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A.C. About 2 Arise, go to Nineveh, that "great city, and cry against
it; for their wickedness is come up

before me.
n Gen. x. II,
12, ch. iii. 2, 3.

a native of Gath-hepher, in the tribe of Zebulun; a town in the most remote
part of that district. This province was that part of the district of Galilee, more
particularly called Galilee of the Gentiles, on account of the great admixture of
people who had forced themselves into the country, and had brought with them
their various forms of worship. In the midst of these lived Jonah, who appears
to have been more or less affected with the idolatry of this mixed multitude, and
to have imbibed an idea, very prevalent among the Pagan nations, that parti-
cular gods presided over particular districts, or provinces. In conformity to this
doctrine, he considers Jehovah as the local God of Judea, and in order to escape
from his presence he “rose up to flee unto Tarshish.” And for this purpose
“ he went down to Joppa.” At the latter place was worshipped a marine deity,
Derceto, Atergatis, or Cetus, Palácoios ixous raupeyéons, a sea fish of an
immense size; and Jonah, who at this time must have apostatized from the faith
of the true God, would, without doubt, now commit himself to the protection of
this idol, and we must conclude that " when the mariners were afraid, and
cried every one unto his god," that they invoked this sea deity. What must
have been their astonishment then, on throwing Jonah overboard, to behold him
swallowed up by their own god, who was thus converted into an unresisting in-
strument of punishment and preservation by the God of heaven, “which bath
made the sea and the dry land," on whom the prophet in his distress had pro
fessed to believe! But to give a more unequivocal and general demonstration of
the weakness and helplessness of this deified monster of the deep, Jonah, after
having passed three days and three nights in the belly of the fish, was brought
back again to Joppa, (the very place he had so lately left,) and in the imme-
diate view of the temple of Derceto, and in the presence of its numerous votaries,
the prophet was disgorged from the belly of their god! That Jonah was ejected
at Joppa seems to be confirmed by the large bones of such an animal being there
preserved. Pliny mentions these enormous bones, and informs us they were
brought as a great curiosity to Rome, and they were exhibited by M. Scaurus
in his Ædileship. The ribs appeared more in height than those of an Indian
elephant, and the length of the bones forty feet.

The history of Jonah has been esteemed by many as merely allegorical and
descriptive; bat it cannot for a moment be considered in this light, when it is
remembered that our Lord himself refers to it as a type of his own imprison.
ment in the bosom of the earth; and he alludes, likewise, to the history of
Jonah as a fact, when he declares that the Ninevites repented at his preaching.
Without this incontestible evidence, there is a reason and fitness throughout
the whole relation, which wonderfully prove the propriety, justice, wisdom, and
power of the Supreme Being, and the object and design of this miracle. No
punishment could bave been more analogous to the offence of the prophet, and
no appeal more convincing to the idolaters, of the inferiority of their powerless
god. To this miracle may be attributed, in great measure, through the mercy
of God, the successful preaching of Jonah to the Ninevites.

Vide “ Observations upon some Passages of Scripture, which the enemies to Religion have thought most obnoxious, and attended with difficulties not to surmounted," by Jacob Bryant, 4to. p. 199, &c. &c.

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# Heb. cast

Heb thought to be broken,

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3 But Jonah rose up to flee unto Tarshish from the pre- A.C. About
sence of the LORD, and went down to Joppa ; and he found
a ship going to Tarshish : so he paid the fare thereof, and
went down into it, to go down with them unto Tarshish from
the presence of the LORD.

4 But the LORD sent out a great wind into the sea, fortite
and there was a mighty tempest in the sea, so that the ship
+ was like to be broken.

6 Then the mariners were afraid, and cried every man
unto his god, and cast forth the wares that were in the ship
into the sea, to lighten it of them. But Jonah was gone
down into the sides of the ship; and he lay, and was fast

6 So the shipmaster came to him, and said unto him, What meanest thou, O sleeper? arise, call upon thy God, if so be that God will think upon us, that we perish not.

