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ing. The king of France, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and Bourbon, the king of Navarre, and several other princes, with prelates and churchmen without number, were present at his consecration. With the aid of the grand master, his brother, the feast he gave on the occasion was the most magnificent ever seen, in regard to the quantity of gold and silver plate, and the diversity and abundance of meats and liquors. From this grand display, the princes observed that the grand master governed the king as he pleased; and they began to form suspicions as to the uprightness of his conduct. On the 16th day of July following, duke Anthony of Brabant married, at Brussels, the niece of the king of Bohemia", heiress to the duchy of Luxembourg in right of her father. This marriage had been concluded by the mediation of the bishop of Châlons and sir Regnier Pot. Several knights, esquires, ladies, and damsels of high rank, had accompanied the lady to Brussels, according to the orders of the king of Bohemia, her uncle. There were present at these nuptials the two brothers of the duke of Brabant, the duke of Burgundy, and the count de Nevers, with their sister, wife to duke William, count de Hainault; the count de Charolois and the countess of Cleves, children to the duke of Burgundy; the marquis du Pont, his brother John H, and their sister, the countess de St. Poli, all three children to the duke de Bar; the counts de Namur and de Conversant, with their ladies; with many more of the great nobility of both sexes. The count de Clermont, son to the duke de Bourbon, was also there, and when he tilted, was attended by the duke of Burgundy and count de Nevers. The duke bore his shield, and the count his lance, to the surprise of many present, on account of the great hatred that had so lately subsisted between them for the murder of the duke of Orleans: however, they seemed then to be in perfect concord. This feast was abundantly served with all sorts of provisions and wines; and when it was ended, the different guests retired to their respective countries. On the last day but one of the same month of July, the marriage of the daughter of the lord d'Albret, constable of France, with the eldest son of Montagu Ş, grand master of the king's household, was solemnly celebrated. The queen of France and numbers of the great nobles were present; and the whole of the expense was paid by the king, which created much anger and envy in several of the princes of the blood against Montagu. At this time, the truces were broken between the kings of France and of England, but only at sea; and a bitter naval war ensued, to the great loss of many merchants in each country. On the 2d day of August, John de Lusignan, king of Cyprus, espoused by proxy Charlotte de Bourbon, sister-german to the count de la Marche. The ceremony was performed in the castle of Melun, in the presence of the queen of France, the duke of Aquitaine, and her other children, the king of Navarre, the dukes of Berry and of Bourbon, the counts de la Marche and de Clermont, the lord Louis de Baviere, brother to the queen, and many ladies and damsels, who greatly amused themselves in tournaments, dances, in feastings, and other pastimes. The lady Charlotte, queen of Cyprus, was very handsome, and well endowed with noble and gracious manners. On the conclusion of these feasts, she departed for Cyprus, most honourably accompanied by the nobles so ordered by her brother, and also by those who had been sent to her from the king of Cyprus. She landed at the port of Chermes, whither the king came to meet her, much rejoiced at her safe arrival, and conducted her, attended by the greater part of the nobility of the island, to Nicosia, where were made many feasts, according to the custom of the country. They reigned for a long time with much honour; and had two children, of whom more shall be spoken hereafter. * Elizabeth, daughter of John duke of Luxembourg, § Charles de Montagu, to whom the confiscated honours brother of Wenceslaus king of Bohemia, and ci-devant of the vidame du Laonnois and lord of Marcoussy were emperor.’ See ante, p. 18. restored after the death of his father. There was no issue t John lord of Puisaye, fifth son to the duke of Bar. of this marriage with Catherine d'Albret.

f Bona, third daughter of the duke of Bar, married to Waleran count of St. Pol.


