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RURAL

the comforts of the females while on board. the year, particularly in those parts which They were plentifully supplied with port can at pleasure be inundated ; these inundawine and sago, excellent beef, pork, and tions answer all the purposes of the hest biscuit; even mustard, salt, vinegar, needles, manure, and the crops are prodigious." thread, &c. were not forgotten. On landing Diseases of the Ear.-Mr. Curtis will comthey procured the best fresh beef at l/d, per

mence his next Course of Lectures on the Ib. Government willingly supplies you at Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology of the 6d. per head, namely, 13 lb. of bread, and Ear, and on the Medical Treatment of the *Ibof beef, per day.

Deaf and Dumb, early in October, at the *** Provisions of every kind are amazingly Royal Dispensary for Diseases of the Ear. cheap; there is a great want of waggons, and it is strongly recommended that they

, ECONOMY, should be brought out from England, as on Cattle Distemper.--A valued corresponlanding teams of oxen are procured at an dent communicates to us the success of a casy rate, and you get out on your journey remedy fecommended in our tenth volume, immediately. Followers of heads of parties p. 352, for the fatal inflammatory distemper are each, at the expiration of five years, al- arising from long-continued drought; and lowed thirty acres of cultivated land, and, by favours us with a more explicit detail of the a praiseworthy arrangement of Government, process by which a number of valuable a man dying in his servitude can bequeath calves were recently saved, as follows: to his family or friend such proportion of For a calf three months old, allow the bulk land as he is entitled to, for which reason of two pigeons'-eggs of saltpetre dissolved in most of the settlers make their will on land- half an English pint of water, to which add ing. General Donkin, the Governor of the a table-spoonful of vinegar, and a tableCape, paid the greatest attention to his coun- spoonful of fresh barley-meal. Mix all well trymen. A premium of 100 guineas is an together, and adding a fresh pint of warm nounced for the farm that sends the first water, put the whole ingredients into a commarketable produce of its land to the Cape. mon bottle, which, with the half-pint of Though the Dutch boors are illiterate, they water first used, will be nearly filled. Shake are good-natured: as an instance, we under- the bottle well, and pour the contents slowly stand that the wife of a Dutch farmer seem into the throat of the calf: let him rest an ing, anxious for an indifferent gold watch, hour, and then apply friction to his skin it was presented to her; and next day a with a hard brush, continuing then to stibeautiful team of sixteen oxen, neatly yoked, mulate circulation in all his body and limbs was sent as a return.

a full quarter of an hour. If he appears in“ The allotments of land are well wooded clined, let him rest another hour; and then, and watered, and, being principally on the if the weather is hot, drive him into the banks of the Great Fish River, plenty of fish sea ; or if the situation is inland, plunge him is easily obtained ; game in abundance, par- in a lake or river. If the season is cool, it ticularly a species of grouse. The Dutch will suffice to give exercise by driving the farmers are particularly civil and accommo creature rather smartly for half an hour. It dating to the new-comers on their journey. must also have three times, daily, a wineThe distance of the settlement from the glassful of a strong infusion prepared from coast is about 200 miles ; this journey is per- aromatic herbs, either wormwood, angelica, formed in waggons with teams of 10 hul- rosemary, mint, rue, sage, or juniper berries. locks, and these, with the conductors, are The infusion to be put into a bottle, with a procured of the Dutch boors at an easy rate. tea-spoonful of strong vinegar. The nitre, The Dutch farmers observe, what they can as first mentioned, is to be administered raise by industry, so can the new-comers. twice a day; and the friction and exercise They raise corn of every description ; pota to follow each dose as already described. toes bountifully; tobacco thrives well; the Observe the calf is not to suck, or to have wine they make on their estates is most ex feeding-milk for two hours after taking mecellent, and sold at the rate of 5 d. per bot- dicine, and it must have rest after this noutle. They laughingly observe, that more rishment. It is hardly necessary to explain Cape-wine is sold in the year by many hogs- that the time for taking milk, of exercise, or heads than is made in the whole colony. medicine, should be arranged so as to make Many of the estates produce four crops in the intervals regular and proportionate. !

FOREIGN VARIETIES.