7 And they said every one to his fellow, Come, and let us cast lots, that we may know for whose cause this evil is upon us. So they cast lots, and the lot fell


8 Then said they unto him, Tell us, we pray thee, for
whose cause this evil is upon us; What is thine occupation ?
and whence comest thou? what is thy country? and of what
people art thou?

9 And he said unto them, I am an Hebrew; and I fear
the Lord, the God of Heaven, which hath made the sea
and the dry land.

10 Then were the men I exceedingly afraid, and said Heb. with
unto him, Why hast thou done this? For the men knew
that he fled from the presence of the Lord, because he had
told them.

11 $ Then said they unto him, What shall we do unto

, that the sea & may be calm unto us? for the sea Heb. may be
1* wrought, and was tempestuous.
12 And he said unto them, Take me up, and cast me

forth into the sea; so shall the sea be calm unto you: for I * Heb. went,
know that for my sake this great tempest is upon you.

13 Nevertheless the men + rowed hard to bring it to the + Heb. digged.
land; but they could not: for the sea wrought, and was
tempestuous against them.

14 Wherefore they cried unto the Lord, and said, We
beseech thee

, O Lord, we beseech thee, let us not perish
for this man's life, and lay not upon us innocent blood : for

, O Lord, hast done as it pleased thee.
15 So they took up Jonah, and cast him forth into the
sea : and the sea I ceased from her raging.

16 Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly, and 8 of- ficede sacri.
fered a sacrifice unto the Lord, and made vows.

great fear,

silent from us.
# Or, grow
more and more

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Heb. stood.

fice unto the LORD, and wwed iows.

17 q Now the LORD had prepared a great fish to swallow

Jonah. And • Jonah was in the * belly of the fish three • Matt. xii. 40. days and three nights.

A.C. About 787.


& xvi. 4. Luke xi. 30.

Heb. bowels.


Ps. cxx. I. + Or, out of

Hcb. heart.

9 Ps. Ixix. 1.

1 The prayer of Jonah, 10 He is delivered from the fish.
1 Then Jonah prayed unto the Lord his God out of the
fish's belly,

2 And said, I P cried + by reason of mine affliction unto mine afliction. the LORD, and he heard me; out of the belly of hell cried Or the grave.

I, and thou heardest my voice.

3 For thou hadst cast me into the deep, in the midst of the seas; and the floods compassed me about: all thy billows and thy waves passed over me.

4 Then I said, I am cast out of thy sight; yet I will look again toward thy holy temple.

5 The ? waters compassed me about, even to the soul: the depth closed me roundabout, the weeds were wrapped about

6 I went down to the || bottoms of the mountains ; the

earth with her bars was about me for ever: yet hast thou Or, the pit. brought up my life from * corruption, O Lord my God.

7 When my soul fainted within me I remembered the LORD: and my prayer came in unto thee, into thine holy temple.

8 They that observe lying vanities forsake their own

mercy: Ps. 1. 14, 23.

9 But I will sacrifice unto thee with the voice of thanksHow Xv.m. giving; I will pay that that I have vowed. Salvation is Heb. xiii. 15. of the LORD.

10 And the LORD spake unto the fish, and it vomited out Jonah upon the dry land.

my head.

|| Heb.cuttings

s P's, iii, 8.


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1 Jonah, sent again, preacheth to the Ninevites. 5 Upon their repentance, 10

God repenteth.
1 And the word of the LORD came unto Jonah the second
time, saying,

2 Arise, go unto Nineveh, that great city, and preach
unto it the preaching that I bid thee.

3 So Jonah arose, and went unto Nineveh, according to + Hcb. of God. the word of the LORD. Now Nineveh was an + exceeding

great city of three days' journey.

4 And Jonah began to enter into the city a day's journey, and he cried, and said, Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown.



t Matt, xii. 41. Luke xi. 32


on ell cried

-5 So the people of Nineveh believed God, and pro- A.C. About
claimed a fast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest of
them even to the least of them.

