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order to dispose of their overflowing original country, became more abundproduce to advantage.

i ant in Europe, and at length sở comThe favourable situation of this people, pletely overstocked the European mar. during a long war in which they have kets, that a fair price could not be obalmost always enjoyed the advantage of tained for them, although the consump, neutrality, has been the means of turn tion of Europe has greatly increased ing their attention, their industry, and since the peace : hence the disadvantacapitals, far too exclusively to external geous returns which we have witnessed. and maritime commerce. The Ameri- But suppose for an instant that the agricans are enterprising; their voyages are cultural and manufactured produce of cheaply performed; they have intro- both North and South America had sudduced into navigation long courses, and denly become very considerable at the various expeditious manœuvres, which time of the peace, in that case the shorten voyages, reduce their expenses, people of those countries, being more and correspond with those improve- numerous, and producing more, would ments in the arts which diminish the easily have purchased all the European costs of production; in short, the Ameri- cargoes, and furnished a variety of reçans have drawn to themselves all the turns at a cheap rate. maritime commerce which the English This effect will, I doubt not, take have not been able to engross; they place with respect to the United States, have, for many years, been the inter- when they are enabled to add to the obmediate agents between all the Conti- jects of exchange furnished by their pental powers of Europe and the rest of maritime commerce, a greater quantity the world. Their success has even ex- of their agricultural produce, and perceeded that of the English wherever haps some articles of manufacture also, those nations have been competitors, as Their cultivation is extending, their in China. What has been the result ? manufactures multiply, and their popuAn excessive abundance of those com- lation, in the natural order of things, modities which are obtained by com- increases with astonishing rapidity. In mercial and maritime industry; and a few years the combination of their when the general peace at length open varied industry will form a mass of proed the highway of the ocean to all na- duce amongst which will be found tions, the French and Dutch ships more articles calculated to furnish profit. crowded with a kind of madness into able returns, or at least profits of which the midst of a career thus newly opened the Americans will employ a part in the to them; and in their ignorance of the purchase of European merchandize. actual state of countries beyond sea- Merchandize produced by Europeans their agriculture, arts, population, and at a less expense than it can be made resources for buying and consuming for in America will be carried to the these ships, escaped from a tedious de- United States ; and goods which the soil tention, carried in abundance the pro- and industry of America produce cheaper duce of the. Continent of Europe to all than they can be had elsewhere, will be ports, presuming that the other nations carried home in exchange. The nature of the globe would be eager to possess of demands will determine the nature those commodities after their long se- of productions; each nation will prefer paration from Europe.

engaging in that kind of production in But in order to purchase this extra- which it succeeds best, and the result ordinary supply, it would have been will be exchanges mutually and permarequisite for these countries to create im- nently advantageous. But these commediately extraordinary quantities of pro- mercial ameliorations can only be brought duce of their own; for the difficulty at about by time. The talents and expeNew York, at Baltimore, the Havanna, rience requisite for the practice of the Rio-Janeiro, or Buenos-Ayres, is not to arts are not acquired in a few months; consume, but to purchase European ma- years are necessary for their attainment. nufactures. But the Europeans required The Americans will not discover in payment in cottons, tobaccos, sugars, what manufactures they can succeed and rice; and this demand even en- until after several attempts *. When hanced the prices : and as, notwith- standing the dearness of these merchan- # The manufactures which a new nation dizes, and of money, which is also mer.

may execute to the greatest advantage, are, chandize, it was necessary to take thein in general, those which consist in preparing or relurn without payment, these very raw materials of their own growth, or imarticles, thus rendered scarce in their ported at a small expense, U is not pro

they are successful, those particular ma You see, Sir, that there is nothing in nufactures will no longer be carried to this fact but what is quite conformable them ; but the profits derived from this to the doctrine of your antagonists. production will procure them the means Returning to the irksome condition of buying other European produce. i in which all kinds of industry at present

