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the water in strong and proper colours, with the picture of a ship entring at one end, and failing by degrees through the whole piece. On another there appeared the green shadows of trees, waving to and fro with the wind, and herds-of deer among them in miniature, leaping about upon the wall. I must consess, the novelty of such a sight may be one occasion of its pleasantness to the imagination; but certainly the thief reason is its near resemblance to nature, as it does not only, like other pictures, give the colour and sigure, but the motion of the things i: represents.'
We have before observed, that there is generally in mature something more grand and august, than what we meet with in the cunofities of art. When, therefore, we fee this imitated in any measure, it gives us a nobler and more exalted kind of pleasure, than what we receive from the nicer and more accurate productions of art. On this account our Englifl} gardens are not so entertaining to the fancy as those in Trance and Italy, where we see a large extent of ground covered over with an agreeable mixture of garden and forest, which. represent every where an artisicial rudeness, much more charming than that neatness and elegancy which we meet -with in those of our own country. It might, indeed, be t)f ill consequence to the public, as well as unprositable to private persons, to alienate so much ground from pasturage, and the plough, in many parts of a country that is so well peopled, and cultivated to a far greater advantage. But why may not a whole estate be thrown into a kind of a garden by frequent plantations, that may turn as much to the prosit, .as the pleasure of the owner? A marsh overgrown with willows, or a mountain shaded with oaks, are not only more beautiful, but more bencsicial,"than when they lie bare and unadorned. Fields of corn make a pleasant prospect, and if the walks were a little taken care of that lie between them, if the natural embroidery of the meadows w< re help'd and ireproved by some small additions of art, and the several rows of hedges set ofF by trees and flowers, that the soil was capable of receiving, a man might make a pretty landfkip of his own possessions.
Writers, who have given us an account of China, tellus tht inhabitants of that country laugh at the plantations D 2 «f of our Eurppeans, which are laid out by the rule and line; because they say, any one may phce trees in equal Iows and uniform sigures. They choose rather to shew a genius in works of this nature, and therefore always conceal the art by which they direct themselves. They have a word, it seems, in their language, by which they express the particular beauty of a plantation that thus strikes the imagination at sirst sight, without discovering what it is that has so agreeable an effect. Our Britijh gardeners, on the contraiy, instead of humouring nature, love to . deviate from it as much as possible. Our trees rife in cones, globes, and pyramids. We fee the marks of the, scissars upon every plant and bush. I do not know whether 1 am singular in my opinion, but for my own part, I would rather look upon a tree in all its luxutiancy and disfusion oi boughs and branches, than when it is thus cut and trimmed into a mathematical sigure ; and cannot but fancy that an orchard in flower looks insinitely more delightful, than all the little labyrinths of the most sinish-; ed parterre. But as our great modellers of gardens have their magazines of plants to dispose of, it is very natural for them to tear up all the beautiful plantations of fruittrees, and contrive a plan that may most turn to their own prosit, in taking off their evergreens, and the like
jncveable plants, with which their shops are plentifully flocked. S:pe
N° 415 Thursday, June 26.
Adde tot egregias urbtt, t,pe/umqne laborem.
Virg. Georg. 2. v. 15 j.
Next add our cities of illustrious name, - Their costly labour, and stupendous 1. ame. Dryden.
HAVING already shewn how the'sancy is asfected by the works of nature, and afterwards considered in general both the works of nature and of art, how they mutually assist and Ctimjilete each other.
1n forming such scenes and prospects as are most apt to delight the mind of the beholdey I shall in this' Paper throw together some reflexicms on th.it particular art, which has a more immediate tendency, than fny other, to produce those primary pleasures of the Pagination, which have hitherto been the subject of this discourse. The art I mean is that of architecture, which I shall consider only with regard to the light in which the foregoing speculations have placed it, without entring into those rules and maxims which the great masters of architecture have laid down, and explained at large in numberless treatises upon that subject.
Greatness, in the works of architecture, rmy be considered as relating to the bulk and body of the structure, or to the manner in which rt is built. As for the sirst, we sind the ancients, especially among ihe eastern nations of the world, insinitely superior to the moderns.
