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to attend him, and celebrate divine service in their own way. But the most exquisite pleasure he enjoyed was in the company of his children, with whom he had several interviews. The meeting, on these occasions, was so pathetic, that Cromwell himself, who was once present, could not help being moved; he was heard to declare, that he had never beheld such an affecting scene before: and we must do justice to this man's feelings, as he was himself a tender father. But those flattering instances of respect and submission were of no long continuance. As soon as the army had gained a complete victory over the house of commons, the independents began to abate of their expressions of duty and respect. The king, therefore, was now more strictly guarded: they would hardly allow his domestics to converse with him in private, and spies were employed to mark all his words and actions. He was every hour threatened with false dangers of Cromwell's contrivance; by which he was taught to fear for his personal safety. The spies and creatures of that artful man were sedulously employed in raising the king's terrors, and representing to him the danger of his situation. These at length prevailed, and Charles resolved to withdraw himself from the army. Cromwell considered, that if he should escape from the kingdom, there would be then a theatre open to his ambition; if he should be apprehended, the late attempt would aggravate his guilt, and apologise for any succeeding severity. Early in the evening, the king retired to his chamber, on pretence of being indisposed; and about an hour after midnight, he went down the back-stairs, attended by Ashburnham and Legge, both gentlemen of his bedchamber. Sir John Berkeley waited for him at the garden-gate with horses, which they instantly mounted,

and traveling through the Forest all night, arrived at Tichfield, the seat of the earl of Southampton. Before he arrived at this place, he had gone towards the shore, and expressed great anxiety that a ship, which Ashburnham had promised to be in readiness, was not to be seen. At Tichfield, he deliberated with his friends upon his next excursion, and they advised him to cross over to the Isle of Wight, where Hammond was governor; who, though a creature of Cromwell, was yet a nephew of doctor Hammond, the king's chaplain. To this inauspicious protector it was resolved to have recourse; Ashburnham and Berkeley were sent before to exact a promise from this officer, that, if he would not protect the king, he would not detain him. Hammond seemed surprised at their demand; expressed his inclination to serve his majesty, but at the same time alleged his duty to his employers. He therefore attended the king's gentlemen to Tichfield, with a guard of soldiers, and remained in a lower apartment while Ashburnham went up to the king's chamber. Charles no sooner understood that Hammond was in the house with a body of troops, than he exclaimed, “O Jack! thou hast undone me!” Ashburnham shed a flood of tears, and offered to go down and dispatch the governor; but the king repressed his ardour. When Hammond came into his presence, he repeated his professions of regard; Charles submitted to his fate, and without farther delay, attended him to Carisbrook castle, in the Isle of Wight, where he at first found himself treated with marks of duty and respect. While the king continued in this forlorn situation, the parliament, new modeled as it was by the army, became every day more feeble and factious. Cromwell, on the other hand, was strengthening the army, and taking every precaution to repress any tendency to factious division among them. Nor were his fears without just cause; for, had it not been for the quickness of his penetration, and the boldness of his activity, the whole army would have been thrown into a state of ungovernable phrensy. Among the independents, who, in general, were for having no ecclesiastical subordination, a set of men grew up called Levelers, who disallowed all subordination whatsoever, and declared that they would have no other chaplain, king, or general, than Christ. They declared that all men were equal; that all degrees and ranks should be leveled, and an exact partition of property established in the nation. This ferment spread through the army; and as it was a doctrine well suited to the poverty of the daring soldiery, it promised every day to become more dangerous and fatal. Several petitions were presented, urging the justice of a partition, and threatening vengeance on a refusal of redress. Cromwell now saw that he was upon the point of losing all the fruits of his former schemes and dangers; and dreaded this new faction still more, as they turned his own pretended principles against himself. Thus finding all at stake, he resolved, by one resolute blow, to disperse the faction, or perish in the attempt. Having intimation that the levelers were to meet at a certain place, he unexpectedly appeared before the terrified assembly, at the head of his red regiment, which had been hitherto invincible. He demanded, in the name of God, what these meetings and murmurings meant; he expostulated with them upon the danger and consequence of their precipitate schemes, and desired them immediately to depart. But instead of obeying, they returned an insolent answer; wherefore, rushing on them in a fury, he laid, with his own hands, two of them dead at his feet. His guards dispersing the rest,

he caused several of them to be hanged upon the spot; he sent others prisoners to London; and thus dissipated a faction, no otherwise criminal than in having followed his own example. This action served still more to increase the power of Cromwell in the camp and in the parliament; and while Fairfax was nominally general of the troops, Oliver was invested with all the power. But his authority soon became irresistible, in consequence of a new and unexpected addition to his successes. The Scots, perhaps ashamed of the reproach of having sold their king, and stimulated by the independents, who took all occasions to mortify them, raised an army in his favour, and the chief command was given to the duke of Hamilton; while Langdale, who professed himself at the head of the more bigoted party, who had taken the covenant, marched at the head of his separate body, and A. D. both invaded the north of England. Their two 1648. armies amounted to about twenty thousand men. But Cromwell, at the head of eight thousand of his hardy veterans, feared not to give them battle; he attacked them one after the other, routed and dispersed them, took Hamilton prisoner, and, following his blow, entered Scotland, where he settled the government entirely to his satisfaction. An insurrection in Kent was quelled by Fairfax at the same time with the same ease; and nothing but success attended all this bold usurper's criminal attempts. During these contentions, the king, who was kept a prisoner at Carisbrook, continued to negotiate with the parliament for settling the unspeakable calamities of the kingdom. The parliament saw no other method of destroying military power but to depress it by the kingly. Frequent proposals for an accommodation passed between the captive king and the commons; but the great

obstacle which had all along stood in the way, still kept them from agreeing. This was the king's refusing to abolish episcopacy, though he consented to a suspension of the liturgy of the church. However, the treaty was still carried on with vigour, as the parliament had more to apprehend from the designs of their generals than from the attempts of the king; and, for the first time, they seemed in earnest to conclude their negotiations. But all was now too late; their power was soon totally to expire; for the rebellious army, crowned with success, had returned from the destruction of their enemies, and, sensible of their own power, with furious remonstrances began to demand vengeance on the king. At the same time they advanced to Windsor: and, sending an officer to seize the king's person, where he was lately sent under confinement, they conveyed him to Hurst castle, in Hampshire, opposite the Isle of Wight. It was in vain that the parliament complained of this harsh proceeding, as being contrary to their approbation; it was in vain that they began to issue ordinances for a more effectual opposition; they received a message from Cromwell, that he intended paying them a visit the next day with his army; and in the mean time he ordered them to levy forty thousand pounds upon the city of London for the public USC. The commons, though destitute of all hopes of prevailing, had still courage to resist, and attempted, in the face of the whole army, to close their treaty with the king. They had taken into consideration the whole of his concessions; and though they had formerly voted them unsatisfactory, they now renewed the consultation with fresh vigour. After a violent debate, which had lasted three days, it was carried in the king's favour, by

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