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STATE OF THE SPANISH EXILES IN FRANCE, AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

GENERAL MINA.
(IN A LETTER FROM PARI

ARIS.) Since a liberal form of government niards observed that the whole nation, has taken the place of arbitrary power in with few exceptions, had spumed the Spain, most of the Spanish exiles resi- foreign yoke, and taken upon itself the dent here are preparing to return to their work of regeneration, it should have emancipated country. Among these been their first duty to repent of their exiles were some of the most distin- error, and to atone for it by rejoining guished men in Spain; and upon the the ranks of their fellow-citizens. But whole there were but few of them who the wily conqueror had already bound had not attained celebrity either as poli- them to himself by preferments and ho tical or literary characters. But by far nours, and instead of retracing their dis-, the most respectable of their number honourable career, they were now com. were the Constitutionales or Liberales, pelled to advance along with the French who, as it is well known, shared the Even in this track some of them were of same fate as the Josephinos or Afrance- service to the country, in striving, as sados. It was singular enough that the much as possible, to mitigate the execuheads of the two great parties, into which tion of the rigid and frequently cruel; the nation had been divided, should have measures commanded by the French been assembled together for several but these efforts produced scarcely any years in the French capital; but a parity alleviation of the general calamity, to of misfortune had produced no union which they had themselves contributed. between thein. The Liberales retained The natural consequence was a national. even in exile a contemptuous pride, antipathy, to which their lives would founded, however, on the noblest pa- probably have been sacrificed, had they triotism, towards those who had espous- not quitted Spain with the French army. ed the cause of the oppressor of Spain, France granted them pensions, and set. who assisted him in the subjugation of veral, who had relinquished all hopes of their native land, and were rewarded for being re-admitted into their native land, it with pensions, while they who had had enrolled themselves in the number fought or laboured for the independence of French citizens. Outcasts from their of their country lived in honourable country, shame impelled some of them poverty. Strictly speaking, the Spanish to vindicate their conduct in writings Afrancesados originally set out with the Hence resulted a great number of works, same principles as the Liberales, to whom which are any thing but a justification they were afterwards opposed as ene of their authors, which disgust by the mies : with the exception of some few, charges advanced in them against the ins who aspired only to places and distinc- dependent part of the nation, but nevertions, and cared little or nothing about theless contain much interesting infor the welfare of their country, they were mation, and many historical facts. To this desirous of promoting liberal opinions, class belong the publications of O'Farill, and emancipating Spain from the men. Amoros, Llorente, Sempere, and others. tal slavery under which it has groaned Several of these works gained the Josee ever since the establishment of the In- phinos great applause in France, because quisition. Hence they espoused with they closely coincided with the sentizeal the

party

of the usurper, whose pre- ments of the military party there. Upon ponderating power rendered him master the whole these Josephinos have experiof Spain, and who promised it an intel- enced a very favourable reception in lectual and moral regeneration. They France, and though their income was conceived that the fate of the Peninsula not considerable, still they have never was decided, and that it was now their wanted the means of subsistence. The duty to unite with this power which had most distinguished of them resided in already subjected great part of Europe, Paris, and

others in certain towns in the and contribute to the moral and politi- south of France, which were allotted to cal transformation of their country. So them as depóts. Many strove, like the far their notions were excusable, for in French emigrants at the time of the reother countries enlightened men had volution, to support themselves by their entertained the same, and hoped to ob- industry and talents; the ecclesiastics tain from a conqueror what they des- by the performance of clerical duties, paired of obtaining from their own go- and others in various ways. Amoros, as vernments. When, however, these Spa. it is well known, has set up here for a

