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there are points which, even while in people. In 1770, the inhabitants of employment, they never scruple to con- Peloponnesus revolted against their tesi with their masters. Report has late- inasters, in reliance on assistance exly announced, not without surprise and pected from the Russian fleet, then in sympathy, in the conduct and temper of those seas: this, it was found impractithe population of Parga, a specimen of cable to afford them; but the conduct whai Greeks can resolve on when re- of the Greeks was such, that M. Peyduced to extremity; a firmness of mind, ronnel, in his Remarks on Baron du strongly marked, and not the mere im- Tott, informs us it was debated on this pulse of the moment, but evidently in- occasion, in the Turkish divan, whether herent. And yet Parga was far from the whole of this turbulent nation bearing the best of characters. Mr. should not be exterminated, as a punishHobhouse describes it in these words :- ment for defection. Notwithstanding “ The character of the Parguinotes is this narrow escape—for it was chiefly, among the worst of the Albanians; their if not wholly, the vote of Hassan Pacha, connexion with the Christian states has the admiral, which preserved the Greeks taught them only the vices of civiliza- from destruction—they attempted, in tion, and they are not less ferocious, 1808, a still more perilous enterprise. but are become more refined in their The Greeks of Thessaly and the adjoincruelty and violence. Their town is ing provinces, tired of the vexations the refuge of many of the robbers whom they suffered from Ali Pacha, rose in Ali Pacha has driven from the moun- arms against him : and the Pacha, who tains.” Elsewhere the same traveller had extended his dominion over almost informs us of various songs sung round the whole of what was the ancient a roasting fire by night, narrating ex- Greece, found himself reduced to the ploits of robbery.—“One of them began single province of Epirus. The Turks, thus When we set out from Parga, who are little less ill-treated by this desthere were sixty of us.' Then came pot of Albania—for such he is, notwiththe burden of the verse,

standing his professions of humble sub

mission to the orders of the Sublime “Κλεφτεις ποτε Παργα ! !

Porte-saw, with much satisfaction, but Κλεφτεις ποτε Παργα ! !

not without more than equal astonishRobbers all at Parga ! Robbers all at Parga !! »

ment, this insurrection ;

which they

themselves had not vigour sufficient to It is natural to deduce an inference attempt.-South of Macedonia to the from the inflexibility of the Parguinotes, frontier of Attica, almost the whole of (if correctly stated) as to what might be the country was under the controul of expected from those of their country- the Greek's during twenty-two days. men who should be raised to a superiori- But, by a fatality which not infrety, by the effect of enlarged acquaint- quently attends unfortunate nations, the ance with the duties of enlightened spring rains of this year were uncompatriotism, and the energy of a more monly violent and long continued, insoliberal and generous public spirit. If much that the river Peneus swelled these rude and unlettered people were into an inundation, in consequence of thus jealous of their freedom, and thus which, considerable bodies of troops determined in their resistance to tyran- expected from the Agraphes could not ny, what may not be looked for from reach the head quarters of the collecting real patriots, actuated by the higher mo- forces, as had been agreed on. At this tive of devotion to the cause of their moment, one of the leaders, whether country and countrymen? If these from fear, or from any other motive, rough Parguinotes forsook all, rather than surrendered the passes which had been become the property of a tyrant, what entrusted to his charge between Epirus may not Greece yet produce among her and Thessaly; and the issue was fatal nobler sons, the descendants of heroes, to the attempt. Three hundred of these and of deliverers raised by their grateful Greeks were met by the son of Ali country to the rank of demi-gods? Pacha, who had effected a passage, by

Even now, we are told that it is no- night, over the mountains of Pindus, at thing uncommon for whole families and the head of a chosen band of Albanian tribes of Greeks to quit the plains for soldiers. The whole of these three the mountains, in order to withdraw hundred warriors were found dead, themselves from Turkish severity. Nor around the body of their general, after a has the spirit of forming more general most obstinate combat, in which half enterprises been wanting among these the army of their enemy fell also. The

