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'curity, as well as for the re-establishment of the party required were himself at war at the peace, and for the maintenance of the ge- time of the requisition, so that he should be neral tranquillity of Europe, and above all obliged to retain near himself, for his own that of the North.
proper security and defence, the forces which Art. 4. As the two high contracting parties he is bound to furnish to his ally in virtue of profess the same desire to render to each other this treaty? in such case the party required their mutual succours as advantageous as shall be dispensed from furnishig the said sucpossible, and as the natural force of Russia cour so long as the said necessity shall last. consists in land troops, whilst Great Britain Art. 7. The Russian auxiliary troops shall can principally furnish ships of war, it is be provided with field artillery, ammunition, agreed upon, that if his Britannic majesty and every thing of which they may stand in should be attacked or disturbed by any other need in proportion to their number. They power, and in whatever manner it might be, shall be paid and recruited annually by the in the possession of his dominions and pro- requiring court. With regard to the ordinary vinces, so that he should think it necessary rations and portions of provisions and forage, to require the assistance of his ally, her impe- as well as quarters, they shall be furnished to rial majesty of all the Russias shall send him them by the requiring court, the whole on the immediately 10,000 infantry and 2,000 horse. footing upon which his own troops are or shall If, on the other hand, her imperial majesty of be maintained in the field or in quarters. all the Russias should find herself attacked or Art. 8. In case the said Russian auxiliary disturbed by any other power, and in whatever troops required by his Britannic majesty manner it my be, in the possession of her do- should be obliged to march by land, and to minions and provinces, so that she should traverse the dominions of any other powers, think it necessary to require the assistance of his Britannic majesty shall use his endeavours her ally, his Britannic majesty shall send her jointly with her imperial majesty of all the forthwith a squadron of twelve ships of war and Russias to obtain for them a free passage, and of the line, carrying 708 guns, according to shall supply them on their march with the the following list; two ships of 74 guns, ma- necessary provisions and forage in the manner king together 148 guns, and the crews 960 stipulated in the preceding article; and when men; six ships of 60 guns, making 360 guns, they shall have to cross the sea, his Britannic and the crews 2,400 men ; four ships of 50 majesty shall take upon himself either to guns, making 200 guns, and the crews 1,200 transport them in his own ships, or to defray men. In the whole twelve ships, 708 guns, the expenses of their passage; the same is and the crews 4,560 men. This squadron shall also to be understood as well with regard to be properly equipped and armed for war. the recruits which her imperial inajesty These succours shall be respectively sent 10 will be obliged to send to her troops, as rethe places which shall be specified by the re- specting their return to Russia whenever they quiring party, and shall remain at his free dis- shall either be sent back by his Britannic posal as long as hostilities shall last.
majesty, or recalled by her imperial majesty Art. 5. But if the nature of the attack were of all the Russias for her own defence, acsuch, as that the party attacked should not cording to article 6, of this treaty; It is further find it to his interest to demand the effective agreed upon, that, in case of recalling or sendsuccours, such as they have been stipulated for ing back the said troops, an adequate convoy in the preceding article, in that case the two of ships of war shall escort them for their sehigh contracting powers have resolved to curity, change the said succour into a pecuniary sub- ART. 9. The commanding officer, whether sidy; that is to say, if his Britannic majesty of the auxiliary troops of her imperial majesty should be attacked, and should prefer pecu- of all the Russias, or of the squadron which niary succours, her imperial majesty of all the his Briannic majesty is to furnish Russia with, Russias, after the requisition having been pre- shall keep the command which has been inviously made, shall pay to him the sum of five trusted to him; but the command in chief bundred thousand roubles yearly, during the shall belong most certainly to him whom the continuance of hostilities, to assist him to requiring party shall appoint for that purpose support the expenses of the war; and if her under the restriction, however, that nothing imperial majesty of all the Russias should be of importance shall be undertaken that shall attacked, and should prefer pecuniary succours, not have been before-hand regulated and dehis Britannic majesty shall furnish her with termined upon in a council of war, in the prée the same sum yearly, as long as hostilities sence of the general and commanding officers shall last.
of the party required. ART. 6. If the party required, after having ART. 10. And, in order to prevent all disfurnished the succour stipulated in the fourth putes about rank, the requiring party shall article of this treaty, should be himself at give due notice of the officer to whom he will tacked, so as to put him thereby under give the command in chief, whether of a fleet the pecessity of recalling his troops for his or of land forces ; to the end that the party own safety he shall be at liberty to do so, after required may regulate in consequence the rank having informed the requiring party thereof of him who shall have to command the auxitwo months beforehand. In like manner, if liary troops or ships.
