, one month after the Russians ed. Zimmerman himself was consider. had driven the French from Berlin. ed as the author, but generally absolved, This journal obtained a wide circulaon account of his known regard for tion, not so much for its manner of morals and decency. Others still sus, treating the subjects it embraced, as pected Knigge, although it had been that the subjects themselves were as proved that the pamphlet had been dear as life itself to the Germans; and printed without his knowledge and con as it helped to spread favourable news, currence. Suspicions fell upon Doctor to excite pleasing hopes, and combat Bahrdt, at Halle; Mawillon, at Bruns- apprehensions, it was generally, read and wick; Frederick Schultz at Mittau, and applauded, and most of all in those others; but none upon the real author. places where French spies were most Many innocent individuals were involved anxiously watching to prevent its circuin the affair, exposed to judicial pro- lation. This journal 'lasted however ceedings, and disturbed in their do- only a few months. It closed with the mestic peace.” At length in the midst armistice; and how were the feelings of of all this ferment, Kotzebue was dis- his countrymen revolted when they saw covered to be the author, and stood it succeeded, alınost immediately afterbefore the public, loaded with infamy, wards, by History of the German Emamidst a tissue of the meanest false pire,” from the same author, in which hoods, and the most revolting hypocrisy. all the opinions he had before professed By the most servile flattery to Catherine to maintain were disavowed, and all the of Russia, he averted the punishment notions he had affected to venerate were which hung over his head, and which held up ridicule and censure! Imhe so richly deserved. But from that mediately after the publication of this moment the public withdrew its esteem work, which drew down the deadliest from him, and though the sarcastic, rancour of his countrymen upon its auand sometimes humorous wit of his thor, Kotzebue was appointed by the comedies, continued to excite a laugh Emperor Alexander Russian Consul at among those who either read or witness- Konigsberg. Being afterwards sent on ed the performance of them, the name of a sort of literary mission to his native
country, he injudiciously enough took " Kotzebue was highly pleased with up his residence at Weimar; but when his residence at Berlin, but it did not we consider that he was infuenced, in agree with the health of his consort. so doing, by some of the most laudable As she was frequently indisposed, she feelings of the human heart, by attach- attributed her indisposition to the climent to his aged mother, and to the mate; she saw no company, and devoted friends and relatives of his youth, we herself entirely to the care of her chilare ready to forgive him the imprudence dren, and to her domestic duties. Kotof returning to a place where out of hiszebue himself had that attachment for own immediate family circle he could his offspring, which is so natural to huexpect to find only the enemies which man feelings. He delighted to see his he had been but too active in making children, but never attended to their for himself.
education ; this he committed to their He remained at Weimar until the mother, and to strangers. When his close of the year 1818, when he removed sons grew up, he placed them in the with his wife and children to Manheim; military schools at Petersburgh and where, on the 23d of March, 1819, he Vienna. His daughters were brought had a dagger plunged in his breast by a up under the eyes of their mother. student of Jena, named Sand.
Kotzebue's great activity was confined Kotzebue had passed the day in his to literary occupations, the stage, and usual manner. In the afternoon, at company. It is not likely that he five o'clock, when his family was re- changed his mode of living in the latter ceiving a visit from a lady, he was in- part of his life, as it was only by a conformed, that a young stranger wished to stant adherence to it, that he could find speak to him. He immediately went time for his inconceivably numerous lito the adjoining room, into which Sand terary productions. He generally rose had been ushered by the servant. At before five o'clock in the morning, and the end of a few minutes a piercing cry smoking a pipe to his coffee, sat writing was heard. The servants hastened to at his desk till eleven, when he received the room, where they found their mas- or paid visits, attended at rehearsals or ler on the floor, weltering in his blood. readings of plays, or took an airing in his He was still wrestling with the stranger, carriage. He used to dine soon after who held with a firm hand the bloody one, and rarely accepted of invitations dagger, with which he had stabbed the to dinner, because he preferred dining unfortunate Kotzebue through the heart with his family. After a short nap he and lungs. Surrounded by his sorrow resumed his seat at his writing table. ing family, Kotzebue, at the end of The evening was devoted to the theatre, a very few moments, closed his eyes for to company, or to his domestic circle. ever. And whilst all was hurry and He was fond of passing the summer confusion, and a surgeon was sent for, evenings in the open air, in the winter Sand left the room, rushed down stairs, evenings he liked to play at cards. and reached the street, where he fell on In every society he readily joined in his knees, and proclaimed with a loud the amusements of the company. Heand sonorous voice, “ The traitor is no seldom sat up later than eleven o'clock. more, my country is saved! I am his The pleasures of the table had great atmurderer! Thus must all traitors pe tractions for him, yet he desired not a varish! Father in Heaven! I thank thee, riety of dishes, but well-dressed victuals. that thou hast allowed me to perform His rooms were elegantly furnished; he the deed!” At the same instant he tore liked to see everything about him his clothes open, turned the dagger wearing the appearance of good taste against himself, and inflicted a deep and elegance, and could be bitter in his wound in his breast. The multitude censures for any peglect in this respect. that crowded about him carried him A good economist of his time, he was half-dead to the hospital, where he was not less economical in his expenses, slowly cured of his wounds; and on the without either avarice or covetousness. 20th of May, 1820, he was beheaded at He was compassionate and charitable, six o'clock in the morning, in a plain were it only to keep every disagreeable between Manheim and Heidelberg. impression at a distance. Though easily
We will conclude this article with irritated, he was not less easily reconthe following account of the domestic ciled; and whoever had studiously obhabits of Kotzebue, from the volume served him for a length of time, could before us.