New MONTHLY Mag. No. 78. Vol. XIV.

reader will perhaps think these moderns action, will be found neither trivial nor deserve the honours of a monument immaterial to the result. equally with those ancients who defend We may say of such important uned the pass of Thermopylæ against the dertakings, as has been said of others, Persians ; nor less the epitaph, “ Go, thought to be equally impossible,“ Dans traveller, and report, that here we lie, telles affaires c'est le premier pas qui obedience to the sacred laws, and to The Greeks think, or affect to think, the call of our country.”.

that the impulse is already, and effectuWe the rather direct the attention of ally given.. It would be rash in any one our readers to this subject, because the who knows them, on such slender auGreeks have at length perceived the ne- thority, to predict too positively what cessity of spreading knowledge among shall follow. Habits are powerful contheir compatriots, previous to any ge- straints. Every Greek can talk; it is neral or national endeavour to throw off the character of his nation; but talking the yoke under which they groan. For may not only contribute to the evaporathis purpose they have sent a number of tion of energy, but, if indiscreet, it may youths to complete their education in give a hint to Ottoman jealousy, and the principal universities of Europe. awaken that Mahommedan fury, which At Paris, where five or six years ago if prompt enough—and it is sometimes there were not more than eight, there prompt-may disappoint the best-laid are now more than sixty Greeks. In plans. The nation at large has no comthe German establishments the number mon centre. The grandees are divided is considerable ; and there are some in by their family and personal rivalships, England. The university of Pisa, in by their mutual jealousies, by their conTuscany, has about sixty; drawn thither temptible ambition : each wishes to be by the presence of the archbishop Igna- greatest, and thereby degrades himself tius, a prelate of the most respectable below the least. As heads of their peomanners, both religious and political. ple they are a rope of sand: they neither At Paris the labours and reputation of know nor feel the power of combinaM. Coray ensure the Greeks a favour- tion. The districts, also, where liberty able reception; while those youths con still maintains a rugged refuge, are setemplate in this respectable old man, parated by distant intervals ; and the their countryman, the prime mover of inhabitants of the plains dread the inthat restoration toward which they direct cursions of the mountaineers, no less their wishes. They have commissioned than the avanias of their masters. They a statue of him, to be executed at Rome. cannot place unreserved confidence in During twenty-five years has he been those whom they have been used to engaged in promoting that well-directed dread as banditti, not to welcome as information, which he regards, and friends; from those who stripped them justly, as the basis of all legitimate or of their property, they will hardly rewell-founded hope. We need not say, ceive liberty itself as a boon: they will that France has very assiduously culti- suspect the gift, from the too notorious vated this favourable opinion of the character of the giver. Greeks: the causes were notorious un Should some fortunate leader indeed der Buonaparte, and probably have not arise, who, like Scanderbeg, shall form ceased to operate, or at least to exist, a powerful reputation, and be acknowunder the present government.-But, ledged as a chief on whom dependance every medal has its

reverse: every may be placed, there can be no doubt picture has its shades as well as its but that multitudes would flock withlights; and the spectator, if he wishes out delay to his standard. So far as to judge truly on the piece, will not fail personal bravery is in question, the to examine these also, as well as the Greeks may supply that quality: but other. While therefore, we desire to their national, and habitual perseverance, record our foresight of what may happen, docility, moderation, self-possession, and and what we deem even probable, and magnanimity, are questionable. They what we have watched the preparations are, as a people, rather cunning than for, during several years, yet we deem it wise, rather sudden than sedate, rather equally proper to insert proofs that our feverish than firm. They may begin, confidence is not blinded by appear- but if the end be not speedy, they will ances; that we are not unacquainted be disgusted at the interval, however with what may be urged on the other necessary, that elapses between their side of the question, nor insensible to wishes and their object. They will those oppositions which, when called into never forbear that enlargement of