On the 5th of August, and the eight succeeding days, duke John of Burgundy held a grand council in his town of Lille, on his own affairs, and on the means of reconciling his brother

Lille —Ancient Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy.—From Millin's Antiquities of France.

and brother-in-law, the duke of Brabant, and duke William of Holland, who had quarrelled for a cause before mentioned. With these two dukes, there were also present the duke of Burgundy's sister, the wife of duke William, the bishop of Liege, and the count de Namur. At length the duke of Burgundy made peace between them, on condition that duke William should pay to the duke of Brabant, for all his demand of debt, the sum of seventy thousand golden florins of the coin of France, by different instalments. When this had been settled, the duke of Burgundy went, about the middle of August, to Paris, by orders from the king and royal council : he was accompanied by many men-atarms, whom he quartered in the villages round Paris. The reason why he was attended by such a force was, because the duke of Brittany had lately brought from England great numbers of English, and, in conjunction with his Bretons, was carrying on a sharp war against the old countess of Penthievre" and her lands. The queen of France and the king's ministers were much displeased at this conduct of the duke of Brittany, because it was to the prejudice of the realm. The duke had increased this displeasure against him by having beaten and ill treated his duchess, daughter to the king of France, for blaming him on account of his undertaking this war. It was therefore intended, that the duke of Burgundy should march the forces he had brought, attended by other princes and captains, against the duke of Brittany, to conquer his country, and oblige him to submit to the king. The duke of Burgundy was very desirous of succouring the countess and her fair son, the count de Penthievre; but while the preparations were making, the duke of Brittany, informed by some of his friends that he was in the ill graces of his mother-in-law, the queen of France, and of those who governed the king, sent, by advice of his council, certain ambassadors to Paris, to offer to submit his differences with the countess de Penthievre to the king and council, which was at length accepted, through the interference of the king of Navarre. The countess de Penthievre and her son were summoned to Paris, whither also came the duke of Brittany; when, after some discussions, peace was made between them. In this same month, Isabella, the king of France's eldest daughter, and dowager queen of England, but wife to Charles duke of Orleans, died in childbed. The duke bitterly lamented her loss, but received some consolation out of regard to the daughter she had brought him.— The patriarch of Alexandria, bishop of Carcassonne, succeeded Guy de Roye (whose murder has been noticed) in the archbishopric of Rheims, and the archbishop of Bourges succeeded to the patriarchate.—Doctor William Bouratier, secretary to the king, was nominated archbishop of Bourges; and nearly about this time died doctor Peter Paoul, and was succeeded in his dignities by doctor Gilles des Champs, almoner to the king. Louis de Harcourt, brother to the count de Harcourt, was appointed archbishop of Rouen.

* Margaret de Clisson, widow of John de Blois and mother of Oliver, counts of Penthievre. Wol. I. L