With respect to agricultural specula exist in Europe, I might add to the distions, however rapid may be their ex- couragement resulting from the excestension, they can only afford markets sive multiplication of the charges of for European produce by means of their production, the disorders occasioned by own productions, by very slow degrees. those charges in the production, distriAs fast as culture and civilization ex- bution, and consumption of the values tend beyond the Allegany mountains produced; disorders which frequently into Kentucky and the territories of In- bring into the market quantities superior diana and the Illinois, the first gains are to the demand, and at the same time employed in the subsistence of the co- drive out of it many which might have lonists as they arrive from the states been sold, and the prices of which more anciently peopled, and in building would have been employed in the purtheir habitations. The profits they chase of the former. Certain producers make beyond these, serve to extend endeavour to recover by the quantity of their clearing and plantations; the next what they produce a part of the value are employed in manufacturing their consumed by the revenue. Some proown produce for local consumption : ductive services have contrived to be and savings of a fourth order only can exempted from the avidity of the fiscal be applied to the manufacture and fa. department, as it often happens with brication of the produce of the soil the productive services of capitals, which for distant consumption. It is not frequently continue to obtain the same until this latter state of things takes interest, while lands, buildings, and mplace that new states begin to afford dustry are overcharged. Sometimes a markets for Europeans; this cannot be workman who finds it difficult to mainin their earliest infancy: their popula- tain his family, endeavours by excessive tion must have had time to increase, toil to make up for the low price of and their agricultural produce must manual labour. Are not these causes have become sufficiently abundant to which derange the natural order of prooblige them to exchange it at a distance duction, and which occasion in some for other value. Afterwards, and by departments a production exceeding the natural progress of things, instead of what would have taken place, if the exporting raw produce, they export pro. wants of the consumers alone had been duce which has received some prepara- considered? All the objects of contion, and which consequently, compris- sumption are not necessary to us in the ing a greater value in a less bulk, is same degree. Before we reduce our adapted to bear the expense of carriage. consumption of corn to one half, we Such produce will one day come to reduce our consumption of meat to a Europe from New Orleans, a city des fourth, and our consumption of sugar to tined to become one of the greatest nothing. There are capitals so engaged entrepôts in the world.

in certain undertakings, particularly in This point has not yet been attained; manufactures, that the proprietors often is it then wonderful that the productions consent to lose the interest, and sacrifice of the United States have not yet afford- the profits of their industry, and coned markets sufficient for the commer- tinue to labour merely to support the cial efforts which followed the peace? establishment until more favourable Is it extraordinary that the commercial times, and to preserve the connexions : produce brought by the Americans sometimes they are apprehensive of themselves into their ports, at the con- losing good workmen, whom the sus. clusion of an excessive developement of pension of employment would compel their nautical industry, should yet re- to disperse; the humanity of the promain there in abundance ?

prietors is sufficient, in some instances,

to carry on a manufacture which is no bable that the United States will ever supply longer in demand. Hence arise disorEurope with cloth ; but they will perhaps ders in the 'progress of production and furnish her with manufactured tobaccos, re. consumption, still more grievous than fined sugars, perhaps they may even estab- those which originate in the abuses of lish cotton-manufactories on better terms 'the revenue or the vicissitudes of the than the English. ' '?"

seasons. Hence we see inconsiderate

productions, hence recourse is had to productive systein. It is necessary that ruinous means—hence commercial es- we should be firmly convinced that the tablishments are overthrown. ZDU) di more others gain', the more easily we

At the same time I must remark, that shall sell our produce; that there is only although the evil is great, it probably one way to gain, namely, to produce, seems greater than it is. The coinmo- either by one's own Jabour, or by that dities which overstock all the markets of the capital or lands one may possess; in the world, may strike the eye by that unproductive consumers are only their magnitude in a mass, terrify the men substituted for productive (consucommercial world by their depreciation "mers that the more producers, the in value, and yet constitute oily a very more consumers there are; that, by the small part of the merchandizes of every same rule, every nation is interested in sort'made and consumed. There is no the prosperity of others, and that all are warehouse but would speedily be emp- interested in having the easiest commutied, if every species of production of nications with each other, for every diffi. which its contents are made up were culty is equivalent to an increase of to cease simultaneously in every part of expense. the world. Besides, it has been ob- Such is the doctripe established in served, that the slightest excess of sup- my writings, and which, I acknowply beyond the demand is sufficient to ledge, does not appear to me to have produce a considerable alteration in price. been shaken. I took up my pen to deIt is remarked in the Spectator (No: 200) fend it, not because it is mine (the that when the harvest exceeds by a self-love of an author would be contenth'what is ordinarily consumed, the temptible where such great interests are corn falls to half its price. Dalrymple* concerned), but because it is eminently makes an analogous observation. We social, and points out to mankind the must not then be surprised if a slight sources of true wealth and the danger excess should be frequently represented of drying them up. The rest of this as an 'excessive superabundance.