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teacher of gymnastics. Llorente, who the king of Spain. The principal Libe. was obstructed by the clergy here in the rales, who resided in London and Paris, exercise of his canonical functions, 90 thought it right publicly to declare, that account of his celebrated work on the they had no participation whatever in Inquisition, taught the Spanish lan- this periodical wok-so solicitous were guage in the colleges of this city. These they to preserve the respect of their feltwo having; as counsellors of state to low-citizens and of all Europe. King Joseph, little to hope for in Spain, A third, though very small class of remain here for the present, at least till exiles, consisted of those who had of they see how the Afrancesados are e late years rendered themselves formidaceived by the Spanish people. Some ble by their military enterprises against of them, who, as it seems, would cheer- the then subsisting order of things, and fully sacrifice their opinions for a favour- who were obliged to quit Spain, lest able reception, have been thrown into they should be punished as criminals. no little embarrassment by what they At the head of these was Mina, the, have formerly written. Thus M. Sem- most celebrated of all the Spanish exiles pete violently attacked the Cortes of resident here. Many erroneous state, 1812, not supposing that their resolu- ments have been published respecting tions, repealed by King Ferdinand, this remarkable character, but I can would ever again become the order of pledge myself for the accuracy of the the day ; but the events of the month following particulars :of March have made him a little wiser. Don Francisco Espoz y Mina, deAidi ultra-royalist publication here lately scended from a family of some conseplayed himi a provoking trick, by ex quence, was born in 1782, at the village tracting several strong passages from his of Ydocin, two miles from Pampeluna. book by way of supporting its own opi- When the French commenced their exnions ; on which M. Sempere lost no pedition against Spain, his nephew, who time in putting forth a protest, in which was then a student at the university of he says, that when he wrote his book Saragossa, felt the patriotic impulse to he did not consider the Cortes as a valid raise a guerilla for the defence of his authority, because it was not then re- country, and invited his uncle to join cognized by the King; but at present the him. Several friends of similar senticase is widely different.” Another of ments ranged themselves under their these Afrancesados was just printing a banners, and soon formed a corps of work against the Cortes, when the gth five hundred men; but the nephew uns, of March reinstated this national assem- fortunately fell into the hands of the bly in its functions; the press was im- French, in March 1810, and was carmediately stopped, and all the sheets ried to France, where he was treated by that had been worked off were turned Buonaparte, not as a prisoner of war, into waste paper.,

but as a state prisoner.' The Junta of -The exiled Liberales were never be- Valencia then transferred to the uncle trayed into such inconsistencies. They the chief command of the guerilla, which never pestered the public with memo- gradually increased in number till it berials and vindications, for they needed came a considerable corps d'armée, conno such expedients for their justifica- sisting of three battalions. At the head tion. They were conscious that they of this corps, Espoz y Mina displayed had done nothing but what the interests extraordinary military talents, which of their country commanded; they had established his fame and excited univercarried with them beyond its frontiers sal admiration. With the greatest bold. the regret of all their fellow-citizens, ness and success his guerilla maintained and waited with patience in a foreign its post in Navarre and part of Arragon, land, till their sovereign should open his between the two hostile armies, scoureyes to the unhappy state of the king- ing the country in all directions, taking dom, drive his false advisers from his whole convoys, frequently intercepting presence, and act conformably with the the communications between the enegeneral. wish. That they never thought my?s generals, and keeping up the spirit of personal revenge is demonstrated by of insurrection in every quarter. His the following fact: There appeared in country was not ungrateful for the imEngland a monthly publication in Spa- portant services which he performed for nish, under the title of El Constitucional it: in 1811 he was appointed colonel by Espannol, which inculcated highly libe- the Regency, then resident at Cadiz; in ral principles, but at the same time at- the following year he was promoted to iacked, without mercy, the person of the rank of brigadier-general, and soon New MONTHLY MAG,-No. 81. Vol. XIV.

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afterwards to that of mariscal de campo, and the court of Spain was obliged to reor general. In 1813 he was at the head cal its ambassador. A pension of 6000 of a division of 11,000 infantry and 2500 francs was settled on Mina, and 2000 on cavalry, and had the chief command his secretary. This noble and generous over Navarre, Upper Arragon, and what act will reflect everlasting honour on the are termed the Provincias Bas-congndas. royal donor. It was not thrown away With this force he assisted in the re- upon Mina, who in his subsequent duction of Pampeluna, and took Tafalla, conduct manifested his attachment to Saragossa, Monzon, Venazque, and the Bourbon dynasty. When, in 1815, Huesca. In 1814, when the allied army Buonaparte had suddenly repossessed under the Duke of Wellington penetrat- himself of the throne, he made offers ed into France, Mina's troops belonged of succour to Mina, who then resided to the fourth division commanded by in Champagne, for the purpose of kindGeneral Freyre; he took Jacas, advanced ling a fresh insurrection in Spain. Mina to Oleron, and was besieging St. Jean rejected with disdain the overtures of Pied-de-port, when peace was conclud- the oppressor of his country, and quitted ed. His corps, 14,000 in number, was the French territory that he might not then distributed in Navarre, Arragon, be subject to Buonaparte's farther caand Biscay; and when the king return- prices. He first fled to Switzerland, and ed to Madrid, Mina repaired to the thence proceeded immediately to Ghent, capital, and represented to the Monarch, to rejoin the King, with whom he rewith his native frankness, in what man turned after the battle of Waterloo lo ner Spain ought thenceforward to be Paris, where he lived very retired till treated. His homely truths displeased the national insurrection in Spain at the the parasites and courtiers by whom the commencement of the present year. In King was surrounded since his return, all probability he then received invitation and they determined to be revenged on from his countrymen and companions in the honest soldier. When Mina found

