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Soon after this, Justin, the catholic emperor of the East, finding himself thoroughly established upon the throne, published an edict against the Arians, depriving tbem of all their churches. Theodoric was highly offended at this edict. He obliged pope John 1. together with four of the principal senators of Rome (one of whom was Symmachus, father-in-law to Boethius), to go on an embassy to Constantinople; and commanded them to threaten that he would abolish the catholic religion throughout Italy, if the emperor did not immediately revoke his edict against the Arians. John was received at Constantinople with extraordinary pomp, but being able to produce no effect as to the object of his embassy, on his return, Theodoric threw him and his colleagues into prison at Ravenna, and Boethius was ordered to be more strictly confined at Pavia. It was here that he wrote his five books of the “ Consolation of Philosophy," on which his fame chiefly rests. He had scarcely concluded his work, when pope John being famished to death in prison, and Symmachus and the other senators, put to death, Theodoric ordered Boethius to be beheaded in prison, which was accordingly executed Oct. 23, 526. His body was interred by the inhabitants of Pavia, in the church of St. Augustine, near to the steps of the chancel, where his monument was to be seen until the last century, when that church was destroyed.

His most celebrated production, his ethic composition “ De Consolatione Philosophiæ," has always been admired both for the style and sentiments. It is an imaginary conference between the author and philosophy personified, who endeavours to console and soothe him in his afflictions.

The topics of consolation contained in this work, are deduced from the tenets of Plato, Zeno, and Aristotle, but without any notice of the sources of consolation which are peculiar to the Christian system, which have led many to think him more of a Stoic than a Christian. It is partly in prose, and partly in verse; and was translated into Saxon by king Alfred, and illustrated with a commentary by Asser, bishop of St. David's; and into English, by Chaucer and queen Elizabeth. It was also translated into English verse by John Walton, in 1410, of which translation there is a correct manuscript on parchment in the British Museum.' Few books have been more popular, especially in the middle ages, or have passed through a greater number of editions in almost all languages. It has been observed VOL. V.


by Mr. Harris, in his “Hermes," that with Boethius the Latin tongue, and the last remains of Roman dignity, may be said to bave sunk in the western world.” To the same purpose, Gibbon says, “that the senator Boethius is the last' of the Romans whom Cato or Tully would have acknowledged for their countryman."

The first edition of Boethius “ De Consolatione" was printed at Nurimberg, 1476, fol. but there was an edition in Latin and Gernan, printed at the same place in 1.173. The best edition of his whole works is that printed at Basil, 1570, 2 vols, fol. In 1785, his Consolation was translated into English, with notes and illustrations, by the rev. Philip Ridpath, minister of Hutton in Berwickshire, London, 8vo.

BOETHIUS, BOECE, or BOEIS (Hector), a cele. brated Scotch historian, was born at Dundee, in the shire of Angus, about 1470, Atier having studied at Dundee and Aberdeen, he was sent to the university of Paris, where he applied to philosophy, and became a professor of it there. There also he contracted an acquaintance with several eminent persons, particularly with Erasmus, who kept a correspondence with him afterwards. Elphinston, bishop of Aberdeen, having founded the king's college in that city about 1500, sent for Boeis fruin Paris, and appointed him principal. He took for his colleague Mr. William Hay, and by their joint labour the kioguom was furnished with several eminent scholars. Upon the death of his patron, he undertook to write his life, and those of his predecessors in that see. The work is in Latin, and entitled “ Vitæ Episcoporum Murthlaçensium et Aberdonensium," Paris, 1522, 410. He begins at Beanus, the first bishop, and ends at Gawin Dunbar, who was bishop when the book was published. A third part of the work is spent in the life of Elphinston, for whose sake it was undertaken. He next undertook to write in the same language the history of Scotland : the first edition of which was printed at Paris by Badius Ascensius in 1526, which consisted of seventeen books, and ended with the death of James I. but the next in 1574 was much enlarged, having the addition of the 18th book and part of the 191h: the work was afterwards brought down to the reign of James III. by Ferrerius, a

1 Gen, Dict.Cave, vol. I. Dupin. Brnaker.-Life prefixed to Ridpatb's Translation.--Dibdin's Classics - Preytag Adparat. Lit.-Fabric, Bibl. Lat. Burncy's Hist. of Music, rol. II.--Saxii

Piedmontese. It was translated by Bellencen. (See BELLENDEN, JOHN). Mackenzie observes, that of all Scots historians, next to Buchanan, Boethius has been the most censured and commended by the learned men who have mentioned him. Nicolson tells us, that in the first six books there are a great niany particulars not to be found in Fordun or any other writer now extant; and that, “ unless the authors which he pretends to have seen be hereafter discovered, he will continue to be shrewdly suspected for the contriver of almost as many tales as Jeoffrey of Monmouth.” His 18th book, however, is highly commended by Ferrerius, who says, “ that he has treated of things there in so comprehensive a manner, that he believes no one could have done it more fully or significantly on the same subject.” His style, says another writer, has all the purity of Cæsar's, and is so nervous both in the reflections and diction, that he seems to have absolutely entered into the spirit of Livy, and made it his own. Erasmus, who was intimately acquainted with him, says, in one of his epistles, “ that he was a man of an extraordinary happy genius, and of great eloquence.” “ He was certainly,” says another writer, “a great master of polite learning, well skilled in divinity, philosophy, and history; but somewhat credulous, and much addicted to the belief of legendary stories. With regard to his other accomplishments, he was discreet, well-bred, attentive, generous, affable, and courteous.” Dr. Johnson in his Tour in Scotland observes that Hector Boetbins may be “ justly reve. renced as one of the revivers of elegant learning. The style of Boethius, though, perhaps, not always rigorously "pure, is formed with great diligence upon ancient models, and wholly uninfected with monastic barbarity. His bistory is written with elegance and vigour, but his fabulousness and credulity are justly blamed. His fabulousness, if he was the author of the fictions, is a fault for which no apology can be made; but his credulity may be excused in an age when all men were credulous. Learning was then rising on the world; but ages, so long accustomed to darkness, were too much dazzled with its light to see any thing distinctly. The first race of scholars, in the fifteenth century, and some time after, were, for the most part, learning to speak; rather than to think, and were there. fore more studious of elegance than of truth. The contemporaries of Boethius thought it sufficient to know what


