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Of Socrates; see there his tenement,
! 273. In the Clouds of Aristo- speaks of Philosophorum ingenia phanes, Strepoiades calls the Socratico, ore defluentia. See also habitation of Socrates, loxidtov,'t Minucius Felix, Octav. c. xiii. ædicula. Dunster,
But, our author
had here per275. Whom well inspir'd the haps in his mind a well known
oracle pronounc'd curs passage of Ælián (Var. Hist. lib. Wisest of men ;]
xüi. c. 22.) concerning Homer, The verse delivered down to us whence also Manilius says, speakupon this occasion is this, ing of him, (lib. ii. 8.) Ανδρων απαντων Σωκρατης σοφωτατος. .
- cujusque ex ore profusos
Omnis posteritas latices in carmina Of all men Socrates is the wisest.
duxit, See Diogenes Laertius in vita Amnemque in tenues ausa est dedu.
cere rivos Socratis. Mr. Calton adds, that
Unius fæcunda bonis. the Tempter designs here a compliment to himself; for he would And Ovid, 3 Amor. ix. 25. be understood to be the inspirer. Adjice Mæonidem, a quo, ceu fonte
276. --- from whose mouth issued perenni, forth &c.] Thus Quintilian calls
Vatum Pieriis ora rigantur' aquis. Socrates fons philosophorum, i. 10.
Dunster. and as the ancients looked upon 278. Of Academics old and Homer as the father of poetry, new, &c.] The Academic sect so they esteemed Socrates the had its three epochs, old, middle, father of moral philosophy. The and new. Plato was the head of different sects of philosophers the old academy, Arcelisas of the were but so many different fa- middle, and Carneades of the milies, which all acknowledged new. The Peripatetics were surhim for their common parent. named from the regitatov or walk See Cicero, Academic. i. 4. Tusc. of the Lyceum, where Aristotle Disp. v. 4. and particularly De taught, as the Stoics from the Orat. ii. 16, 17. The quotation
The quotation Tod or portico where they atwould be too long to be inserted. tended the instructions of Zeno. See likewise Mr. Warburton's ac- “ The common opinion adopted count of the Socratic school, b. by Cicero and others that the iii. sect. 3. of the Divine Lega- Peripatetics were so named ex TOV tion.
TECITATEIV, ex deambulatione, is 276. Compare Cicero, Brutus, refuted,” says Dr. Gillies, " by seet. 31. ed. Proust, and De the authors cited by Brucker, Orator. i. 42. and De Nat. Deor. vol. i. p. 787.” The severity of i. 34. Paterculus (lib. i. c. 16.) the Stoics is proverbial ; see Se
Surnam'd Peripatetics, and the sect
To whom our Saviour sagely thus replied, 285 Think not but that I know these things, or think I know them not; not therefore am I short Of knowing what I ought: he who receives neca de Clement. ii. 5. Cicero throughout this work thrown the Pro Murena, 35. Dunster. ornaments of poetry on the side
283. These rules will render thee of error, whether it was that he &c.] Ask what rules, and no an- thought great truths best exswer can be regularly given: pressed in a grave unaffected ask whose, and the answer is style, or intended to suggest this easy. There is no mention be- fine moral to the reader, that fore of rules; but of poets, ora- simple naked truth will always tors, philosophers, there is. We be an overmatch for falsehood should read therefore,
though recommended by the Their rules will render thee a king gayest rhetoric, and adorned with complete.
the most bewitching colours. Calton. Thyer.
288. -he who receives 283. —a king complete Light from above, from the Within thyself,]
fountain of light, Alluding to what Jesus had said
No other doctrine needs, though before, b. ii. 446.
granted true;] Yet he who reigns within himself, This passage, says Mr. Warton, and rules
seems to favour Mr. Peck's noPassions, desires, and fears, is more a king.
tion, (grounded on Milton's acDunster. quaintance with Ellwood and
Mrs. Thompson, to whom he 285. To whom our Saviour has inscribed a Sonnet,) that the sagely. thus replied.] This an- poet was a Quaker. But it is swer of our Saviour is as much rather scriptural than sectical, to be admired for solid reasoning, being built on James i. 17. and the many sublime truths Every good gift and every perfect contained in it, as the preceding gift is from above, and cometh speech of Satan is for that down from the Father of lights ; fine vein of poetry which runs which refers to ver. 5. in the through it: and one may observe same chapter; If any of you lack in general, that Milton has quite wisdom, let him ask of God, that
Light from above, from the fountain of light,
givelh to all men liberally, &c. “of metaphors, allegories, and Dunster.