arms to co-operate in the re-establishthat no good was to be effected at court, ment of the constitution; and his deterhe set out again for Navarre, to resume mination was speedily formed. Among the command of his division ; but the other idle tales the newspapers related advisers of the King had been beforehand that the Spanish ambassador employed a with him, for, on his arrival at Pampe- young female of his own nation as a luna, he found himself superseded by spy upon Mina's motions, and that General Espeleta, and measures in pro- Mina feigned illness, that under this gress for disbanding his division. It was pretext he might steal away unobserved : at the same time that all those who had so much, however, is certain, that from entitled themselves to the gratitude of the commencement of the insurrection their country, but were not dependent in Spain he was very closely watched at on the faction of the serviles, were dis- the instance of the Spanish'ainbassador, missed from the service.

and that he was obliged to use some This treatment revolted Mina's soul. precautions to get off unmolested. The With his usual impetuosity he concen- ultra-royalist jouruals here were, in contrated part of his troops, and marched sequence, loud in abuse of him, remarkupon Pampeluna; but a chaplain and ing that it well became one who was some of the officers betrayed and frus- receiving a pension from a monarch of trated his design. Attempts were even the house of Bourbon to draw his sword made to secure his person, and he was against the Bourbon throne in Spain. obliged to flee with some of his officers Mina knew better than these writers to France, to escape the fate which sub- how to serve his country and his king. sequently befel Porlier and Lascy. But Since his return to Spain he has adhe was not yet safe from persecution. dressed an admirable letter to Louis The Spanish ambassador, Count de Casa XVIII. thanking him for the favours Flores, a creature of the court party, received at his majesty's hands. had the presumption to dispatcha No sooner had he crossed the PyreFrench coinmissary of police to appre- nees than his name sufficed to procure hend Mina, and to detain him in prison him partizans. Though Navarre was till farther orders. When Louis XVIII. still dependent on the court, yet, in the was informed of this arbitrary proceed- valley where he fixed his abode, he had ing of a foreign ambassador in his do soon collected round him several hunminions, he was justly incensed, and dred men, and, small as this force was, commanded the immediate release of he nevertheless resolved to march with Mina ; the commissary lost his place, it against Pampeluna, when the inha

bitants sent a deputation to inform him and conqueror. For the rest, he speaks that the city had accepted the constitu- but little and ill. Mina's genius first tion, and to invite him to enter in a displayed itself in the field: there his peaceable manner. As Mina's object sagacity, his presence of mind, and his was now accomplished, he dismissed boldness in the formation and execution his little corps, and accompanied by a of plans, were developed with astonishfew friends entered the city amid the ing rapidity. He must have the enemy acclamations of the people. It is pub- before him to shew what this lofty gelicly known that he has since been ap- nius is capable of performing, and how pointed to the chief command in Na- far his natural military talents extend. varre, which he held at the dissolution At home he is an ordinary man, and in of the Cortes in 1814.

time of peace many a person of inferior Mina has passed almost all his life in capacity would be better fitted for busithe country, and in his appearance ex- ness than this highly-gifted boor. Hence actly resembles a rustic. His language it is not to be expected that he will apis that of the peasants of Navarre, and a pear to advantage in his present comwell-educated' Spaniard often finds it mand ; indeed he has already taken some difficult to understand him. He is imprudent steps and embroiled himself wholly incapable of writing, and pro- with the municipal authorities of Panbably not one of his proclamations was peluna : but should his country once composed by himself.' He speaks of his more need his services in the field, it achievements with such unaffected mo. will soon find again in him the celedesty, as if he had been only one of the brated guerilla leader of 1812. co-operating persons, and not the leader

ON TALKING AND TALKERS.

* Conversation should be pleasant without scurrility, witty without affectation, free without indecency,

learned without conceitedness, novel without falsehood."-Love's Labour Lost. It is one of the distinctive charac- little, and very frequently have a great teristics of the animal which naturalists deal to say. This class, however, is very politely call homo sapiens, that he has small. It is chiefly composed of per the power of communicating histhoughts sons who have had very little to do by speech. This faculty is peculiar to with the world, and do not care much him, at least he says so, though we about it, who are not desirous of shinhave the evidence of the Arabian Tales ing, and who being too fond of retiring and Æsop to the contrary. At present and quiet would rather listen to other however, as we have not the capacity people talking nonsense than hear themwhich a certain caliph had of under selves talk sense. They are not genestanding the language of our brother rally deficient in talent, but they want brutes, and feathered relations, we shall courage to display it, and they suffer confine ourselves to the tongues of our empty-headed fools to engross all the two-legged brethren, the homines sa- conversation with the flippant babble of pientes.