rench his greatestuin Man

the ancients had delivered. The examination of tenets and of facts was reserved for another generation." /

BOFFRAND (GERMAIN), a celebrated French architect, was the son of a sculptor, and of a sister of the famous Quinault, and born at Nantes in Bretagne, May 7, 1667. He was trained under Harduin Mansard, who trusted him with conducting his greatest works. Boffrand was admitted into the French academy of architecture in 1709 : many princes of Germany chose him for their architect, and raised considerable edifices upon his plans. His manner of building approached that of Palladio ; and there was much of grandeur in all his designs. As engineer and inspectorgeneral of the bridges and highways, be caused to be con structed a number of canals, sluices, bridges, and other mechanical works. There is of this illustrious architect a curious and useful book, which contains the general prin.ciples of his art ; to which is added an account of the plans, profiles, and elevations of the principal works which he executed in France and other countries, entitled “ Livre d'Architecture, &c." fol. 1745, with seventy plates. He published also an account of the casting the bronze figure of Louis XIV. “ Description de ce qui a été pratiqué pour fondre en bronze, &c.” 1743, fol. with plates. In his private character, Boffrand is represented as of a noble and disinterested spirit, and of a pleasing and agreeable manner. He died at Paris, March 18, 1754, dean of the academy of architecture, first engineer and inspectorgeneral of the bridges and highways, architect and administrator of the general hospital. .

· BOGAN (ZACHARY), a learned and pious writer of the seventeenth century, was the son of William Bogan, gentleman, and born at Little Hempston in Devonshire, about the feast of St. John the Baptist in the year 1625. He became a commoner of St. Alban hall under the tuition of Mr. Ralph Button in Michaelmas term in 1640. He was admitted a scholar of Corpus Christi college Novenber the 26th the year following, and left the university when the city of Oxford was garrisoned for the king, and returned after the surrender of it to the parliament. October 21, 1646, he took the degree of bachelor of arts, and was elected probationer fellow of his college the year follow

" Mackenzie's Lives, vol. II. p. 376.–Biog. Brit.-Nicolson's Hist. Library. -Johnson's Works.

• Dict. Hist. Biog. Vaiverselle.

cion, it plave hundre would have him is to Wood addsa

concion some and well skill linguaru

ing. November 19, 1650, he took the degree of master of arts, and became a retired and religious student, and distinguished in the university for bis admirable skill in the tongues. At last, having contracted an ill habit of body by his intense application to his studies, he died September 1, 1659, and was interred in the middle of the northi cloister belonging to Corpus Christi college, joining to the south side of the chapel there. “At that time and before,” Wood informs us, “ the nation being very unsettled; and the university expecting nothing but ruin and dissolution, it pleased Mr. Bogan to give by his will to the city of Oxford five hundred pounds; whereas had the nation been otherwise, he would have given that money to his college.” An original picture of him is to be seen in the guild-hall of the city of Oxford. Mr. Wood adds, that he was an excellent tutor, but a zealous puritan; and in his Hist. & Autiq. Univers. Oxon. he gives him the character of vir studiosus et linguarum peritissimus, a stu: dious person, and well skilled in the languages, in which opinion some learned foreigners who have read his works concur. He wrote, 1. Additions, in four books, to Francis Rous's “ Archæologiæ Atticæ," the fifth edition of which was published at Oxford, 1658, 4to. These additions re late to the customs of the ancient Greeks in marriages, burials, feasts, &c.; at the close of which, Mr. Bogan, with great simplicity of manner, gives his reasons for under taking the work : “ The cords," he says, “ which dret me to do it (and drawn I was) were three, such as, twisted together, I could by no’ineans break; viz. 1. The impor: tunity of my friend. 2. The vecessity of the knowledge of ancient rites and customs for the understanding of authors. And, 3. the hopes which I had by employment (as by an issue) to divert my humour of melancholy another way. The causes why I did it no better are as many, viz. 1. Want of years and judgment, having done the most part of it in my Tyrociniuin (when I took more delight in these studies) as appears by the number of the author's which I have cited. 2. Want of health. And, 3. want of time and leisure, being called away by occasions that might not be neglected, and by friends that could not be disobeyed. If yet I have given but little light, and my labour and oil be not all lost, I have as much as I desired myself, and thou hast no more than I owed thee.” 2. “À view of the Threats and Punishments recorded in Scripture alphabeti

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