French army, in the year 1810, and was A curious pamphlet has recently been employed to build sloops of war for the Impublished in Paris, entitled " Forgery of perial government. At the beginning of the English Bank Notes.” It reveals a crime, year 1812, General Saunier, who then held connected with the despotism of Napolcon, a command in Hamburgh, requested M. of so odious a nature that his warmest par- Castel to procure him money for English tizans will not surely attempt to justify it. bank notes to the amount of 5000l. Castel, M. Castel, the author of the pamphlet, es- having occasion to travel to the Hans Towns, tablished himself at Hamburgh, with the paid away some of the notes, amounting to

FRANCE

about 2000l. These notes, however, on police. All that was done in this printing-
being remitted to England, were discovered office is not known, but it is certain that the
to be forged, and M. Castel was obliged to workmen, who did not themselves know
indemnify the persons to whom he had paid what they were doing, were employed in
them. In the meanwhile General Saunier forging Bank of England notes. Buonaparte
having set out for Russia, he had no means had conceived this odious plan of circulating
of making any demand on him. With re- forged notes, in order to enrich himself,
gard to the other notes, which still remain- whilst he would at the same time ruin the
ed in the hands of Castel, he received orders trade and the Bank of England. He never
from d'Aubignos, director of the police at bestowed a thought on the immorality of
Hamburgh, to deliver them up to him, the action, or its destructive effects on the
which he did. Forged English bank notes, whole commercial world. It is a singular
however, still continued to be circulated in circumstance, that the inferior police had
the north of Germany. In the year 1813 no knowledge of the printing-establishment
an insurrection broke out in Hamburgh, which was under the controul of the high
and Castel was obliged to fly to France. police; and one day the agents of the Paris
No sooner had he reached Paris, than prefect of police were on the point of forcing
he received a suminons from the police. an entrance into the printing-office. A few
He confesses that he was at first so powerful words, however, induced them
much alarmed that he dared not obey the immediately to depart. An agent of the
summons; but a second order forced him high police had been sent to Hamburgh to
to appear. Instead, however, of the rigid circulate forged notes to the amount of
interrogatory which he says he dreaded, 30,000l. The director-general of the police
though he cannot tell why, he found a of that city, who had not been made ac-
divisional officer, who politely addressed quainted with the secret, arrested the agent,
him as follows: “ You will render the and sent him to Paris ; but, on his arrival
minister and me a most essential service, by there, he was immediately restored to liberty.
stating exactly what sum you paid to Gene- Another agent was dispatched to England in
ral Saunier in exchange for the London bank the summer of 1911; he was accompanied
notes." These words revived the spirits of by a Hamburgh Jew. They visited London
poor Castel,who was almost dead with alarm. under the pretence of commercial business,
He gave the information that was required,' and they circulated the forged notes which
taking care not to mention that the notes they brought with them. The fraud, how-
had been discovered to be forged, and that ever, was specdily detected, and measures
he had been obliged to pay the amount- were adopted for tracing the notes. The
such, he declares, was the terror with agent of the French police escaped, but the
which Buonaparte's police inspired him. Jew was taken, found guilty, and hanged.
There is, however, reason to suppose that The French agent, on landing in France,
it was not fear alone that withheld him from was suspected and put under arrest by the
speaking out: he probably wished to avoid authorities on the coast; but no sooner was
being compromised in an affair, with the his name known in Paris than orders were
secret of which he was apparently acquaint- immediately issued for his release. By way
ed, though in his pamphlet he positively of reward, Savary appointed him to be con-
affirms the contrary. He asserts that his tractor for the public gaming-houses.
dread of the Imperial police took such an After the restoration, some communication
effect on his mind, that he lost the use of on the subject of these forgeries took place
his reason, and was treated as a lunatic for between the English and the French govern-
several months. During his mental dis- ment. The Count de Blacas summoned
order, he fancied he saw the officers of the Savary, and interrogated him respecting the
police, with Savary at their head, passing business. It appears, from Castel's pamph-
under his window, to be led to exccution. let, that Savary confessed the whole, ob-
He called them swindlers, and ordered serving that he had merely executed a mea-
them to deliver up his bank notes. On his sure of state, which his sovereign had order-
recovery the Imperial government no longer ed. M. Castel however adds, that Savary
existed. The Royal authority had assumed kept possession of the engraved copper-
its place. The unfortunate merchant then plates from which the notes were produced ;
resumed his courage, and on making some and that in 1815, during the hundred days,
inquiries respecting the origin of the bank and even since the battle of Waterloo, new
notes, he discovered a secret which, had it notes have been printed from them, which
not been for the change of government, are now in circulation, to the ruin of trade.
would in all probability never have been Such is the substance of M. Castel's me-
made known.