not possibly hate him."
REMARKS ON THE WRITINGS OF CHARLES LAMR. 3.6.:49:!!
THE works of Charles Lamb form a things to which they are thus naturally delightful curiosity in the literature of attracted. It is a kind of intellectual the times. They are replete with beau- magic, like the power of those magities almost as rare in their kind, as they cians who are represented in Arabian are pure in their water, and exquisite story, as discovering hidden treasures in their polishing. His claim to the where all appeared barren to the compraise of originality, which he eminently mon eye, and as able by a word to open deserves, rests on far higher grounds the rich veins of precious ore. Of this than that of many who are accustomed genial wisdom--this: “ divine philosoto receive it. He has not sought for phy,”—none since its great master has distinctiou by choosing untried or start so largely partaken, as the author whose ling themes-he has asked no aid from genius we are faintly attempting to dethe strange or the terrific he has aim- scribe. Every thing which belongs to ed neither at novelty nor effect by de- genuine humanity is grasped by him with scribing the anomalies of nature, or the cordial love. He seems to " live along." devious aberrations of passion, which the golden fibres of affection by which chill, while they astonish, and which, the brotherhood of man iš mysteriously however strikingly depicted, find no an bound together, and to rejoice in the swering chord in the general heart. His little delicacies of feeling and dear imoriginality consists_not in the mere munities of heart that cluster about choice of his subjects--but in the whole them. His very satire---if such a name cast of his fancy, reflection, humour, and be not misapplied so tenderly treats feeling. His thoughts and imaginations, the little frailties and peculiarities of its indeed, dwell for the most part on the subjects, that it make us love them the beaten paths of existence. Over their better while we smile. His pathos, deep old and accustomed objects he delights and touching as it is, only draws forth to throw the tender light of his genius, such tears as it is a luxury to shed. His O to open to us the lowly recesses by wit does not merely dazzle by its splenthe way-side of humanity, among which dour, or surprise by the admirable com: little joys and consolations are nestling. binations which it exhibits. It is full
Mr. Lamb is a true and genuine in of the warmth of humanity ; ever scatheritor of the old Shakespearian sweet- tering its soft and delicate gleams on ness. This is the only mark of indivi some lurking tenderness of the soul, duality which our immortal poet re some train of old and genial recollectains. While he throws himself into a tions, or some little knot of pure and myriad varieties of sentiment and pas- delightful sympathies. sion, and seems to live and breathe only “ John Woodvil,”-a tragedy written in his characters, it still cleaves to him. in the true language and spirit of our This it is which we find every where, elder dramatists—is the longest of the gently withdrawing its sting from agony, poems which Mr. Lamb has as yet given nicely disclosing the soul of goodness to the world. Its story, though most in things evil, shading the most repul- affecting, is peculiarly simple. The sive objects with a rich overarching of hero, a gay and loyal youth, is representglorious imagery, and diverting sorrow ed just after the restoration of Charles by such golden fancies and beautiful con- the Second, as dissipating in high revels eeits as make our sympathy delicious. the fortunes of his banished father, who The quality of which we speak, and lingers in the forest of Sherwood, chainwhich has been more out of fashion ed by a childlike cleaving to the land than even the more prominent of Shake that gave him birth” at the peril of his speare's excellencies, is not something life. There he is accompanied by his distinct from the powers of observation, younger son Simon, who, with a spirit which leads a philosophic poet to soften of gentle allowance to less generous down the less pleasing results of his natures, while devoting his whole being enquiry. It pervades and imbues the to the duteous offices of filial affection, whole range of his faculties leading strives to extenuate his brother's weakthemi, as by a divine affinity, to find the nesses. In an hour of intoxication, deep and pure springs of hope and love, John betrays to a wretched parasite the which are scattered every where through retreat of old Sir Walter, who is consethis our human nature and giving quently taken in the forest, and dies them an intuitive perception of those without a word, struck to the heart by New MONTHLY MAG.-No. 79. Voi. XIV.