Not to mention the Tower of Babel, of which ans old author fays, there were the foundations to be seen in his time, which looked like a spacious mountain; what could be more noble than the walls of Babylon, its hanging gardens, and its temple to Jupiter Be/us, that role a mile high by eight several stories, each story a furlong in height, and on the top of which was the Babylonian observatory. I might here, likewise, take notice of the huge rock that was cut into the sigure of Semiramis, with the smaller rocks that lay by it in the shape of tributary kings; the prodigious basor, or artisicial lake, which took in the whole Euphrates, till such time as a new cana! was formed for its reception, with the several trenches thiough which that river was conveyed. 1 know there are persons who look upon some of these wonders of art as fabulous, but I cannot sind any ground for such a suspicion, unless it be that we have no such works among us at present. There were indeed many greater advantages for building in those times, and in that part of the world, than have been met with ever since. The earth was extremely fruitful, men lived generally on pasturage, which requires a much smaller number os hands than agriculture: There D 3 were were few trades to employ the busy part of mankind, and fewer arts and sciences to give work to men of speculative tempers; and what is more than all the rest, the Prince was absolute; so that when he went to war, he put himself at the head of a whole people: As we sind Semiramis leading .her three millions to the sield, and yet overpowered by the numberiof her.enemies. 'Tis no wonder, therefore, when shsJvas at peace, and turning her thoughts on building, 'tnat me could accomplish such great works, with luch a prodigious multitude of labourers; Besides that in her climate, there was small interruption oi frosts and winters, which make the northern workmen lie half the year idle. I might reention too, among the benesits ot the climate, what historians fay of the earth, that it sweated out a bitumen or natural kind of mortar, which is doubtless the fame with that mentioned in Holy Writ, as contributing to the structure of Babel. Slime they used instead of mortar. .
In E«ypt we still fee their pyramids, which answer to the descriptions that have been made of them; and I question not but a traveller might sind out some remains of the labyrinth that covered a whole province, and had
The wall of China is one of these eastern pieces of magnisicence, which makes a sigure even in the map of the world, altho' an account of it would have been thought fabulous, were not the wall itself still extant.
We are obliged to devotion for the noblest buildings that have adorned the several countries of the world. It is this which has set men at work on temples and public places of worship; not only that they might, by the magnisicence of the building, invite the deity to reside within it, but that such stupendous works might, at the fame time, open the mind to vast conceptions, and sit it to converse with the divinity of tha place. For every thing that is majestic imprints an awfulness and reverence on the mind of the beholder, and strikes in with the natural greatness of the foul.
among its several quarters
In the second place, we are to consider greatness of manner in architecture, which has such force upon the imagination, that a small building, where it appear* shall give the mind nobler ideas than one of twenty times the bulk, where the manner is ordinary or little. Thus, perhaps, a man would have been more astonished with the majestic air that appeared in one of Lyjippus's statues of Alexander, tho'.no bigger than the life, than he might have been with mount /ithos, had it been cut into the sigure of the hero, according to the proposal of Phidias, with a river in one hand, and a city in the other.
Let any one reflect on the disposition of mind he sinds in himself, at his sirst entrance into the Pantheon at Rome, and how the imagination is rilled with something great and amazing; and, at the same time, consider how little, in proportion, he is asfected with the inside of a Gothic cathedral, tho' it be sive times larger thail the other; which can arise from nothing else but the greatness of the manner in the one, and the meanness in the other.
I have seen an observation upon this subject in a French author, which very much pleased me. It is in Monsieur Freart's parallel of the ancient and modern architecture. I shall give it the reader with,the fame terms of art which he has made use of. / am observing (fays he) a thing, which, in my opinion, is -very curious, whence it proceeds, that in the same quantity of superficies, the one manner seems great and magnificent, and the ether poor aid trijling; the reason is fine and uncommon. 1 say then, that to introduce into architecture this grandeur os manner, •lie ought so to proceed, that the division of the prin-.ipal members of the order may conjist but of few parti, that they be all great and of a hold and ample relievo, and swelling; and that the eye beholding nothing little and mean, the imagination may be more vigoroujly touched and offered inith the work that stands before it. For example; In a cornice, ifv the go/a or cymatium of the arena, the coping, the modi/lions or den/e/li, make a noble Jhow by their graceful produtliois, if wesee none of that ordinary confufion -which is the result of those little cavities, quarter rounds of the astragal, and I know not how many other intermingled fattiiulars, which produce no D 4 *Jea