Art. 11. Moreover, these auxiliary forces upon, that, considering the great distance of shall have their own chaplains, and the en places the troops which her imperial majesty tirely free exercise of their religion, and shall of all the Russias will have to furnish by virnot be judged in whatever appertains to mili- tue of this alliance, for the defence of his Britary service, otherwise than according to the tannic majesty, shall not be sent to Spain, laws and articles of war of theirown sovereign. Portugal or Italy, and still less out of Europe. It shall likewise be permitted for the general ART. 17. If the succours stipulated in the and the rest of the auxiliary forces to keep up 4th article of this treaty should not be suffia free correspondence with their country, as cient, in that case the contracting parties rewell by letters as expresses.
serve to themselves to make a further proART. 12. The auxiliary forces on both sides vision between themselves with respect to shall be kept together as much as possible; the additional succours which they should and in order to avoid their being subjected to give to each other. greater fatigue than the others, and to the cod Art. 18. The requiring party shall make that there may be in every expedition and neither peace nor truce with the common operation a perfect equality, the commander enemy, without including the required party, in chief shall be bound to observe on every to the end that the latter may not suffer any occasion a just proportion, according to the injury in consequence of the succours he shall force of the whole fleet or army.
have given to his ally. Art. 13. The squadron which bis Britannic ART. 19. The present defensive alliance majesty is to furnish by virtue of this alliance shall in no way derogate from the treaties shall be admitted into all the ports of her im- and alliances which the high contracting parperial majesty of all the Russias, where it ties may have with other powers, inasmuch shall experience the most amicable íreatment, as the said treaties shall not be contrary to and shall be provided with every thing which this, nor to the friendship and good underit may stand in need of, on paying the same standing which they are resolved constantly price as the ships of her imperial majesty of to keep up between them. all the Russias; and the said squadron shall Art. 20. If any other power vould accede be allowed to return every year to the ports of to this present alliance, their said majesties Great Britain as soon as the season will no have agreed to concert together upon the adlonger permit it to keep the sea; but it is for- mission of such power. mally and from this time forward stipulated, Art. 21. The two high contracting parthat this squadron shall return every year to ties, desiring mutually and with eagerness to the Baltic sea about the beginning of the strengthen and consolidate as much as posmonth of May, not to quit it again before the sible the friendship and union already happily month of October, and thal as often as the subsisting between them, and to protect and exigency of the treaty shall require it. extend the commerce between their respective
Art. 14. The requiring party, in claiming subjects, promise to proceed, without delay, the succours stipulated by this treaty, shall to the forming of a definitive arrangement of point out at the same time to the required commerce. party, the place where he shall wish that it Art. 22. As circumstances may make it may, in the first instance, repair; and the said necessary to make some change in the clauses requiring party shall be at liberty to make of the present treaty, the high contracting use of the said succour during the whole time parties have thought proper to fix the durait shall be continued to him, in such manner tion of it to eight years, counting from the day and at such places as he shall judge to be of exchanging the ratification; but before the most suitable for his service against the ag- expiration of the eighth year, it shall be regressor.
newed according to existing circumstances. Art. 15. The conditions of this treaty of ART. 23. The present treaty of alliance alliance shall not be applicable to the wars shall be ratified, and the ratifications ex which may arise between her imperial ma- changed here, in the space of two months, or jesty of all the Russias and the powers and sooner if it can be done. people of Asia, respecting whom his Britannic In witness whereof the above mentioned majesty shall be dispensed with from furnish- ministers plenipotentiary on both sides have ing the succours stipulated by the present signed the present treaty, and have thereunto treaty; excepting in the case of an attack affixed the seal of their arms. Done at St. made by any European power against the Petersburgh, this 7-18th of February, 1795. rights and possessions of her imperial majesty
(L. S.) CTE JEAN D'OSTERMAN. in whatever part of the world it may be. As
(L. S.) ALEXANDER CTE DE BEZalso on the other hand her imperial majesty
BORODKO, of all the Russias shall not be bound to furnish
(L. S.) ARCADI DE MORCOFF. the succours stipulated by this same treaty in any case whatever, excepting that of an attack
TREATY of Defensive Alliance betwen his made by any European power against the
Britannic Majesty and the Emperor of rights and possessions of his Britannic majesty
Germany. Signed at Vienna, the 20th in whatever part of the world it may be.
