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sion of the Jesuits, there appeared at Rome an attack upon them, entitled “ Riflessioni sur Gesuitismo,", 1772, to which Benvenuti replied in a pamphlet, entitled “ Irreflessioni sur Gesuitismo ;" but this answer gave so much offence, that he was obliged to leave Rome and retire into Poland, where he was kindly received by the king, and became a favourite at his court. He died at Warsaw, in September, 1789.1

BENVENUTI (Joseph), an Italian surgeon, or rather physician, was born in the territory of Lucca, about the year 1728. He received the degree of doctor, began practice at Sarzano in 1755, as a member of the faculty; in 1756 was chosen member of the German imperial society; and in 1758 of the royal society of Gottingen, while he was practising at the baths of Lucca. In 1753, he happened to be at a place in that republic, called Brandeglio, where an epidemic fever of a particular kind prevailed, which he treated with great success by means of mercury. This formed the subject of his treatise, entitled “ Dissertatio historico-epistolaris, &c.” Lucca, 1754, 8vo, ably dlefending the preference he found it necessary to give to mercury over the bark, and vindicating Dr. Bertini, of whom he learned that method, against certain opponents, Benvenuti's other works are, 1. “ De Lucensium Thermarum sale tractatus," Lucca, 1758, 8vo. This he also translated into Italian, with a letter on the virtues of these waters. 2. “ Riflessioni sopra gli effetti del moto a ca. vallo,” Lucca, 1760, 4to. 3. “ Dissertatio physica de Lumine,” Vienne, 1761, 4to. 4. “ De rubiginis frumentum corrumpentis cansa et medela,” Lucca, 1762. 5.“ Ob. servationum medicarum quæ anatomiæ superstructæ sunt, collectio prima," Lucca, 1764, 12mo. He also promoted the publication of the first volume of the “ Dissertationes et Quæstiones medicæ magis celebres,” Lucca, 1757, 8vo. Our authority does not give the date of his death. ,

BENYOWSKY (COUNT MAURITIUS AUGUSTUS DE), an adventurer of very dubious, but not uninteresting character, one of the Magnates of the kingdoms of Hungary and Poland, was born in the year 1741, at Verbowa, the hereditary lordship of his family, situated in Nittria, in Hungary. After receiving the education which the court of Vienna affords to the youth of illustrious families, at the

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age of fourteen years, he fixed on the profession of arms. He was accordingly received into the regiment of Siebenschien, in quality of lieutenant; and joining the Imperial army, then in the field against the king of Prussia, was present at the battles of Lowositz, Prague, Schweidnitz, and Darmstadt. In 1758, he quitted the Imperial service and hastened into Lithuania, at the instance of his uncle the starost of Benyowsky, and succeeded as his heir to the possession of his estates. The tranquillity, however, which he now enjoyed was interrupted by intelligence of the sudden death of his father, and that his brothers-in-law had taken possession of his inheritance. These circumstances demanding his immediate presence in Hungary, he quitted Lithuania with the sole view of obtaining possession of the property of his family ; but his brothers-in-law by force opposed his entrance into his own castle. He then repaired to Krussava, a lordship dependant on the castle of Verbowa, where, after having caused bimself to be acknowledged by his vassals, and being assured of their fidelity, he armed them, and by their assistance gained possession of all his effects ; but his brothers, having represented him at the court of Vienna as a rebel and disturber of the public peace, the empress queen issued a decree in chancery against him, by which he was deprived of his property, and compelled to withdraw into Poland. He now determined to travel; but after taking several voyages to Hamburgh, Amsterdam, and Plymouth, with intention to apply himself to navigation, he received letters from the magnates and senators of Poland, which induced him to repair to Warsaw, where he joined the confederation then forming, and entered into an obligation, upon oath, not to acknowledge the king, until the confederation, as the only lawful tribunal of the republic, should have declared him lawfully elected; to oppose the Russians by force of arms; and not to forsake the colours of the confederation so long as the Russians should remain in Poland. Leaving Warsaw, in the month of December, be attempted to make his rights known at the court of Vienna; but disappointed in this endeavour, and deprived of all hope of justice, he resolved to quit for ever the dominions of the house of Austria. On his return to Poland, he was attacked, during his passage through the county of Zips, with a violent fever; and being received into the house of Mr. Hensky, a gentleman of distinction, he paid