moire. The accusations he prefers against Under the Imperial regime a secret print- Savary and the other agents of Buonaparte's ing-office was established on the Boulevard police, are of the most odious description ; Mont Parnasse, in Paris. It was conducted but he relates facts so circumstantially, and by a man, who is now one of the richest quotes names and dates with so much printers in Paris, and it was under the im- correctness, that he has evidently been very mediate direction of Savary, the minister of careful in collecting his information. None

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of the persons, thus accused have yet thought, tions, of boundaries, incessantlycoecasione proper, to publish a word in their

own mudifications which render new declarations delence, je to ! Boly

necessary, the former being ng longer apTelegraph, for public 14$,- A speculatist plicable. To be correct, the Cadastre should has suggested the impolicy of confining the be renewed every ten years at the farthesti use of the telegraph to governments: obsery- It is necessary to take the points of observas ing, that the postage of letters was first em- tion much higher 3 to establish more generab proyed by princes and governors, but to doubt principles of valuations to found them ona, of its inf;ite benefits when extended to the liberal comparison of the same agdcultural public, at large, is impossible. He says, productions in different departments ; to in-1

Governments at this time restrict to them clude in the estimate the difficulty or the selves the exclusive employment of this ins facility of carriage, of bringing them to strument of communication ; but hereafter market, and of obtaining payment.", it will be applied to individual and private We shall readily be believed when we say: concerns, and will add to the facility and that these elements of calculation would the multiplicity of communications and ex. have found but little favour in the adminisée. changes, which are the first cause of all so tration of Buonaparte ;, and that they will be cral advantages, in like manner as high found extremely difficult to reduce to praca roads, navigable canals, stage-couches, ships tice under the Bourbons. But it niust be i and passage-boats, post-horses, and postage supposed that all these, with many other of letters; writing, printing, coinage, bills circumstances which belong to cach estate, af exchange, lithography, &c. Not only and to every field of each estate, have been governments and sovereigns are interested in duly and closely considered between a promoting a multiplicity of discoveries, landlord and his tenant in the determination which they enjoy in the first instance, and of the rent ; which also has been calculated the glory, of which reflects on them ; but on an average -or rather on various averthey are also interested in placing them with ages—as of the number of years--the courser in reach of the public, in rendering them of seasons-the occurrence of accidents more numerous and more familiar. They the parochial charges, duties demandable, y themselves derive from them greater ad. &c. &c., all of which affect the fair bargain vantages; they give birth to new inventions, between the proprietor and the in-comer. ! or to improvements and perfectings of others, On the rent, then, justly estimated, the tax of which themselves (governments) are again for public service may be laid; and thus the first to profit. A more general investiga- every farmer may take his own place on the tion of any implement, made by a greater territorial Cadastre; while every landlords number of ingenious men, and more openly may assure himself that his property is not than before, greatly advances the art or the marked by any of those heavier taxes which science in which it is employed.

may render his estate less valuable than The Cadastre imperfect : Experientia do those of his neighbours around him. cet-The French have lately ventured to Ecclesiastical Establishment. It is calcomplain, in somewhat severe terms, of culated that there at present in thic famous Cadastre, brought to perfection, France 2849 curates, 22,244 temporary cum, as was supposed, under Napoleon. They rates, 5301 vicars, 1462 regular priests, observe that “The Cadastre of France was and 873 almoners of colleges and hospitals. conceived in a too complicated system. It The number of priests regularly officiating, is impossible to obtain exact information on including those who do not receive pay the simple declarations of local authorities : from the treasury, amounts