of May, 1795. Art. 16. It has been in like manner agreed His Majesty the Emperor, and his Majesty the King of Great Britain, being desirous to state of actual possession, and according to renew and to cement the ancient relations of the state of possession which shall exist at the friendship and intimacy between their crowns abuve-mentioned epoch. and their respective dominions, as well as to Art. 5. The succours to be mutually furprovide, in a solid and permanent manner, nished, in virtue of this treaty, shall consist for their future safety, and for the general in 20,000 infantry, and 6,000 cavalry, which tranquillity of Europe, have determined in shall be furnished in the space of two months consequence of these salutary views, to pro- after requisition made by the party attacked, ceed to the conclusion of a new treaty of al- and shall continue to be at its disposition liance; and they have nominated for that during the whole course of the war in which purpose, viz. his majesty the emperor his ac- it shall be engaged. These succours siiall be tual privy councillor and minister for foreign paid and maintained by the power required, affairs, baron de Thugut, commander of the wherever its ally shall employ them; but the order of St. Stephen, and his majesty the king power requiring shall provide them with the of Great Britain, sir' Morton Eden, one of his necessary bread and forage upon the same majesty's privy councillors, knight of the footing with its own troops. If the party rebath, envoy extraordinary and minister ple- quiring prefers, it may demand the succours nipotentiary of bis said majesty at the court to be furnished in money; and in that case of Vienna; who, after having communicated the succours shall be computed at the followto each other their respective full powers, have ing rate, that is to say; 10,000 Dutch florins agreed upon the following articles:
per month for every thousand infantry, and Art. i. There shall be between his impe- 30,000 Dutch forins per month for every rial majesty and his Britannic majesty, their thousand cavalry. And this money shall be heirs and successors, and between all the re paid monthly, in equal portions, throughout spective dominions, provinces, and subjects of the whole year.-If these succours should their said majesties, a perfect and sincere good not suffice for the defence of the power reunderstanding, friendship, and defensive al- quiring, the other party shall augment them liance. The high contracting parties shall according as the occasion shall require, and use all their endeavours for the maintenance shall even succour its ally with its whole of their common interests, and shall employ force, if the circumstances should render it all the means in their power to defend and necessary. guaranty each other mutually against every Art. 6. It is agreed that in consideration hostile aggression.
of the intimate alliance, established by this Art. 2. The high contracting parties shall treaty between the two crowns, neither the act in perfect concert in every thing which one nor the other of the high contracting par. relates to the re-establishment and to the ties shall permit the vessels or merchandize maintenance of general peace; and they shall belonging to its ally, or to the people or subemploy all their efforts to prevent, by the jects of its ally, and which shall have been means of friendly negociation, the attacks taken at sea by any ships of war or privateers with which they may be threatened, either whatsoever, belonging to enemies or rebels, separately or conjointly.
to be brought into its harbours; nor any ship Art. 3. In case either of the high contracting of war or privateer to be therein armed in any parties should be attacked, molested, or dis- case or under any pretext whatsoever, in order turbed in the possession of its dominions, ter- to cruize against the ships and property of ritories or cities whatsoever, or in the exercise such ally, or of his subjects; nor that there of its rights, liberties, or franchises whereso be conveyed by its subjects, or in their ships, ever, and without any exception, the other to the enemies of ils ally, any provisions, or will exert all its endeavours to succour its military or naval stores. For these ends, as ally without delay, and in the manner herein- often as it shall be required by either of the after mentioned.