Boucicaut, marshal of France, was at this time governor of Genoa, and resided there. He was called upon by the duke of Milan and his brother, the count of Pavia”, to settle a dispute which had arisen between them, respecting part of their dominions. He accepted the invitation, thinking he should do an agreeable service to the duke of Milan, and not suspecting any trick in the matter. But during his absence, the inhabitants of Genoa rebelled against his government, and sent for some of their allies and accomplices to come to them. They cruelly murdered the marshal's lieutenant, the chevalier de Colletrie, named Chollette, a native of Auvergne, which the other Frenchmen hearing of, fled into the forts, for fear of suffering a similar fate. These were instantly besieged by the Genoese, who sent for the marquis of Montferratt; he lost no time in hastening to their aid with four thousand combatants, as they had promised to pay him ten thousand florins yearly,–and they immediately elected him doge of Genoa. They also chose twelve knights, as a council to manage public affairs. A few days after, Fassincaulti, a very renowned captain in Italy, and a great friend of the marquis of Montferrat, came to Genoa with the intent of assisting the marquis; but the Genoese refused to admit him, or accept of his offers. On his return, his force, amounting to eight thousand men, took a town called Noefville $; but the French retreated within the castle, which was instantly besieged. When Boucicaut heard of the rebellion of the Genoese, he set out accompanied by his men, and the duke of Milan and the count of Pavia, and arrived with speed at the castle of Gaing ||, situated between the town of Noefville and Genoa, and fought with Fassincault and his forces. In this battle, eight hundred men were slain, the greater part belonging to Fassincault, and night alone separated the combatants. Boucicaut, by the advice of Enguerrand de Bournouville and Gaisfier de la Salle, both men-at-arms of acknowledged prowess, advanced that night to the castle of Gaing, which he won, and amply provided it with provision and all necessary stores. Fassincault remained in the town; but seeing he could not gain the castle, he departed with his men to his own fortresses. The marshal Boucicaut carried on a severe warfare against the Genoese and those who had assisted them. He also sent messengers to inform the king of France of his situation, and to require that he would immediately send him reinforcements of men-at-arms.-The king and his great council, on receiving this intelligence and considering the fickleness of the Genoese, determined to proceed cautiously against them. The king sent, at his expense, the lords de Torsy, de Rambures, and de Viefville, with a certain number of men-at-arms, to the city of Asti, belonging to the duke of Orleans, and near to the territory of Genoa, with the hope of affording assistance to Boucicaut. On their arrival at Asti, they found that the whole country was in rebellion, excepting some forts, which held out for the French; but as they were without the town, and could not contain many men, from dread of wanting provision, they were not of consequence, nor could they do much mischief. The above knights, therefore, perceiving they could not perform any essential services, resolved to return to France. All merchants, and others who came from or had any connexions with Genoa, were now sought after in Paris, arrested and imprisoned, and their goods confiscated to the king's use. Now these Genoese had for a long time been under obedience to the king, and had diligently served him in many of his wars.

* John Maria and Philip Maria, sons of John Galeas, Sophia was married to Philip Maria Wisconti, then count and successively dukes of Milan. of Pavia, afterwards duke of Milan. f Facino Cane, a captain of great reputation, and partit Theodore Palaeologus, second marquis of Montferrat. san of John Maria Wisconti, duke of Milan. He married, first, a daughter of the duke of Bar, and, § Noefville. Q. Novara, or Novi P secondly, a princess of the house of Savoy. His daughter || Gaing. Q. Gavi P


At this period, the following princes of the blood, Louis king of Navarre”, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and Bourbon, and many other great lords, were at Paris; and having learnt that the king's treasury was impoverished by his officers and those who governed him, insomuch that his plate and the greater part of his jewels were in pawn, they one day personally explained to the king, in the presence of the queen, the duke of Aquitaine and others of his council, the miserable state of his finances, and the unworthy government of the officers of his household. They at the same time requested, that he would be pleased to permit that some of them should have power to reform in general the abuses that had commenced with his reign, and to call to an account, dismiss, and punish all who should have mismanaged the finances, according as the cases might require, without any exception whatever. This request the king granted; and for the better carrying on their object, the greater part of the lords before-mentioned left their own hotels, and resided in the king's palace of St. Pol, where, with the advice of the members of the parliament and the university, they continued their reformations for many days.

They soon discovered that those who had managed the finances for the last sixteen or twenty years had very dishonestly acquitted themselves, and had acquired for themselves and their friends immense fortunes, to the prejudice of the state. Montagu, who had been the principal minister of finance, was particularly the object they aimed at,-and they ordered him, with several others, to be arrested and confined in the prison of the Châtelet. Sir Peter des Essars, provost of Paris, was directed to put this order into execution, with his sergeants; and by the command of the duke of Burgundy, the lords de Heylly, de Robais, and sir Roland de Wequerque, were appointed to assist the provost in this duty. Having assembled together, they, on a certain day, met Montagu, and with him the doctor, Martin Gouge, bishop of Chartres, both going to hear mass at the monastery of St. Victor.