To answer their small wants...) 1
His foul resolve.
the treachery of his child. The und To view the leaves, this dancer uponais, rinn? happy reveller soon hears of the fatal Goeddying round; and small birds, how they fare, effects of his indiscretion, and sinks into When mother Autumn fills their beaks with corn,
Filch'd from the careless Amalthea's horn:19 a cola despair. 1 From his stony and And how the woods berries and worms provide silent suffering he is won at last into a Without their pains, when earth has nought beside gentler grief by the soothings of a most delicate and high-souled woman, whom To view the graceful deer come tripping by, - 1 ke had slighted in the days of his pride, Thien stop, and gaze, then turn, they know not and by the recollections of his early Like bashful younkers in society. childhood, whieh sweetly force their To mark the structure of a plant or tree, way to his heart as he kneels on the old
And all fair things of earth, how fair they be." spot in the family pew,
Mr. Lamb's sonnets are perhaps the " where he as oft had kneeld, daintiest pieces of pure beauty which have A gentle infant, by Sir Walter's side."
ever adorned their class of poems. The In all this, it is very true, there are following, which has a strange exquinone of the crowded incidents, striking siteness of a feeling blended with the situations, or violently contrasted charac- richest fantasy, will more than justify ters, which the cravings of the theatrical our praise :public require, But there is much that “ Was it some sweet device of Faery comes home to the inmost soul. The That mocked my steps with many a lonely glade,
And fancied wanderings with a fair-haird maid': perversion of a frank and generous nature
Have these things been or what rare witchery, in in Woodvil--the high swellings of his
Impregning with delights the charmed air, il "011 spirit, which prompt him so woefully to Enlighted up the semblance of a smile overstep his duty--the quick, yet most In those fine eyes! methought they spake the natural transitions, from the spirit of boundless confidence to humiliation,
Soft soothing things, which might enforce Despair
To drop the murdering knife, and let go by ii, inad thence to defiance, and thence to cool
And does the lonely glade contemptum and the flashes of generous Still court the foot-steps of the fair-hair'd maid? emotion amidst his excesses-are con Still in her locks the gales of summer sigh? ceived with an intensity of feeling which While I forlorn do wander reckless where, could be nurtured only by a deep- And 'mid my wanderings meet no Anna there.* *30 thoughted love for humanity amidst all Was there ever a more felicitous reits errings. Never was there a finer calling of one of the wildest and inportrait of sweet heroism than that of tensest moments of existence, than in Simon, from the presence of whose the following lines? young virtue the armed traitors shrink “ Oh! I could laugh to hear the midnight wind, away abashed; or of all-enduring love, That, rushing on its way with careless sweep,
And I could weep meek self-reverence, and unpretending Scatters the ocean waves. generosity, than that of Margaret, who, On wings of winds comes wild-eyed Phantasya
For now to my raised mind. 2 when she returns to comfort the for
And her rude visions give severe delight. saken wretch who had despised her, O winged bark ! how swift along the night only compares his ill-treatment to the Pass'd thy proud keel! nor shall I let go by waywardness of all “ who, being splene- Lightly of that drear hour the memory, tic, refuse sometimes old play-fellows."
When wet and chilly on thy deck 1 stood, The Forest of Sherwood pleasingly re
Unbonnetted, and gazed upon the flood,
Even till it seemed a pleasant thing to die, minds us of that of Arden. The following description of its pleasures, given by Or take my portion with the winds that rave." Simon to Margaret, who asks of him
The Miscellaneous Poems of our audo you use in the forest?” thor are not only instinct with bright fancontains a succession of graceful images, tasy and original thought, but are, in and breathes throughout a natural fresh- their mere numbers, full of the choicest ness scarcely surpassed by any passage music. The structure of his verse is i in the compass of our noblest poetry.
almost as original as the cast of his sen“ To see the sun to bed, and to arise,
timent and fancy. Let the reader take, Like some hot amourist with glowing eyes, by way of example, the following lines, Bursting the lazy bands of sleep that bound him, extracted from a poem addressed to a With all his fires and travelling glories round him. child who passed his infancy in prison, Sometimes the moon on soft night clouds to rest, Like beauty nestling in a young man's breast,
which, though in length only of eight And all the winking stars, her handmaids, keep
syllables, have a facile majesty which Admiring silence, while those lovers sleep. modern poetry seldom exhibits :
-uts Sometimes outstretcht, in very idkness,
* But the clouds, that overcastNonght doing, saying little, thinking less,
Thy young mortring, may not last.
To be resolved into th' elemental wave,
“ what sports