their own vain tongues, instead of boldly What a variety of talkers and talk the excluding them from the field, by putworld affords! We begin to talk before ting forth the strength of their own we have any thing to say, and we do not powerful intellects. Amongst this class leave off talking though we have said all may in general be reckoned those men we had to say. You hear people talk- of letters who have spent more time in ing about things they do understand study than in society, and who, as Adand things they do not understand, in dison said of himself, are not worth nine season and out of season, to persons, pence of ready cash in conversation, but and of persons, and at persons, nay ra- who can draw for thousands in the rether than not talk at all, a man will tirement of their own closets. These talk to himself; and so strong is the are the peoplewhom Cowper mentions passion, that he will frequently talk in when he says, his sleep. We shall endeavour to enu

We sometimes think we could a speech produce merate a few of the great variety of Much to the purpose, if our tongues were loose; talkers.

But being tied, it dies upon the lip,

Faint as a chicken's note that has the pip say a word or two of what may be called Our wasted oil unprofitably burns,

Like hidden lamps in old sepulchral urns. the silent talkers, people who say very

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"And this is also the case, more or last case, in this it is impossible to ap less, with every man on his first en- ply, as flight would be the greatest intrance into life, unless he be insufferably gult in the world. Patience, then, and impudent, when he will not care what a nod of the head at every pause, (if he says, nor any body else either. there should happen to be any,) are the

Just the reverse to these are your in- only things to be recommended; and a cessant talkers, who whether they talk person, on the conclusion of his suffersense or nonsense are almost equally ings, should be particularly careful not annoying. They are people, who in to let that heavy sigh of relief burst Shakspeare's words have got “the dis out, which marks the sudden ceasing ease of not listening.” When you un of pain. expectedly meet with a man of this The imprudent, or mal-à-propos talkers kind, it is like getting under a shower- are a very dangerous body of men, and bath, and when you expect the pelting they do more mischief than any other stream to cease, finding it still flowing class. They are perpetually, by some on with unabating violence. There is infatuation or other, hitting on the only no safety with such people but in fight. things in the world that ought not to It is in vain to remonstrate, or rather to be mentioned in that company, and strive to remonstrate, for you might as while they are as innocent as the child well think to crain another hour into the unborn, of any intention to offend, they twenty-four, or to stop with your fore- are continually harrowing up the feels. finger the whirl of a water-wheel as to ings of their friends, or puiting them interpose a word in such a discourse, or out of countenance. The root of their stop it before the speaker's breath is disease is inattention to the characters spent. If you endeavour to urge any and feelings of others : thus they talk of topic in mitigation of punishment you halters and gibbets in the presence of a only add fresh fuel to the fame ; if you man whose brother has had the misfortell your enemy you have an engage tune to be hanged-they dilate on the ment, he will give you a history of his happiness of a married life before a man own, past, present, and to come; if who has just buried a young and beauyou plead indisposition, he will tell you tiful wife; and say a thousand other all about his last influenza and all ihe things which scare the company “ from doctor said, and all he forgot to say, and their propriety.”. For this disease there all he ought to have said ; in short there seems no remedy in the world: it is is not a single topic upon which he will really incurable. 'In the same class may not “discourse most excellent music.” be placed the absent talkers, who speak Men and women and children of all without knowing what they are saying, ranks and ages mingle in this class. and ask questions to which they alone

But the worst of all are your tedious are able to give answers. These inand prolix talkers. This fault, however, quire after the health of people whose is generally confined to those having au- deaths they have seen that morning in thority, for other people quickly find that the obituary of the newspaper-ask an they can get nobody to listen to them. unmarried lady how all her family do, Oh! the horror of being stuck down by aud hope the parents of an orphan are the side of some ancient great aunt, or in good health. With such people, some patronizing friend, and being con- their thoughts have nothing to do with demned patiently to keep our ears open their tongues. to the almost noiseless but uninterrupted The vulgar talker is an intolerable flow of vapid words which issue from animal. Vulgarity does not depend on the respected mouth. The only remedy the station in life which a man occuin such cases is to employ the thoughts pies, but is rather a habit of mind, of about more pleasant matters, but then which the origin cannot often be traced. this is a very hazardous attempt, as it is Amongst many of the lower classes of done at the imminent peril of a discovery, society, there is the most perfect proshould our patron happen to put his priety of language and manner when spectacles on and see the wandering they are introduced into the presence of looks in our face ; and what an agony their superiors; while rank, and riches, it is to be detained in this manner when and fashion, are often accompanied with you are burningly eager to pursue some great vulgarity, not only of mind, but of other object, the chance of which every manner. In whatever rank or company moment and every long drawled-out he may be found, the vulgar talker is word are rendering more remote. The an impenetrable nuisance he puts every remedy which we recommended in the body else out of countenance, when he

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