allies, the other shall be bound to renew exART. 4. Their Imperial and Britannic ma- press prohibitions, ordering all persons to conjesties reciprocally guaranty to each other, form themselves to this article, upon pain of and in the most express manner, all their do- exemplary punishment, in addition to the full minions, territories, cities, rights, liberties, restitution and satisfaction to be made to the and franchises whatsoever, such as they at injured parties. present possess, and such as they shall pos- Art. 7. If, notwithstanding the prohibisess, at the conclusion of a general peace, tions and penalties above-mentioned, any made by their common agreement and con- vessels of enemies or rebels should bring into sent, in conformity to their mutual engage- the ports of either of the high contracting ments in that respect in the convention of parties any prizes taken from the other, or the 30th of August 1793. And the case of from its subjects, the former shall ohlige them this defensive alliance shall exist from the to quit its ports in the space of twenty-four moment whenever either of the high con. hours after their arrival, upon pain of seizure tracting parties shall be disturbed, molested, and confiscation; and the crews and passenor disquieted in the peaceable enjoyment of gers, or other prisoners, subjects of its ally, its dominions, territories, cities, rights, liber. who shall have been brought into the said ties or franchises whatsoever, according to the ports, shall, immediately after their arrival, be restored to their full liberty, with their connexions which exist already between them ship and merchandize, without any delay or a system of triple alliance, proper for the reexception. And if any vessel whatsoever, establishment and maintenance in future of after having been armed or equipped, wholly peace and general tranquillity in Europe.or partially, in the ports of either of the allies, | This article shall have the same force as if it should be employed in taking prizes, or in were inserted in the present treaty. (Signed commitling hostilities against the subjects of as above.] the other, such vessel, in case of its returning into the said ports, shall, at the requisition of
TREATY of Amity, Commerce, and Navithe injured parties, be seized and confiscated gation, between his Britannic Majesty, for their benefit.-- The high contracting par
and the United States of America. Signed ties do not intend that the stipulations in
at London, the 19th of Nov. 1794. these two articles should derogate from the George the Third, by the Grace of God, execution of anterior treaties actually existing King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Dewith other powers; the high contracting par- fender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Luties not being, however, at liberty to form new nenburgh, Arch-treasurer and Prince Elector engagements hereafter to the prejudice of the of the Holy Roman Empire, &c. To all and said stipulations.
singular to whom these presents shall come, ART. 8. Their Imperial and Britannic ma- greeting : Whereas our right trusty and welljesties engage to ratify the present treaty of beloved counsellor, William Wyndham, baron alliance, and the ratifications thereof shall be Grenville of Wotton, our principal secretary, exchanged in the space of six weeks, or sooner of state for foreign affairs, &c. &c did, on our if it can done.
.part, together with the plenipotentiary of our In witness whereof we, the undersigned, good friends the United States of America, being furnished with the full powers of their conclude and sign at London, on the 19th Imperial and Britannic majesties, have signed day of November, 1794, a treaty of amity, the present treaty in their names, and have commerce, and navigation, between us and caused the seals of our arms to be affixed our said good friends : and whereas a certain thereto. Done at Vienna, the 20th day of additional article has, on the part of the said May, 1795.
United States, been proposed to be annexed (L. S.) MORTON EDEN. to the said treaty as a part thercot; to which
addition we are willing to consent; the said Separate Article.
treaty and additional article being in the In case the establishment, in general limit- words following: ed, of the land forces of Great Britain, should
TREATY. not permit his Britannic majesty to furnish, within the term specified, the suiccour in men His Britannic Majesty and the United States stipulated by the 5th article of the present of America, being desirous, by a treaty of treaty of alliance, and that consequenty his amity, commerce, and navigation, to termi. imperial majesty should be obliged to supply rate their differences in such a manner as, that succour by an equal number of other without reference to the merits of their retroops, to be taken into his pay, the confi- spective complaints and pretensions, may be dence which the emperor reposes in the friend the best calculated to produce mutual satisship and equity of the king of Great Britain faction and good understanding; and also to leaves him no room to doubt but that his Bri- regulate the commerce and navigation betannic majesty will readily grant him an in tween their respective countries, territories, demnification for the difference, wliich, ac and people, in such a manner as to render cording to a just valuation at the time, shall the same reciprocally beneficial and satisexist between the expenses of the taking into | factory; they have, respectively, named their pay and subsistence of those troops, and the plenipotentiaries, and given them full powers estimate in Dutch forins, which, in order to to treat of and conclude the said treaty; that avoid every delay of discussion, has been is to say, his Britannic majesty has named, adopted in the above-mentioned 5th article, for his plenipotentiary, the right hon William in conformity to the estimate contained in Wyndham, baron Grenville of Wotton, one ancient treaties. This separate article, mak of his majesty's privy council, and his maing part of the treaty of alliance, signed this jesty's principal secretary of state for foreign day in the name of their Imperial and Britannic affairs; and the president of the said United majesties, shall have the same force and vali- States, by and with the advice and consent of dity as if it were inserted word for word in the the senate thereof, bath appointed for their said treaty of alliance.
plenipotentiary the hon. John Jay, chief jusAmerica ; and between their respective coun- / sels from the sea into the rivers of the United tries, territories, cities, towns, and people, of States, beyond the highest ports of entry for every degree, without exception of persons or vessels from the sea. The river Mississippi places.
tice of the said United States, and their envoy Separate Article.