doctrine is no less useful, because it This superabundance, as I have al- teaches that capital and land are only ready remarked, is also occasioned in productive when they are become tepart by the ignorance of producers or spected property ; that the poor man is traders on the nature and extent of the interested in defending the property of demand in the places to which goods the rich; that he is consequently inteare consigned. Of late years there have rested in the preservation of good order, been many hazardous speculations, be- because a revolution, which could only cause there have been many new rela- yield him a temporary plunder, would tions between nations. Data were deprive him of a permanent income. every' where wanting to serve as the When one studies political economy as foundation of good calculations ; but it ought to be studied, and perceives does it follow because many affairs have that the most useful truths rest on the been ill-managed, that others might not most certain principles, one naturally be well conducted, if well understood. feels exceedingly anxious to place these I will venture to predict that as new re- principles within the reach of every unlations shall grow old, and reciprocal derstanding. Let us not augment their wants be more justly appreciated, the difficulties by useless abstraction; let us inarkets 'will cease to be glutted, and not recommence the folly of the econopermanent relations of mutual profit mists of the 18th century, by endless will be established.

discussions on the net produce of lands; * But at' the same time it is expedient let us describe the manner in which to diminish gradually, and as far as the facts occur, and expose the chain which circumstances of every state will allow, connects them; then our writings will the general and permanent inconvenien- be of great practical utility, and the pubcies which spring from too expensive a lic will be truly indebted to writers who

we are like you, Sir, possessed of such in Considerations on the policy of entails, ample means of affording informations P. 14.0') III O DI 1' PLE

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16dt.d1610197 vitin 190.11 900cd ad A MR. EDITORE VO V6W 5300 contrast between the means and the fully writing to you the other day, to end was too violent, the disproportion

solicita place among the contributors between the struggle for, existence and to your Magazine, the statement I made the utility of mere being was too exces

of my qualifications, and the review sive, not to inspire a contempt for the which I took of any life,, threw me into whole business, a feeling which perhaps al sort of melancholy musing. The often stands in the place of a more rashifts I had made to live, the extent tional stoicism. I compared, my own and ingen uity of my industry, the mul- personal, mishaps with those mimic distiplicity of dangers through which I had tresses which, for a season, I had pourpassed, and the long series of insults, trayed on the stage; and the most privations, and sufferings which I had vere calamities thus viewed froni.

beexperienced in my journey through this hind, have not unfrequently as ncar an vale of tears, arose in dreary succession alliance to the comic as to the tragic upon my imagination. “Some natural The chief difference between tears I dropped,” but, being of no very fictitious sorrow and the griefs of real desponding turn of disposition, they life, is, that the two-pence halfpenny and were soon wiped away; and association, two inches of candle, which I have shared leaving effects, fell, not unnaturally, after an evening's performance, were an jupon the causes of these adventures, adequate cause for a night's exertion to (Pourquoi ceur-ci et non pas des autres) one who wanted bread; whereas the and thence to that most puzzling of all advantage to be derived by the sum pourquois, Pourquoi eristons nous ?" of things” from the performance of a

The multiplicity of metaphysical doubts certain number of chemico-animal and difficulties which thus presented transmutations of matter, and the tranvtheinselves, the long series of theories sitory, existence of one other focus of

for their solution, from Pythagoras to sensibility, the well-spring of desires Kant, (leaving things just where they never accomplished, and of necessity found them) succeeded, if not in solving scarcely half satisfied, is infinitely prothe problem, in leading me away from blematical and confounding. The more myself; while by impressing, perhaps a this idea combined with the details of strong conviction of the insignificance life, the more forcibly it, occupied my of man in the chain of existences, they mind. When I asked myself what helped to restore me to that happy state, benefit I had contributed to nature by in which those who have suffered much bawling through a long winter's evenvicissitude, usually remain with respecting

“ Walk into the auction:" or by · to eventual possibilities.

biting my nails to the quick, to produce Vid. With the results of this part of my such rhimes as

inte son "m! speculations I shall not at present trou “ If you would shine in court or city," ** The final causes of an exist


Among the wealthy or the witty, ence, such as that of man, whether it No point of grace or polish lacking, be considered as respecting this world