language which preserves an immense rather originating with the remains of distance from simple truth: the conse the French invaders of Egypt, than quence will always prove a deception of with himself. themselves, and of others who might be We have already recorded his attendisposed to assist them. Nor will they rion to the procuring of intelligence, forbear to delight in calumny; a modern both philosophical and political, by. Socrates would find no greater favour means of young Arabs, sent to various than did the ancient. A single fault in academical institutions of Europe, to a general, however eminent, formerly, complete their studies; and he has obwould obliterate all his previous services : tained from the best schools and the and the character given of them by M. best sources, as well the personnel as the Fauvel, the French consul at Athens, materiel of military power, He has who has resided among them inany furnished his arsenals with ordnance Fears, would be found extremely just from the founderies of Sweden; he has in “ Believe me, my dear sir, they are the his armoury 5,000 English firelocks;

and same canaille as they were in the days of from the dock-yards of Russia and EngMiltiades.”

land, he has procured naval stores of the Nor is the character of their adversa- best qualities, and most serviceable naries to be overlooked; the habit of com- ture; he has commissioned ships from manding not seldom gives the power to the docks of India, and has purchased command. The voice of authority is others, so that his navy on the Red Sea obeyed from the mere force of custom. is rising into respectability; and he has Their masters will not easily resign the from 30 to 40 vessels constantly trading mastery: they will be influenced by re in the Mediterranean. He is, morevenge, by the recollection of advantages over, intent on deriving from his own hitherto enjoyed, inflamed also by cu- country whatever materials it can propidity; but most of all by fanaticism. duce; he has established manufactories The delusion of fanaticism is irresist- of sail-cloth, and other hempen articles ; ible: it actuates the rude more power- and his manufacture of gunpowder defully than the refined, no doubt; but serves special distinction. the mass of all nations is rude, and That' wood is at present scarce in especially the mass of the Turks. They Egypt is well known ; and coal is not are strangers to that discipline by which the produce of the country; but an the mind is opened: they neither ac- Italian chemist, Sig. Giovanni Bassi, knowledge nor respect good qualities in finding his labours in the service of thé others: they are accustomed to despo- Pacha impeded by a want of fuel, has tism, and in despotism they delight : taken advantage of the heat of the clithey are frugal, obstinate, prejudiced, mate to effect evaporation by a slower, and they estimate human life at no a more economical, and a more effectual thing.

process. In the course of the last If we turn our eyes to Egypt, we are summer (1819) he prepared upwards of struck by the spectacle of a Turkish 30,000 pounds of saltpetre, from which governor who conducts his proceedings gunpowder has been made, of a quality with all the policy of the most consumo decidedly superior to any which has been mate European statesman. Mahommed seen in that country. This is an invaAli, the present Pacha of Egypt, is by luable acquisition to the Pacha ; whose birth an Albanian, and, like thousands of vigilance in preventing this indispensahis countrymen, was enrolled anong the ble article of war from reaching his military of his masters, the Turks. The enemies, the Mamelukes, in Southern Albanians are, unquestionably, the best Egypt, has greatly enfeebled their opesoldiers of the Ottoman army, so far as rations, and, in fact, has defeated their courage and endurance are in question; plans: while the possession of this but they are insolent, rude, and over- power at home renders him indepenbearing;

with difficulty controuled, even dent of supplies from abroad; and will by the Pachas into whose service they mainly contribute to establish his indeenter. They are from their infancy accus- pendence as a Prince, whenever he tomed to the exploits of military robbe- thinks proper to manifest his real intenries, and maraudings, and they entertain tions. “Moreover, to consolidate and high notions of personal and national connect his resources, he has lately independence. Such, no doubt, is Ma- cleaned and deepened the canal leading hommed Ali; but, by whatever means he from Alexandria to the Nile, in order to has acquired it, he possesses a degree of avoid the delay and dangers attending knowledge altogether extraordinary in a the sands at the mouth of the Nile, or chief of his description ; and probably, what is commonly called the Boghaz of

