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honour of the Rulers of France 8. That the most gross and Aimsy hypocrisy, pretending a regard for all religions in turn, as it suits the ambitious views of the conqueror, whilst his object is to subvert every establishment, both civil and religious, is one of the Republican virtues, we may appeal to the Proclamation of Bonaparte h to the inhabitants of Egypt.-Last year

he flattered with the warmest professions of regard for the Catholic faith, the sovereign Pontiff, whom he immediately after drove into want and exile; and now he is professing an ardent zeal for the religion of the Mahometans, whilst he invades their dominions, and ravages Egypt with fire and sword i.


* See Harper's Pamphlet; the “Correspondence of the American Ministers to France, presented to Congress, April 3, 1798,” printed for Debrett; and Lavater's Letter to the Executive Directory,

h See his character drawn by Mallet du Pan, in his work on the Destruction of Helvetic Liberty.

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i The following is the transation of the authentic Procla

mation isued by BONAPARTE, in the Arabic Lan,
guage, on his landing in Egypt.
In the name of God, gracious and merciful. There

is 9


While a direct proof of the hostility of the ruling powers of France against Chrif


is no God but God; he has no son or associate in his kingdom.

The present moment, which is destined for the punishment of the Beys, has been long anxiously expected. The Beys, coming from the mountains of Georgia and Bajars, have desolated this beautiful country, long insulted and treated with contempt the French Nation, and oppressed her merchants in various ways. Bonaparte, the General of the French Republic, according to the principles of Liberty, is now arrived; and the Almighty, the Lord of both Worlds, has sealed the destruction of the Beys.

Inhabitants of Egypt! When the Beys tell you the French are come to destroy your religion, believe them not: it is an absolute falsehood. Answer those deceivers, that they are only come to rescue the rights of the poor from the hands of their tyrants, and that the French adore the Supreme Being, and honour the Propher and his holy Koran.

All men are equal in the eyes of God: understand- . ing, ingenuity, and science, alone make a difference between them: as the Beys, therefore, do not possess any of these qualities, they cannot be worthy to govern the country.

Yet are they the only poffeffors of extensive tracts of land, beautiful female flaves, excellent horses, magnificent palaces! Have they then received an exclusive privilege from the Almighty? If so, let them produce it. But the Supreme Being, who is just and merciful towards all mankind, wills that in future none of the inhabitants of Egypt shall be prevented from attaining

tianity is afforded by the persecution and oppression exercised against its profeffors, an


to the first employments and the highest honours. The Administration, which shall be conducted by persons of intelligence, talents, and foresight, will be productive of happinefs and security. The tyranny and avarice of the Beys have laid waste Egypt, which was formerly so populous and well cultivated.

The French are true Mullulmen. Not long since they marched to Rome, and overthrew the Throne of the Pope, who excited the Christians against the professors of Islamism (the Mahometan religion). Afterwards they directed their course to Malta, and drove out the unbelievers, who imagined they were appointed by God to make war on the Muffulmen. The French have at all times been the true and sincere friends of the Ottoman Emperors, and the enemies of their enemies. May the Empire of the Sultan therefore be eternal; but may the Beys of Egypt, our opposers, whose infatiable avarice has continually excited disobedience and insubordination, be trodden in the dust and annihilated !

Our friendship shall be extended to those of the inhabitants of Egypt who shall join us, as also to those who fhall remain in their dwellings, and observe a strist neutrality; and when they have seen our conduct with their own eyes, hasten to submit to us; but the dreadsul punishment of death awaits those who shall take up arms for the Beys, and against us. For then there shall be no deliverance, nor shall any trace of them re. main.

Art. 1. All places which shall be three leagues dirtant from the route of the French armya Thall send one


indirect, but ample, attestation to the same fact is obtained, by the new and popular


of their principal inhabitants to the French General, to declare that they submit, and will hoist the French flag, which is blue, white and red.

Art. 2. Every village which shall oppose the French army, shall be burned to the ground.

Art. 3. Every village which shall fubmit to the French, shall hoist the French flag, and that of the Sublime Porte, their Ally, whose duration be eternal.

Art. 4. The Cheiks and principal persons of each town and village shall seal up the houses and effects of the Beys, and take care that not the smallest article shall be lost.

Art. 5. The Cheiks, Cadis, and Imans, shall continue to exercise their respective functions, and put up their prayers, and perform the exercise of religious worship in the mosques and houses of prayer. All the inhabitants of Egypt shall offer up thanks to the Supreme Being, and put up public prayers for the destruction of the Beys.

May the Supreme God make the glory of the Sultan of the Ottomans eternal, pour forth his wrath on the Mameloucs, and render glorious the destiny of the Egyptian Nation.

k “ If there is any thing that meets with discourage ment from government in this country, that refers to public instruction, it is the remains of the Roman Catholic Religion, which, with all the letters and laws of tolerance which have been passed, has not been able to raise itself up from under the crush of the interdict which the combined powers of philosophy and terror have s 3


sect? of the Theophilanthropists. Nor is this the least curious feature in the important aspect of the present times—While they profess to act solely upon the principles of natural, they boldly borrow the truths of revealed, Religion; while they affect to attain their knowledge by sentiment and reason only, they unblushingly transcribe to into their code, whole pages of the inspired Volumes. This sect must therefore have taken its rise from one of these two motives; --either some persons feeling the necessity and importance of establishing some religious principle, as a support to moral vir.

laid on it.” Mr. Stone's intercepted letter to Dr. Priestley, printed for J. Wright, 1798. p. 25.

Mr. Stone is in the secret, and is the advocate for the measures of the present French Government-It is natural therefore to suppose, that, in his Philosophical Dictionary, transportation to Cayenne, is synonymous with tolerance.

?« You have heard, no doubt, of the new sect which now has usurped every church in Paris, under the name of Theophilanthropism. This sect is prohibited by the government.” Ibid.

Mr. Stone incautiously tells the real truth in the first sentence. Is it possible that, under the present strong and despotic Government of France, a seat prohibited by it, should have usurped all the churches in Paris?

* See the manual of the Theophilanthropes, translated by John Walker, particularly p. 14-17,



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