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During this distraction and perplexity, he embraced a sudden resolution of drawing off his army, and retiring towards London; a measure which could only serve to betray his fears, and provoke farther treachery. Thus driven to the precipice of his fortunes, invaded by one son-in-law, abandoned by another, despised by his subjects, and hated by those who had suffered beneath his cruelty, he assembled the few noblemen that still adhered to his interests. There, in his forlorn council, he demanded the advice of those he most confided in. Addressing himself to the earl of Bedford, father to lord Russel, who had been executed in the former reign by the intrigues of James, “My lord,” said the king, “you are an honest man, have credit, and can do me signal service.” “Ah, sir!” replied the earl, “I am old and feeble; I can do you but little service. I had indeed a sons” James was so struck with this reply, that he could ‘mot speak for some minutes. The king's fortune now exposed him to the contempt of his enemies; and his behaviour was such as could not procure him the esteem of his friends and adherents. He was naturally timid : and some counsellors about him, either sharing his fears, or secretly attached to the prince, contributed to increase his apprehensions. They ‘reminded him of the fate of his father, and aggravated the turbulence and inconstancy of the people. They at length persuaded him to fly from a nation he could no longer govern, and seek for refuge at the court of France, where he was sure of assistance and protection. The popish courtiers, and above all the priests, were sensible that they would be made the first sacrifice upon the prevalence of the opposite party. They were therefore desirous of taking James with them, as his presence - would be still their honour and protection abroad. The prince of Orange was no less desirous of the king's flying over to France than his most zealous counsellors could be. He was determined to use every expedient to intimidate James, and drive him out of the kingdom. He declined a personal conference with the king's commissioners, and sent the earls of Clarendon and Oxford to treat with them. The terms which he proposed implied almost a present participation of the sovereignty; and, to urge his measures, he stopped not a moment in his march towards London. The king, alarmed every day more and more with the prospect of a general disaffection, resolved to hearken to those who advised him to quit the kingdom. To prepare for this he first sent away the queen, who arrived safely at Calais, under the conduct of count Lauzun, an old favourite of the French king. He himself soon after disappeared in the night-time, attended only by sir Edward Hales, a new convert; and, disguising himself in a plain dress, went down to Feversham, where he embarked in a small vessel for France. But his misfortunes still continued to pursue him. The vessel was detained by the populace, who, not knowing the person of the king, robbed, insulted, and abused him. He was now persuaded by the earl of Winchelsea to return to London; where the mob, moved by his distresses, and guided by their natural levity, received him, contrary to his expectations, with shouts and acclamations. - Nothing could be more disagreeable to the prince of Orange than to hear that James was brought back, and, in some measure, triumphantly, to his capital. He had before taken measures to seize upon that authority which the king's dereliction had put into his hands. The bishops and peers, who were now the only authorised magistrates in the state, gave directions, in the present dissolution of government, for keeping the peace of the city. They issued orders, which were readily obeyed, to the fleet, the garrisons, and the army. They made applications to the prince, whose enterprise they highly applauded, and whose success they joyfully congratulated. It was not, therefore, without extreme mortification, that he found the king returned to embarrass his proceedings. The prince of Orange, however, determined to dissemble, and received the news of his return with a haughty air. His aim from the beginning was to push him by threats and severities to relinquish the throne; and his proceedings argued the refined politician. The King having sent lord Feversham on a civil message to the prince, desiring a conference previous to the settlement of the throne, that nobleman was put under an arrest, on pretence of his wanting a passport. The Dutch guards were ordered to take possession of Whitehall, where the king then lodged, and to displace the English. James was soon after commanded by a message, which he received in bed at midnight, to leave his palace next morning, and to depart for Ham, a seat of the duchess of Lauderdale. He desired permission to retire to Rochester, a town not far from the sea-coast. This was readily granted him; and it was now perceived that the harsh measures of the prince had taken effect, and that James was meditating an escape from the kingdom. The king, while he continued at Rochester, seemed willing to receive invitations to resume the crown; but the prince had not been at all this expence and trouble in taking him from a throne to place him there again. James, therefore, observing that he was entirely neglected by his own subjects, and oppressed by his son-in-law, resolved to seek safety from the king of France, the only friend he had still remaining. He accordingly fled to the sea-side, attended by his natural son, the duke of Berwick, and embarked for the continent. He arrived in safety at Ambleteuse in Picardy, whence he hastened to the court of France, where he still enjoyed the empty title of a king, and the appellation of a saint, which flattered him more. After this manner, the courage and abilities of the prince of Orange, seconded by surprising fortune, effected the delivery of the kingdom. It now remained that he should reap the rewards of his toil, and obtain that crown for himself, which had fallen from the head of his father-in-law. Previously to any regular authority, he continued in the management of all public affairs. By the advice of the house of lords, the only member of the legislature remaining, he was desired to summon a parliament by circular letters; but the prince, unwilling to act upon so imperfect an authority, convened all the members who had sitten in the house of commons during any parliament of Charles the Second, and to these were added the mayor, aldermen, and fifty of the common council. This was the most proper representative of the people that could be summoned, during the present emergency. They unanimously voted the same address with the lords; and the prince, being thus supported by legal authority, wrote circular letters to the counties and corporations of England, to choose a new parliament. His orders were universally complied with ; every thing went on in the most regular peaceful manner, and the prince became possessed of all authority, as if he had regularly succeeded to the throne. When the house met, which was mostly, Jan. 22, composed of the Whig party, after thanks 1689. were given to the prince of Orange for the deliverance which he had brought them, they proceeded to the settlement of the kingdom. In a few days they passed a vote, by a great majority, which was sent up to the house of lords for their concurrence. It was to this effect: That king James the Second, having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of the kingdom, by breaking the original contract betwixt the king and people, and having, by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons, violated the fundamental laws, and withdrawn himself out of the kingdom, had abdicated the government; and the throne was thereby vacant. This vote readily passed the house of commons; but it met with some opposition in the house of lords, and was at length carried by a majority of two voices only. The king being thus deposed, the next consideration was the appointment of a successor. Some declared for a regent; others proposed that the princess of Orange should be invested with regal power, and the young prince considered as supposititious. The debates ran high. A conference was demanded between the lords and commons; while the prince, with his usual prudence, entered into no intrigues either with electors or members, but kept a total silence, as if he had been no way concerned in the transaction. At last, perceiving that his own name was little mentioned in these disputes, he called together the lords Halifax, Shrewsbury, and Danby, with a few more. He then told them that he had been called over to defend the liberties of the English nation, and that he had happily effected his purpose; that he had heard of several schemes proposed for establishing the government; that, if they should choose a regent, he would never accept that office, the execution of which he knew would be attended with insuperable difficulties; that he would not accept the crown under the princess his wife, though he was convinced of her merits: that, therefore if either of these schemes should be adopted, he would give them no

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