extraordinary to his majesty, who have agreed Their Imperial and Britannic majesties shall on and concluded the following articles: concert together upon the invitation to be Art. 1. There shall be a firm, inviolable, given to her imperial majesty of all the Rus- and universal peace, and a true and sincere sias, in order to form, by the union of the friendship between his Britannic majesty, his three courts, in consequence of the intimate heirs and successors, and the United States of
shall, however, according to the treaty of ART. 2. His majesty will withdraw all his peace, be entirely open to both parties; and troops and garrisons from all posts and places it is farther agreed, that all the ports and within tne boundary lines assigned by the places on its eastern side, to which svever of treaty of peace to the United States. This the parties belonging, may freely be resorted evacuation shall take place on or before the to, and used by both parties, in as ample a 1st day of June, 1796, and all the proper manner as any of the Atlantic ports or places measures shall in the interval be taken by of the United States, or any of the ports or concert between the government of the United places of his majesty in Great Britain.--All States and his majesty's governor-general in goods and merchandize, whose importation America, for settling the previous arrange- into his majesty's said territories in America ments which may be necessary respecting the shall not be entirely prohibited, may freely, delivery of the said posts; the United States, for the purposes of commerce, be carried into in the mean time, at their discretion, extend the same, in the manner aforesaid, by the ing their settlements to any part within the citizens of the United States; and such goods said boundary line, except within the precincts and merchandize shall be subject to no higher or jurisdiction of any of the said posts. All or other duties than would be payable by his settlers and traders within the precincts or majesty's subjects on the importation of the jurisdiction of the said posts, shall continue same from Europe into the said territories. to enjoy, unmolested, all their property of And, in like manner, all goods and merchanevery kind, and shall be protected therein; dize, whose importation into the United States they shall be at full liberty to remain there, shall not be wholly prohibited, may freely, or to remove withal or any part of their ef- for the purpose of commerce, be carried into fects; and it shall also be free to them to sell the same, in the manner aforesaid, by bis their land, houses, or effects, or to retain the majesty's subjects; and such goods and merproperty thereof, at their discretion. Such of chandize shall be subject to no higher or other them as shall continue to reside within the duties than would be payable by the citizens said boundary lipes shall not be compelled to of the United States on the importation of the become citizens of the United States, or to same, in American vessels, into the Atlantic take any oath of allegiance to the government ports of the said states. And all goods not thereof, but they shall be at full liberty to do prohibited to be exported from the said terri. so, if they think proper; and they shall make tories respectively, may, in like manner, be and declare their election within one year carried out of the same by the two parties re-' after the evacuation aforesaid. And all per- spectively, paying, duty as aforesaid.-No sons who shall continue there after the expi- duty of entry shall ever be levied, by either ration of the said year, without having de- party, on peltries brought by land or inland clared their intention of remaining subjects navigation into the said territories respecor his Britannic majesty, shall be consi- tively; nor shall the Indians, passing or redered as having elected to become citizens passing with their own proper goods and of the United States.
effects, of whatever nature, pay for the same Art. 3. It is agreed, that it shall at all any impost or duty whatever ; but goods in times be free to his majesty's subjects, and to bales, or other large packages unusual among the citizens of the United States, and also the Indians, shall not be considered as goods beIndians dwelling on either side of the said longing bona fide to Indians.--No higher or boundary line, freely to pass and repass, by other tolls or rates of ferriage than what are land or inland navigation, into the respective or shall be payable by natives, shall be deterritories and countries of the two parties on manded on either side; and no duties shall the continent of America (the country within be payable on any goods which shall merely the limit of the Hudson's-bay company only be carried over any of the portages or carryexcepted) and to navigate all the lakes, rivers, ing-places on either side, for the purpose of and waters thereof, and freely to carry on being inimediately re-embarked and carried trade and commerce with each other. But it I to some other place or places. But, 'as by is understood, that this article does not extend this stipulation, it is only meant to secure to to the admission of vessels of the United each party a free passage across the portages States into the sea-ports, harbours, bays, or on both sides, it is agreed, that this exempo' creeks of his majesty's said territories; nor tion from duty shall extend only to such into such parts of the rivers in his majesty's goods as are carried in the usual and direct said territories as are between the mouth road across the portage, and are not attempted thereot and the highest port of entry from to be in any manner sold or exchanged during the sea, except in small vessels trading boná their passage across the same; and proper fide between Montreal and Quebec, under regulations may be established to prevent the such regulations as shall be established to possibility of any frauds' in this respect.-AS prevent the possibility of any frauds in this this article is intended to render, in a great respect; wchor to the admission of British ves degree, the local advantages of each party