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RULE IX. The concluding word of that portion of a sentence in which is contained a series of concessions, uniformly requires the emphatic rising inflexion.

EXAMPLES. “ You may sw'ell every expe'nse, acc'umulate every assi'stance, and extend your tra'fic) to the sham'bles-of every German des'pot ; your attempts will be for ever va'in and impotent.

“ Pai'nting, p'oetry, eloquence, and every other ar't/ on which the gen'ius of man has exercised it'self, may be abu'sed and prove dang'erous/ in the hands of bad” men ; but it were ridiculous to contend/tha't, on thi's-account, they oug'ht to be ab'olished.”


RULE X. Negative sentences, or negative members of sentences, almost always require the emphatic rising inflexion, agreeably to the examples of interrogatories as contained in the outline.

EXAMPLES. “ The religion of the Gospel/ is not a gloom"y-religion."

“ I ca'nnot, I will not/ join in congratulation on misfor'tune and disgrace"."

“ Greatness/ confers no exemption from the caʼres and so'rrows of human"ity.”

It seems proper under this rule to remark, that the adverb “not” ought never to be emphatic but when it is obviously antithetic.

EXAMPLE “ 'Tis immateral in what way good is done.—No, 'tis not immaterial.”

RULE XI. Every period consisting of two principal parts, and having the first part to commence with a verb in the imperative mood, requires a long pause and the rising inflection at the end of EXAMPLES. “ Love your pa'rents and your frie'nds as you ought" to do, and

this part.

* In the pronunciation of this adjective too much care cannot be employed to preserve the long open sound of the “ 0.”

you may safely caʻlculate/ upon a retu'rn-of-their love." 66 Let

my difficulties and misfortunes in li'fe/ be confined to myse'lf, de’ath (the common frie’nd of the wretched) will soon put a per'iod/ to them a'll.”

RULE XII. Declarative sentences, or members of sentences where antithesis is either implied or expressed, uniformly require the rising inflexion.

EXAMPLES. I have always preferred cheer'fulness to mirth”.” “ He is as good” a man. “He is as faith"ful a preacher.”

“ There is the language of em'otions and pas'sions, as we'll as of ide"as.”

A part of the admirable speech of Cassius against Cæsar affords a happy illustration of this useful rule. “ Br’utus and Cæ'sar ! What should be in'-that-Cæsar ?

Why should that nam'e/ be sounded moʻre/ than you'rs ?
Wri te them together :

-Yours is as fai'r-a-name.
Sou’nd them :-it doth become the mouth as well",
Wei'gh them :—it is as hea"vy. Conjure with them :
Brûtus will start a spirit/ as soon as Cæ"sar.”



RULE XIII. Sentences that commence with adjectives, are generally divided into two parts ; the last word of the first part requires the rising inflexion.

EXAMPLES. “ Sensible of the ju'stness of his cau'se, and the pur'ity of his mo'tives, he manfully oppo'sed, and/ ultimately/ surmounted every difficulty."

* A peculiar significance of manner should accompany the delivery of this paragraph.

“ Conscious of the inferi'ority of his numbers, and the undisciplined state of many of his troops", he resolved to withdraw his le'gions/ from before the city.'

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* For Rules for the Elocutionary punctuation contained in these and the following introductory Examples, see appropriate “ foot notes” interspersed among the first 160 pages of “The Reader.” Had the idea of making the intermediate pauses occurred to him before he appended the “ Notes,” the Editor should have given the most of them here, in preference to the pages they now occupy.


The word series, according to Mr. Walker, signifies an 'enumeration of nouns, either when consisting of individual words, or when they have qualities or properties annexed to them.

An enumeration of particular nouns consisting of single words is called a simple* series ; when consisting of more than single words, a compound series.

The series is further divided into commencing and concluding

A series which begins a sentence, and does not end it, is entitled a commencing series ; and where it finishes a sentence, it is denominated a concluding series.

This highly important, but difficult branch of elocution, is introduced for the purpose of pointing out the most harmonious and emphatic variety ; and to reduce it to such rules as may help to guide us in the most frequent and obvious cases where the series occurs.


RULE. When two members commence a sentence, the first must have the falling, and the last the rising inflexion. When three members commence a sentence, the first two have the falling, and the last the rising inflexion; and when four members commence a sentence, the first has the rising, the two middle the falling, and the last the rising inflexion.

EXAMPLES. “ Ex'ercise and tem'perance/ strengthen the constitution.”

*.Obs. This series is not rendered compound by the introduction of particles, such as articles, conjunctions, &c. &c.

“ Manufac'tures, tra"de,* and a"griculture, naturally employ more than nineteen parts of the spe'cies/ in twe'nty."

“ In sh`ort, a modern Pindaric wr'iter (compared with Pindar) is like a sister among the Ca'misars/ compared with Virgil's sy bil; there is the distor"tion, grimace", and out"wardfigure, but nothing of that divine im pulse which raises the mind above its'elf, and makes the soun'ds/ moʻre than human.

“ Me"tals, min"erals, plants", and me'teors, contain a thousand curious pr'operties, whic'h/ are as engaging to the fan'cy/ as to the rea'son."

“ Proofs of the immortality of the soʻul/ may justly be drawn from the nature of the SUPR'EME-BEING, whose jus"tice, good "ness, wis"dom, and vera"city, are all concerned in this great-point."


RULE. When two members conclude a sentence, the last has the falling, and the last but one the rising inflexion. When three. members conclude a sentence, the first two have the rising, and the last the falling inflexion ;t and when four members succeed each other and conclude a sentence, the first has the falling, the two middle the rising, and the last the falling.

EXAMPLES. “ The constitution is strengthened/ by ex'ercise and tem"perance.”

“A modern Pindaric wr'iter (compared with Pin'dar) is like a sister/ among the Ca'misars/ compared with Virgil's sy'bil ; the one gives that divine im'pulse which raises the mind above itse'lf, and makes the sou'nds/ more than h'uman, while the other/ abounds with not'hing/ but distor'tion, grimac'e, and out' ward-figure."

“ There is something very engaging to the fancy, as we'll/

* When two inflexions of the same kind thus consecutively occur, the latter requires superior accentual force.

† Where solemnity is required in a concluding series of three, the first word must be pronounced with the falling, the middle with the rising, and the last with the falling inflexion.

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