6 For word came unto the king of Nineveh, and he arose
from his throne, and he laid his robe from him, and covered
him with sackcloth, and sat in ashes.

7 And he caused it to be proclaimed and * published * Heb said. through Nineveh by the decree of the king and his + no- Heb. great bles

, saying, Let neither man nor beast, herd nor flock, taste any thing : let them not feed, nor drink water:

8 But let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cty mightily unto God : yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands.

9. Who can tell if God will turn and repent, and turn u Joel ii. 14. away from his fierce anger, that we perish not.

10 And God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, that he had said that he would do unto them; and he did it not,

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5. Joel ii, 13.

1 Jonah, repining at God's mercy, 4 is reproved by the type of a gourd.

1 But it displeased Jonah exceedingly, and he was very
2 And he prayed unto the Lord, and said, I pray thee,
O Lord, was not this my saying, when I was yet in my
country? Therefore I *fied before unto Tarshish: for 1 xch, i. 3.
knew that thou art a' gracious God, and merciful, slow to y Ex. XXXIV.
anger, and of great kindness, and repentest thee of the evil. & Palsxxvi.

3 Therefore now, O LORD, take, I beseech thee, my life
from me; for it is better for me to die than to live.

4 9 Then said the Lord, # Doest thou well to be angry? 101, Art thou
5 So Jonah went out of the city, and sat on the east side greatly angry:
of the city, and there made him a booth, and sat under it
in the shadow, till he might see what would become of the

And the Lord God prepared a şl gourd, and made Or, palm.
it to come up over Jonah, that it might be a shadow over to. Kika.
his head

, to deliver him from his grief. So Jonah * exceeding glad of the gourd.

7 But God prepared a worm when the morning rose the
next day

, and it smote the gourd that it withered.
8 And it came to pass, when the sun did arise, that God
prepared a + vehement east wind; and the sun beat upon + Or, silent.
the head of Jonah, that he fainted, and wished in himself
to die

, and said, Út is better for me to die than to live.


was * Heb. re

joiced with
great joy.

A.C. About

9 And God said to Jonah, * Doest thou well to be angry 787. for the gourd ? And he said, + I do well to be angry, even * Or, Art thou unto death. grentlyangry? * Or, I am

10 Then said the Lord, Thou hast I had pity on the greatly angry gourd, for the which thou hast not laboured, neither madest Heb was the it grow; which came & up in a night, and perished in a


11 And should not I spare Nineveh, that great city,
wherein are more than sixscore thousand persons
not discern between their right hand and their left hand;
and also much cattle ?

son of the the night.

that can

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Death of Jeroboam the Second.

2 KINGS XIV. ver. 28.
28 Now the rest of the acts of Jeroboam, and all that

he did, and his might, how he warred, and how he recovered
Damascus, and Hamath, which belonged to Judah, for Is-
rael, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of
the kings of Israel ?

10 | Then Amaziah the priest of Beth-el sent to Jero-
boam king of Israel, saying, Amos hath conspired against
thee in the midst of the house of Israel : the land is not able
to bear all his words.

11 For thus Amos saith, Jeroboam shall die by the sword,
and Israel shall surely be led away captive out of their own

12 Also Amaziah said unto Amos, O thou seer, go, flee thee away into the land of Judah, and there eat bread, and prophesy there :

13 But prophesy not again any more at Beth-el: for it is | Or, sanctu- the king's || chapel, and it is the * king's court.

14 | Then answered Amos, and said to Amaziah, I was

no prophet, neither was I a prophet's son; but I was an +Or, will figs. herdman, and a gatherer of + sycomore fruit: Heb. from

15 And the LORD took me I as I followed the flock, behind. and the LORD said unto me, Go, prophesy unto my people


16 Now therefore hear thou the word of the LORD: Ezek. xxi. 2. Thou sayest, Prophesy not against Israel, and drop not

thy word against the house of Isaac.

*17 Therefore thus saith the LORD; Thy wife shall be an harlot in the city, and thy sons and thy daughters shall fall

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ary. # Heb, house of the kingdom.

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