Rosetta; which yearly gets worse. This sents, to Sennaar, and even into Abysnot only facilitates the traffic of the sinia ; what these attempts may procountry, and accommodates the city of duce time only can shew, but they disAlexandria with a necessary article of close an extent of thought altogether life, but it will certainly be used as the singular in a Turkish governor of Egypt

. means of communication between the He has taken possession of Massuah, north and the south. The stores al on the Red Sea, the port of Abyssinia, ready mentioned, received by the way of certainly not without an object, to be the Mediterranean, will reach the inte- realized at a convenient opportunity. rior of Egypt; and should the Pacha Hitherto the wild tribes on the coast succeed in opening the ancient canal and along Eastern Africa have withfrom the Nile to the Red Sea, it is within stood or suspected his efforts : they the compass of probability that vessels equally dread and hate the very name direct from India may Aoat in the port of a Turk. There is yet another proof Alexandria, and vessels from the Bal- bable cause of disappointment to the tic, or from the Thames, may proudly Pacha's schemes ; he is an entire stranoverlook the sands of Egypt, while pro- ger to that feeling which is known ceeding by means of a towage by catule among the superior class of prosesfrom the north to the south: a singular sional artists of every description in spectacle ! and absolutely.incredible, to Europe, by the name of liberality. M. the descendants of Sultan Selim and his Belzoni was engaged by the Pacha as an Mameluke despots.

hydraulic engineer and mechanician. As a commander, Mahommed Ali but after serving several months he has already proved victorious over the found himself disregarded, and his serWahabi, and has destroyed their power. vices unrewarded. Whether this were By his son, Ibrahim Pacha, he has also the fault of Mahommed himself, or of taken their chief town, Deriah, and has his officers, by their intrigues, we do not razed it to the ground. It is fair to determine ; but similar instances cannot conjecture that Ibrahim may enter into but operate as repulses to eminent mehis father's plans, and this supposed, herit; and such the Pacha’s necessities recannot but have his eye turned to his quire; not mere pretenders to science succession in the Egyptian government; only, of which he may have enough, if so, it seems nothing more than na and reason enough to lament his disaptural that the establishments of Ma- pointments from their failures. hommed should be patronized and con Nothing could be more conformable tinued. It is possible, also, that he with the designs of Mahommed, than the may eventually possess sufficient influ- lately reported insurrection of Ali Pacha ence over the soldiery to establish the against the divan of Constantinople. European discipline, which is the only. This is likely, to say the least, to engage thing wanting to the consolidation of the attention, if not to baffle the power the governor's power, to a degree that of the Crescent; and should any other may bid defiance to all enemies. In defection occur -- for the opportunity is this, Mahommed has hitherto failed; favourable—the energy of the Turkish and time is necessary for the purpose, as empire will not long delay its fate; well as personal authority, example, and whatever its wisdom may do. At this able instruction. Meanwhile, the import- moment, the whole skill of that goantaffair proceeds in others ofits branches, vernment consists in raising taxes;and perhaps not the less certainly, be- money, tribute, presents, are the sumcause in some respects the more slowly, mit of its interior skill. However, we and retarded by prejudices, which might have not forgotten the Arabic proverb be thought invincible. Mahommed -“ The Osmanlis catch hares with has also sent ambassadors, with pre- waggons :” the rest time will shew.


MUZ10, A TALE. A YOUNG gentleman, named Ma- quaintance, who, on his shewing them zio, came one day with a new sword the weapon, immediately began to try,

it out of the shop of one of those manu with him in all the movements of the facturers of Ferrara, whose works raised art of fencing, in which the inhabitants that city into high repute both far and of Ferrara were remarkably expert. It near. Proceeding towards an adjacent so happened that the favourite of the grove, he was met by some of his ac- Duke passed that way, and joined in the