s to 86,185. an estimate of population, indeed, or of ex 1361 French priests died in the year 16193 tent, or some approach to the value of pro- and in the same year there were 1401 ordiperty, may be procured, but that is by no nations. There are 106 female congregameans sufficient to insure equity in the col- tions, possessing altogether 1721 establish-,' lection of an impost. It is confessed, that ments, which contain 11,752 sisters. It is'' much pains and many precautions have estimated that these charitable women adu! been taken to execute plans of the smallest minister relief to nearly 69,000 sick persons, properties, to state the diverse kinds of their and gratuitously instruct 63,000 poor productions, and to determine, according to children. a classification agreed on, the value of each Jeanne d'Arc:The works which have pičce of land, considering the culture in been undertaken at Domremy, for repairing which it is employed ; nevertheless, amidst the house of Jeanne d'Arc, erecting a mo these proceedings to approximate truth as nument to her memory, and establishing a ' closely as possible, the bases of the calcula- school for the instruction of female children, ** tigns are absolutely insufficient : ist, be are proceeding with great activity. In front cause the same species of culture does not of the house in which the heroine was born, universally atord the same product. 2dly, a neat and simple edifice has been raised. Because the species of culture, being changed An avenue separates the building into two on the same lands, the proportions of in- grand compartments, one of which is set: 1 erease and value change aiso. 3dly, Because aside for the school, and the other for the mutations

ions of property, and the altera governess's apartments. The avenue leads New MONTHLY MAG.-No. 80. Vol. XIV.

are

the

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to a court-yard, and on the left is the old Beavers in Europe.—There exists at this door of the house of the Maid of Orleans, time, in Bohemia, in the lordship of Wetwith its curious bas reliefs. Fragments of ingau, the domain of Prince Schwartzenwood, stone, and other relics of the age of berg, a colony of beavers, settled on the Jeanne d'Arc, are deposited in the principal river Goldbach ; the industry of these yields chamber of the house. Fronting the new in nothing to that of their brethren which édifice is a square, in the centre of which a inhabit the great rivers and lakes of North statue is to be raised to her honour.

America. The abundance of willows which The subscriptions for a monument to the adorns the banks of this river, furnishes Duke of Berri, amount to nearly 40001. them with both food and dwelling: in sum

Prevalent disposition to suicide.—The Con- mer they eat the leaves, and in winter the "tinent has affected to consider Britain as the branches. seat of suicide ; and not a few facetiæ have That the beaver was formerly an inhabibeen sported on the supposed disposition of tant of Europe, appears evidently, from the the natives of our island to seek refuge in an numerous traces of beaver dams which are unknown world from troubles felt in this; still remaining in various parts. It has long especially from that most discontented con- been questioned, whether the original race dition, too often attendant on too extensive was extinct in Germany; as appearances of capabilities of enjoyment-ennui. We re- their excursions were noticeable from time collect one, in the form of an epitaph, which, to time ; but our authority for the present said the wits of Paris, might serve for con- article does not go so far as to determine stant application on the grave-stones of that these on the estate of Prince SchwartLondon:

zenberg are of the indigenous breed : they Ci git Jean Ros-bif, ecuyer,

may be modern importations ; like those of Qui se pendit pour se desennuyer.

the late Sir Joseph Banks into England, But, certainly, at this moment, the num

where they are novelties, although they ber of Suicides in the city of London, not

were anciently even numerous in our island; withstanding the glooms and the fogs of the and some of their constructions still remain. climate, bears no proportion to that of The creature is well known in the Welch Paris : the year 1819 counted no less than language, under the name of “the fish-tail three hundred and seventy-sir instances of animal,” a very descriptive appellation : disastrous self-destruction. To what this many astounding tales of other times anmay be owing is not unworthy the conside

nounce its wonderful powers and properties ; ration of the statesman as well as of the and it still forms the crest of an ancient philanthropist; perhaps, we ought also to

coat of arms. The animals common to add, of the truly religious mind, as well as

America and to Europe are so few, that every of the mere worldling, or man of pleasure ; instance capable of verification becomes in for, it will be recollected, that this refers to

teresting to the naturalist, and not less to the gay capital of the Grande Nation. the philosophical historian, as evincing the

During the year 1819 the number of deaths connection and communication between the in Paris, was 22,137; the births were 23,263. old and the new continent, in ages past.