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his addresses and was married to one of his three daugha ters, but did not continue long in possession of happiness or repose. The confederate states of Poland, a party of whom had declared themselves at Cracow, observing that the count was one of the first who had signed their union at Warsaw, wrote to him to join them; and, compelled by the strong tie of the oath he had taken, he departed without informing his wife, and arrived at Cracow on the very day count Panin made the assault. He was received with open arms by martial Czarnesky, and immediately appointed colonel general, commander of cavalry, and quarter-master-general. On the 6th of July 1768, he was detached to Navitaig to conduct a Polish regiment to Cracow, and he not only brought the whole regiment, composed of six hundred men, through the camp of the enemy before the town, but soon afterwards defeated a body of Russians at Kremenka; reduced Landscroen, which prince Lubomirsky, who had joined the confederacy with two thousand regular troops, had attempted in vain ; and, by his great gallantry and address, contrived the means of introducing supplies into Cracow when besieged by the Russians : but the count, having lost above sixteen hundred men in affording this assistance to the town, was obliged to make a precipitate retreat the moment he had effected his purpose; and being pursued by the Russian cavalry, composed of cossacks and hussars, he had the misfortune to have his horse killed under him, and fell at last, after receiving two wounds, into the hands of the enemy. Apraxin, the Russian general, being informed of the successful manouvre of the count, was impressed with a very high opinion of him, and proposed to him to enter into the Russian service; but rejecting the overture with disdain, he was only saved from being sent to Kiovia with the other prisoners by the interposition of his friends, who paid 9621. sterling for his ransomn. Thus set at liberty, he considered himself as released from the parole which he had given to the Russians; and again entering the town of Cracow, he was received with the most perfect satisfaction by the whole confederacy. The town being no longer tenable, it became an object of the utmost consequence to secure another place of retreat; and the count, upon his own proposal and request, was appointed to seize the castle of Lublau, situated on the frontier of Hungary; but after visiting the commanding officer of the castle, who was not apprehensive of the least

danger, and engaging more than one half of the garrison by oath in the interests of the confederation, an inferior officer, who was dispatched to assist him, indiscreetly divulged the design, and the count was seized and carried into the fortress of Georgenburgh, and sent from thence to general Apraxin. On his way to that general, however, he was rescued by a party of confederates, and returned to Lublin, a town where the rest of the confederation of Cracow had appointed to meet, in order to join those of Bar, from which time he performed a variety of gallant actions, and underwent great vicissitudes of fortune. On the 19th of May, the Russian colonel judging that the count was marching towards Stry, to join the confederate parties at Sauok, likewise hastened his march, and arrived thither half a day before the count, whose forces were weakened by fatigue and hunger. In this state he was attacked about noon by colonel Brincken, at the head of four thousand men. The count was at first compelled to give way ; but, on the arrival of his cannon, he, in his turn, forced the colonel to retire, who at last quitted the field, and retreated towards Stry. The advantage of the victory served only to augment the misery of the count, who in this single action had three hundred wounded and two hundred and sixty-eight slain, and who had no other prospect before him than either to perish by hunger with his troops in the forest, or to expose himself to be cut to pieces by the enemy. On the morning of the 20th, however, by the advice of his officers and troops, he resumed bis march, and arrived about ten o'clock at the village of Szuka, where, being obliged to halt for refreshment, he was surprised by a party of cossacks, and had only time to quit the village and form his troops in order of battle on the plain, before he was attacked by the enemy's cavalry, and soon after by their infantry, supported by several pieces of cannon, which caused the greatest destruction among his forces. At length, after being dangerously wounded, the Russians took him prisoner. The count was sent to the commander in chief of the Russian armies, then encamped at Tampool, who not only forbade the surgeons to dress his wounds, but, after reducing him to bread and water, loaded him with cbains, and transported him to Kiow. On his arrival at Polene, his neglected wound had so far endangered bis life, that his conductor was induced to apply to colonel Sirkow, the commanding officer at that place, and he was sent to the hospital, cured of his wounds, and afterwards lodged in the town, with an advance of fifty roubles for his subsistence. Upon the arrival, however, of brigadier Bannia, who relieved colonel Sirkow in his command, and who had a strong prejudice against the count, he was again loaded with chains, and conducted to the dungeon with the rest of the prisoners, who were allowed no other subsistence than bread and water. Upon his entrance he recognized several officers and soldiers who had served under him; and their friendship was the only consolation be received in his distressed situation. Twentytwo days were thus consumed in a subterraneous prison, together with eighty of his companions, without light, and even without air, except what was admitted through an aperture which comniunicated with the casements. These unhappy wretches were not permitted to go out even on their natural occasions, which produced such an infection, that thirty-five of them died in eighteen or twenty days ; and such were the inhumanity and barbarity of the commander, that he suffered the dead to remain and putrefy among the living. On the 16th of July the prison was opened, and one hundred and forty-eight prisoners, who had survived out of seven hundred and eighty-two, were driven, under every species of cruelty, from Polene to Kiow, where the strength of the count's constitution, w bich had hitherto enabled him to resist such an accumulation of hardships and fatigue, at length gave way, and he was attacked with a malignant fever, and delirium. The governor, count Voicikow, being informed of his quality, ordered that he should be separately lodged in a house, and that two roubles a day should be paid him for subsistence; but when he was in a fair way of recovery, an order arrived from Petersburgh to send all the prisoners to Cazan, and this severity bringing on a relapse, the officer was obliged to leave the count at Nizym, a town dependant on the government of Kiow. At this place, a Mr. Lewner, a German merchant, procured hiin comfortable accommodation, superintended the restoration of his health, and on his departure made bim a present of two hundred roubles, which he placed for safety in the hands of the officer until his arrival at Cazan, but who had afterwards the effrontery to deny that he had ever received the money, accused the count of attempting to raise a revolt among the prisoners, and caused him to be loaded with

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