amusement. Muzio regarded him as for ever of a hostile rival, and had nohis secret enemy, since he was ena- thing more to fear from that quarter. moured of the fair Fiordiligi, whose This flattering prospect soon vanished, heart Muzio possessed, but without the and it became equally obvious that this approbation of her parents, who for circumstance was likely to rob him of many reasons preferred the wealthy and that happiness which it had just before powerful courtier for a son-in-law, and appeared to secure. Was it to be supwho, though they would not compel posed that the Duke of Ferrara could be their child to give him expectations that persuaded of Muzio's innocence ? his love would be returned, explicitly Would he not, on the other hand, exdeclared to the beauteous Fiordiligi, that ert all his power to avenge the death of a passion for Muzio would be utterly his favourite? A dungeon evidently hopeless. When Ergasto, the favourite threatened to separate him from his be-who could not but be aware that it loved Fiordiligi.

" Ha!” exclaimed was owing to Muzio that his addresses Muzio, with anguish, " I now perceive produced no effect on Fiordiligi---per- that the cypress branch, in which my ceived his rival and his associates en- sword was entangled, denounced death gaged in trying the sword, which, as it to my passion, and the detached myrtle brightly glístened in the sun, approach- blossom, which trembled on this steel, ed too near to a cypress branch, and be- indicated this inevitable parting. Percame entangled among its twigs, he haps I shall never behold Fiordiligi also drew his weapon, and having bent more; perhaps she is already lost to me it first one way, then the other, to shew for ever! It is not Ergasto's friends its temper, he made a cut at a myrtle, alone that will lament his death; keenly the detached blossoms of which fell do I already feel that I shall have equal upon the point of Muzio’s blade. He reason to deplore it!" then called the others to witness whe- Muzio's friends besought him to ther that sword with which victory and cease his lamentations, and to turn his glory had already been acquired, was thoughts to the means of safety. They not far better than his rival's. With advised him to flee without delay, while sparkling eyes, and an apparent desire to they would report that he had been transfuse the spirit of his jealousy into mortally wounded by Ergasto; that, torhis sword, Ergasto began to 'strike tured with burning thirst, he had desharply at that of Muzio, who, uncer- sired them to conduct him to the neightain whether it was intended in jest or bouring bank of the Po; that, while atearnest, became more and more ruffled., tempting to drink, he had fallen into The sparks of hatred and enmity which the river, just then swollen by heavy seemed to shoot forth from Ergasto's rains, and been carried away by the weapon, at length kindled similar feel- impetuosity of the current. All of them ings in the breast of Muzio: compelled agreed that this would be the best meto defend himself, he began by degrees thod of screening Muzio from persecuto return the attack ; both grew warmer tion, and that, in case the Duke should and warmer, though neither uttered a be unexpectedly disposed to clemency, single word. As little did Muzio's as- it would be easy to devise some romantonished friends know what to think of story to account for his preservation the scene before them : the whole trans- and re-appearance, and to open to him action was so quiet and so rapid, that again, under the most fortunate circumthey had scarcely time to consider, whe- stances, the gates of Ferrara, and the ther they ought to interfere, or only to house of his mistress. There was no serve as winesses for Muzio, while he time for consideration; the hour aptook satisfaction for the sudden affront proached at which the inhabitants of which he had received. The blood of Ferrara were accustomed to walk abroad the two adversaries was soon inflamed into this grove: the moon already apto the highest degree ; they plied their peared; and a gentle breeze waved the flashing weapons with increased rapidity, dark foliage of the trees, tinted with the till a purple torrent burst from the heart roseate hues of evening. Muzio took of Ergasto, and the fatal blade dropped but a moment for reflection. He was from the ice-cold hand of the petrified undecided whether to leave Fiordiligi in Muzio.

uncertainty respecting his life or death. At the first moment, fortune seemed “ Is not hopelessness of itself, thought to have favoured Muzio in this event, he, a species of death? I am now dead, since he had undesignedly, and on the as it were, for Fiordiligi. But true love contrary by compulsion, ridded himself knows no death--true love stands the

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