ITALY.

GREECE.

The new gallery which the Pope has

Hospitable Institution.—The labours, the added to the Capitol, in the Conservatori Palace, is just finished. It is to contain attentions, and the hazards of the monks

of St. Bernard, who inhabit the highest busts and other monuments, to the memory regions of the Alps, are well known, of Italians who have distinguished themselves in the arts and sciences. The gallery or not he has been assisted by their exertions

nor can any considerate person, whether has been open for public inspection since and hospitality, withhold the praise due to the 22d instant: it is divided according to classes and ages. In the principal room

that compassionate fraternity. But it is not

so well known that a similar institution exthere is a bust of the Pope, by Canova, be- ists among the defiles of Mount Olympus; neath which is a Latin inscription. The same room also contains a bust of Raphael, of, at least, an institution that has in view which has been removed from the Rotunda.

the same purposes, and employs the same

means. It is maintained by five villages, GERMANY.

the inhabitants of which pay no kind of tax; An extraordinary phenomenon was lately but are bound to give their assistance to all observed at Augsburg. At day-break two travellers who cross the mountains; and to laminous bodies appeared on each side of serve them as guides. They discharge this the sun. The sun itself was surrounded by honourable task, with the greatest alacrity a brilliant circle not entirely closed. In the and good management: and like the beneevening, from 58 minutes after six to with- volent religious already alluded to, they emin 17 minutes of seven, the ground was ploy the sagacity of dogs, to discover travelcovered with transparent dew; and after lers who may have been so unfortunate as to sunset a thick fog arose.

be buried beneath the snow.

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USEFUL ARTS.
NEW INVENTIONS.

sheets of paper placed on each other, as the

varnish which passes through the upper Improved Tracing Paper.—The paper ge- sheet will help to varnish the next. The nerally used for the purpose of tracing, is quantity of varnish which I have here stated, either bank-post, or silver paper, made trans will cover half a quire of silver paper. parent with drying or nut oil mixed with Damps.-Among the remedies for damps, turpentine; but this paper, after having been one person recommends a sheet of lead a thus made but a short time, becomes ex little above the surface of the ground, betremely yellow, much less transparent, and tween the layers of brick in house-building; very offensive to the smell—nor is the tracing and another, whalebone between the soles paper usually sold by the stationers of a of our shoes. Both, it seems, are specifics much better quality, and the price is enor- against the ascent of damps to our dwellings mous. The French tracing paper has also or persons. a yellow, or rather a green, tint, and being Lithography.--Mr. J. Ruthven, of Edinof an oily nature, it cannot be marked upon burgh, has at last succeeded in constructing but with ink, which has been previously a press on the principle of his patent, that mixed with prepared gall. By the following answers most perfectly for printing from process, a correspondent has made excellent stone. It is free from the disadvantages that tracing paper :-Dissolve (in a tea-cup, or have hitherto attended lithographic presses, the like) two ounces of Canada balsam, with and promises to render the art very generally two ounces of spirits of wine ; by adding a adopted throughout England. Any degree little of the latter at a time, and by being of pressure is at once brought to bear on the frequently stirred, it will, in a few hours, stone by means of the lever. The roller is become in a fluid state, but will assume a found to clear the stone from the printingcurd-like appearance ; put this in a large ink at cach impression, and the labour of size nial, then add two ounces of spirits of winding the bed through is much less than turpentine, shake it often, and in a few hours by the method hitherto used. By this mait will be fit for use; when used, pour out chine a greater number of impressions may the varnish into a saucer, and having the also be obtained in a day than formerly.

silver paper placed smoothly, take a flat One of them has been for some time at work camel's hair varnish brush, and pass over at the Lithographic Establishment' of Mr. every part; when one side is done, turn Charles M. Willich, No. 6, Dartmouth-strect, over the sheet of paper, and with the same Westminster ; where it may be seen by the brush, without any varnish, pass over every admirers of this interesting art. The press, part of the other side; then hang the paper of which a representation is annexed, has on a line for drying, which will be very also the advantage of being equally appliquickly. It is necessary to have several cable to copper-plate printing. cije

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