Go brush your shoes with patent dlacking;"solely, or in connection with our hopes when I saw myself tossing on the dreary in futurity, the difficulty of reconciling porthern seas through many a tedious the notion of a world of probation with hour, on board the whaler, to light the that of an omniscient Creator, would gamester to his ruin, the thief to his inake, I think, a very pretty quarto, and prey, or to cheat the honest man of with a dedication to a right reverend, those hours which nature had destined and a taking title, might produce a mag- for repose;-when I recollected my painnificent sale. But this by the bye ful labours in correcting the press for 6. From these reflections (I know not some tissue of fraud and false reasonwell how): imagination, taking a second ing, destined to work an imperceptible start at right angles, passed from generals change in some momentary, combinaback again to particulars ; while the tion of a disordered society-ridicule and dismal train of misadventures, which humiliation contended for mastery. But scarce a minute ago had dressed them- how is it, I continued, with the rest of selves in such gloomy colours, re-ap- mankind? are not the great mass of the peared, like Ephesian widows, in the species involved in the same necessities? guyest and most ridiculous attire. The are they not, as well as inyself, com


pelled propter vitam vivendi perdere of service in the scheme of nature. Nay, causas? And then again with the upper to let you into my secret, there are even classes of society, oh! the matter is' ambassadors of much credit, the merit ten times worse. Do we not see the of whose diplomacy I would circuina beauteous harmony and combination scribe within the diamond snuff boxes of organs, the wondrous adaptation of they import, on their returning home the instruments of sense to the propers and there are other machines of " hight ties of surrounding nature, the incessant consideration” I could namie, mounted flowing of the fountains of life, the exclusively to say ay and no and this lightning-like rapidity of volition, the they do so out of all time and season, that untraceable complexity of nutrition, their utility even within this limited the unfathomable profúndity of mind, sphere is more than questionable. In all conspiring to produce-a machine to deed I am almost ashamed of my quest grind or to take snuff? to make black rulousness in thus famenting the efforts and red marks on pieces of paste-board, I have made to keep afloat in society, or to distribute and collect them on a and preserve life and soul together, green table ? to arrange words in metre, when I think of the unwearied patience or to elieit vibrations from an extended with which I have seen a man of rank cat-gut? or to walk straight forward, and fortune walk away whole days be left leg foremost," to turn "eyes righttween the Opera-house and the hősier's and “ eyes left," and in the levelling of shop at the corner of St. James's-street, a musket, to destroy from the face of seeing the same faces, the same car. the earth some thousands of living com- riages, the same eternal caricatures ac binations, as useful and as important the print-shop and on the pavement; personages to nature and to society, as merely to wear out two pieces of bootat the destroyer?

leather, and restore their elements to These considerations very much over- their primitive freedom. I am very came, I confess it, the awful respecť sure that there is less exertion in a with which I had recently addressed hard day's labour at an handicraft trade, you; for even you, Sir, are but a ma- and much less risk of life and limb, than chine, unravelling this month what you are required to kill a fox or to bag a few wove the last. For you know WCT HP brace of partridges; while the efforts of φύλλων γενέη, τοιηδε και Μαγαζινων, one jour- volition which put an unwieldy Apicius nal drives off another, and the race into motion on his daily sacrifice of ex which exists blots out the memory of ercise in search of appetite, are more that which is passed ; so that at the end than on a par with those which necesof a long life your whole importance sity induces in us poor devils in dur! will be locked up in your last produc search for a dinner. Still, however, the tion, that is, unless you bind your num- great question remains unanswered, ber3. Do not, however, let this consi- why, in the endless chain of causations; deration mortify your vanity; for there the aforesaid noble should be compelled are a vast many personages very much to pass his life in wearing out boots, ori our superiors in public estimation, the the aforesaid sportsman in decomposing sum of whose utility will be pretty gun-powder and destroying existences closely bounded to the quantity of ma- more innocent and useful than his own! terials they shall have afforded to the or why I should be necessitated to waste reproductive force of nature; or as Swift my time, and your reader's, with this would say, 'whose merits are commen account of a waking dream? I must, surate with their excretions : unless in- therefore, content myself with the hope deed to be the immediate cause of many of a sufrcing reason on the creditor side horses breaking their wind, many ladies of your books, which will always be an breaking their hearts, and many tailors adequate cause for the best exertions breaking their clothiers, be accounted of, Sir, Yours, &c. &c.; "


PHILOSOPHERS in all ages have dis- have as strenuously insisted that noputed whether a state of nature or of thing but the cultivation of the arts, of civilization is more favourable to the polished society can give birth to any production of virtue. By some it has of the qualities which raise man abore, been asserted, that the simplicity and the level of the brute creation. As is, ignorance of sayage life afford the only usual in such disputes upon general opportunity for its practice; while others principles, both parties have been car-.

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