“ all sorts of mystical represent293. The first and wisest of “ations, (as is vulgarly known.) them all] Socrates professed to “ All which, upon the account know this only, that he nothing “ of their obscurity and ambiknew. Hic in omnibus fere ser- guity, are apparently the unfitmonibus, qui ab iis, qui illum “ test signs in the world to exaudierunt, perscripti varie, copi- " press the train of any man's ose sunt, ita disputat, ut nihil ad- thoughts to another: for befirmet ipse, refellat alios: nihil “ sides that they carry in them se scire dicat, nisi id ipsum : eo- no intelligible affinity to the que præstare ceteris, quod illi « notices which they were dequæ nesciant scire se putent; signed to intimate, the powers ipse, se nihil scire, id unum sciat. “ of imagination are so great, Cicero Academic. i. 4.
" and the instances in which one 293. Eιδεναι μεν μηδεν, πλην αυτο thing may resemble another τουτο ειδεναι was what Socrates
so many, that there is frequently said of himself, accord- “scarce any thing in nature, in ing to Diogenes Laertius, Vit. “ which the fancy cannot find Socrat. And so Plato makes him “ or make a variety of such symcompare
himself with some great “ bolizing resemblances ; so that pretender to wisdom, (see the « emblems, fables, symbols, alleApology of Socrates, ed. Serran. “gories, though they are pretty vol. 1. p. 21.) ούτος μεν οιεται τι poetic fancies, are infinitely ειδεναι, ουκ ειδως εγω δε, ώσπερ ουν “unfit to express philosophical ουκ οιδα, ουδε οιoμαι εoικα γουν τουτου
or notions and discoveries of the γι σμικρω τινι αυτο τουτων σοφώτερος “ natures of things. The end ERVOLT, óti á
“ of philosophy is to search into, Dunster.
« and discover the nature of 295. The next to fabling fell things; but I believe you unand smooth conceits ;) See Parker's « derstand not how the nature Free and impartial censure of “ of any thing is at all discovered the Platonic philosophy. Oxford “ by making it the theme of al1667. p. 71. • Plato and his “ legorical and dark discourses." “ followers have communicated Calton. " their notions by emblems, The fictions of this philoso“ fables, symbols, parables, heaps pher were noticed in early times. VOL. III.
A third sort doubted all things, though plain sense ;
ματα ειδως. .
Diogenes Laertius cites a verse Peripateticorum, ut finem bonoof Timon to this purpose,
rum dicerent, secundum naturam Ως ανεπλασε Πλατων πεπλασμενα θαυ
vivere, id est, virtute adhibita,
frui primis à natura datis. De What wondrous fictions learned Fin. ii. 11. Plato fram'd!
297. Cic. de Fin. ii. 6. Multi Compare the conclusion of Mil
enim et magni philosophi hæc ton's Latin poem De Idea Pla- ultima bonorum juncta fecerunt, tonica.-Smooth conceits are the ut Aristoteles, qui virtutis usum Italian concetti; by which term cum vitæ perfectæ prosperitate an Italian writer would, I ap- conjunxit.
conjunxit. * Dunster. prehend, characterise any far- 299. In corporal pleasure he, fetched or fine-spun allegories and careless ease;] Epicurus, . Dunster.
