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“ As 'to the word mall hate, it implies, Shall forsake ; and if the kings in Christendom forsake Rome, what can follow, but that either they will combine to destroy it, or else rather stand by neuters, whilst some one of them performs this last office to destroy it?—The beast as such, the false prophet, and the whore, are inseparable companions, that is, the Romish Church or City, Popery, and Tyranny. But the horns shall be separated from the whore, and consequently from the beast, or the exercise of that tyrannical power which makes them a beast, and maintains this whore in splendor and power. 'From this place and the following, we may Safely conje&ture, that the instruments God shall make use of to destroy Rome, not being said to come out of the Temple, shall not therefore be of the number of the true worshippers, or Protestants, but of those that are still horns upon the beast; that is, of such as are still in communion with Rome, at least some one or more of them.
“ And shall eat her Flesh. Flesh, in the symbolical language, signifies the riches, goods, and possessions, of any person, or subject conquered, oppressed, or slain- -Ву
this third act of the horns, it that the secular powers, who shall attack this whore, will not only strip her of her riches and revenues, but also appropriate them to themselves.
" The ten borns Mall hate the whore; that is, by a common figure of the whole for a part, some of the ten kings who formerly loved her, grown sensible of her exorbitant exactions and oppressions, shall hate ber, fhall strip, and expose, and plunder her, and utterly consume her with fire. Rome therefore will finally be destroyed by some of the princes, who are reformed, or shall be reformed from Popery: and as the kings of France have contributed greatly to her adpancement, it is not imposible, nor improbable, that some time or other they may also be the principal authors of her defiruction, France hath already shown fome tendency towards a reformation, and therefore may appear more likely to effect such a Revolution. Such a revolution may reasonably be expected, because this infatuation of Popish princes is perinitted by divine Providence only for a certain period, until the words of God Mall be fulfilled, and particularly the words of
the Prophet Daniel—They hall be given into his hand, until a time, and times, and the dividing of time : but then, as it immediately follows, the judgment shall fit, and they
away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the endi."
The obfervations of Bifhop Newton are more definite with respect to the Power, which he expected would effect the subversion of the Papal greatness; but he expected also (and some other Commentators have agreed with him) that a Reformation would previously take place in France-but for this opinion he assigns no reason drawn from Scripture; whereas the opinion of Daubuz, that the instrument God would make use of, could not be true worshippers, or Protestants, being founded on the Prophecy itself, has been verified by the events.
This apoftasy of those who raised the power of Antichristian Rome, this degradation of her fovereign Pontiff, whom the nations and kings of the earth once worThipped, or held in idolatrous veneration, this appropriation of his spoils to the enrichment of his conquerors, are events which will probably lead the way to the complete fall and destruction of the capital of this Antichristian power, when the measure of its abominations shall be filled
· Newton, vol. iii. p. 308.
up. Lowman observes k, and it is an important observation, “ that the fifth vial or cup is poured out on the throne of the beast; so the word is in the original. In the Scripture language, throne, kingdom, government, authority, dominion and power, are of like signification.”—“The throne then of the beast, which our translation has rendered feat, seems plainly to mean his authority and
rather than the city or feat of his residence. For the Prophetic language puts a throne to signify, not the feat of a kingdom, but its power and authority. And so this very Prophecy explains it: this angel poured his vial on the feat of the beast, and his kingdom was full of darkness. Darkness is an emblem of affliction ; a kingdom full of darkness, will then naturally signify a great diminution of power, and decay of authority: so that the distinguishing punishment of the beast in this period, that his kingdom shall be full of darkness, will most properly mean some great and successful opposition to the Papal power and authority, which shall much weaken and lessen it, and give such uneasiness to the supporters of it, as shall drive them into a rage, and make them bite their tongues as it were, for anger and vexation.”
* Lowman, p. 265.
The final destruction of Rome is likewise clealy set forth, particularly by St. John in the Prophecies which have been quoted', together with the reasons on account of which this signal and heavy judgment will be inflicted, and the emotions it is calculated to raise in the minds of mankind.
• The last act which the secular powers shall perform towards this whore, or capital city, is, that they shall destroy her with fire and sword; and by that means leave no refuge there to any of her lovers to hold up, and maintain by her power,
the idolatry and tyrannical dominion exercised
1 Introductory Chapter, vol. i. p. 297.