Confirmat autem illud vel maxi. 296. A third sort doubted all me, quod ipsa natura, ut ait ille, things, though plain sense;] These adsciscat et reprobet, id est, vowere the Sceptics or Pyrrhonians, luptatem et dolorem ; ad hæc, et the disciples of Pyrrho, who as- quæ sequamur et quæ fugiamus, serted nothing, neither honest refert omnia. Cicero de Fin. i. 7. nor dishonest, just nor unjust, 299. The he is here conand so of every thing; that there temptuously emphatical. Comis nothing indeed such, but that pare Par. Lost, i. 93. And so men do all things by law and Demosthenes, in the opening of custom; that in every thing this his first Philippic, refers to Philip, is not rather than that. This whom he had not mentioned by was called the Sceptic philosophy, name, xai tn vor slogu TOYTOY,
, δι' from its continual inspection, and by Taqattoped. As to the prinnever finding; and Pyrrhonian ciples of Epicurus, see his Epistle from Pyrrho. See Stanley's Life to Menæceus, preserved by Dioof Pyrrho, who takes his account genes Laertius, where he points from Diogenes Laertius.
out as the only essential and truly 297. Others in virtue &c.] These interesting objects of a wise were the old Academics, and the man's attention την του σωματος Peripatetics the scholars of Ari- υγιειαν, και την της ψυχης αταραξιαν stotle. Honeste autem vivere, - τουτυ του μακαριως ζην εστι τελος fruentem rebus iis, quas primas %. 7. r. and sometimes he exhomini natura conciliet, et vetus plicitly places the To TOV FWPECTOS Academia censuit, et Aristoteles : αγαθον in τας δια χυλων ηδονας, τας ejusque amici nunc proxime vi- δι' αφροδισιων, τας δι' ακροαματων, dentur accedere. Cicero Acade και τας δια μορφης κατ' οψιν ηδειας mic. ii. 42. Ergo nata est senten- ximosis. The passage is preserved tia veterum Academicorum et in Athenæus, 1. viii. and Dioge
The Stoic last in philosophic pride,
nes Laertius, l. x. Cicero ex- of this sect. They maintained hibits the sense of it, Tusc. Disp. that the end or purpose of man 1. x. c. 20. See also Lucretius, was to live conformably to naii. 16. and Lucian, Necyomant. ture, (see Diogenes Laertius in p. 460. Ed. Reitz. where also see his life of Zeno,) and that this the account of the Stoics and consisted in an absolute perfecPeripatetics. Dunster.
tion of the soul, of which they 300. The Stoic last &c.] The believed human nature to be reason why Milton represents capable; a doctrine which might our Saviour taking such parti- tempt even the best of men to cular notice of the Stoics above philosophic pride. See Mrs. Carthe rest, was probably because ter's preface to her translation they made pretensions to a more of Epictetus. Plutarch mentions refined and exalted virtue than their arrogance and assumption any of the other sects, and were of superiority over the Acadeat that time the most prevailing mics. De Stoicorum Contrarieparty among the philosophers, tatibus. Of their virtuous man, and the most revered and wise, perfect in himself and all esteemed for the strictness of possessing, see Cicero de Finibus, their morals, and the austerity of iii. 7. where Cato is introduced their lives. The picture of their summing up the principles of the virtuous man is perfectly just, as Stoic philosophy; cum ergo hoc might easily be shewn from many sit extremum (quod Tedos Græcus passages in Seneca and Anto- dicat,) congruenter naturæ conninus, and the defects and in- venienterque vivere, necessario sufficiency of their scheme could sequitur omnes sapientes semper not possibly be set in a stronger feliciter, absolute, fortunate vilight than they are by our author vere, nullâ re impediri, nulla in the lines following. Thyer. prohiberi, nulla egere. This is
300. The Stoics were held in to ascribe to their wise man esteem not only among the philo- many positive attributes of divisophers of antiquity, but among nity; but Seneca speaks more some of the earlier writers on fully, and equals him to God, Christianity. Clemens Alexan- Epist. lxxxvii. Quæris quæ res drinus in many parts of his works sapientem efficit ?
quæ Deum. professes himself a Stoic. St. See also epist. lix. lxxiii
. xcii. Jerome in his Commentary on Indeed he every where abounds Isaiah, c. 10. acknowledges that with such passages. Epictetus the Stoics in most points of doc- also says, (1. i. c. 12.) Ov bensis ovy trine agree with the Christians, καθ' ά ισος ει τους Θεοις, εκει που τί“ Stoici cum nostro dogmate in Dec bai to agobov; oft shames not to plerisque concordant." Hence prefer; Seneca, epist. liii. Est the greater propriety in bringing aliquid quo sapiens antecedat Deforward, and censuring in this um; ille naturæ beneficio non place, the exceptionable doctrines timet, suo sapiens. See also, De