The provost, attended by the above lords, on meeting them, laid his hands on both, saying, “I lay hands on you by virtue of the royal authority vested in me for this purpose."— Montagu, hearing these words, was much astonished, and trembled greatly; but his courage soon returned, and he replied to the provost, “What! rascal, art thou daring enough to lay hands on me?” But the provost answered, “Matters will not turn out as you think, for you must make reparation for the many and great mischiefs you have done.” Montagu, unable to resist, was tightly bound by the provost, and carried by him straight to the Little Châtelet. The bishop of Chartres was arrested with him, as he had been president of one of the financial departments. Montagu was several times put to the torture, insomuch that, suspecting his end was approaching, he asked his confessor what he had best do: the confessor replied, “I see no other remedy than your appealing from the jurisdiction of the provost of Paris.” This he did; and the provost waited on the lords who had commanded him to arrest Montagu, to inform them, that he had appealed against his jurisdiction. The parliament was consequently convoked to examine into the matter; and the members of it declared the appeal of no effect. The lords, therefore, seeing the cause had been judged, said to the provost, “Go, without delay, accompanied by some of the populace well armed, take thy prisoner, and finish the matter by cutting off his head with an axe, and fix it on a lance in the market-place.” After these words, the populace armed themselves, and, on the 17th of October, assembled in bodies in the Place Maubert, and in other parts of the town. They carried Montagu to a scaffold erected in the market-place, where, having made him strip to his shirt, they cut off his head, and fixed it to the end of a pike, and hung his body by the shoulders to the highest gibbet at Montfaucon. This execution was chiefly owing, as it was said, to the duke of Burgundy's hatred to him, who even sent for a very great number of the nobles of his countries of Burgundy, Flanders, and Artois, to be spectators of it. A little before this execution took place, the duke of Bourbon, and his son the count de Clermont, left Paris, indignant at the arrest of Montagu. The duke of Orleans, his brothers, and all of their party, were also very much displeased that he was put to death, but they could not help it, for at that time they were not listened to by the king's council. On the morrow of this event, duke William count of Hainault arrived at Paris, havin been sent for by the duke of Burgundy. A large company of the nobles went out of the town to meet him; and he was most graciously received by the king, the duke of Aquitaine, and the other princes. On his arrival, the hotel that had belonged to Montagu was given to him, with all its furniture, for it had been confiscated to the king's use; and duke William took instant possession. The castle of Marcoussi, which had been built by Montagu, was seized by the king: it is situated seven leagues from Paris, on the road to Chartres. Montagu was born in Paris, and had first been secretary to the king : he was the son of Gerard de Montagu, who had also been secretary to Charles V. He was of noble birth by his mother's side, and had three daughters, two of whom were married; the elder to John " count de Roussy, the second to Peter de Craon, lord of Montbason; and the third was betrothed to John de Melun, son to the lord d'Antoing +, but the match was broken off: his son was married to the daughter of the lord d'Albret, constable of France and cousin to the king, as has been related. After this, the provost of Paris arrested many of the king's officers, particularly those who had been concerned in the finances and in matters of revenue. All the principals in the department of the generalities, the presidents and others of the chamber of accounts, Perrin Pillot, a merchant, with several others, were imprisoned in the Louvre and in other places of confinement. When the borgne de Foucal, equerry to the king, and keeper of that department of the treasury called the Epargne, heard that the grand master of the household was arrested, he was greatly astonished and troubled, and instantly changing his dress, mounted a fleet horse, and secretly left Paris. This caused him to be much suspected of improper conduct by the princes who were examining into these matters. : At this period, the archbishop of Sens, brother to the grand master, Guichart Daulphin, William de Tignonville, knights, and master Goutier Col, secretary to the king, were sent, by orders from the king, to meet the English ambassadors at Amiens. The archbishop, hearing of the arrest and imprisonment of his brother, took leave of his companions, and set out from Amiens: but as he was journeying towards Paris, he was met by one of the king's ushers, who made him his prisoner; for he had orders so to do from the king, and confine him at Amiens, should he chance to find him there. The archbishop very prudently replied, that he was ready to follow him to prison or to death; but when they came to the river Oise, near the priory of St. Leu de Cherens, he played the usher a trick. On leaving the ferry-boat with a few of his people, he mounted the fleetest of his horses, and galloped off, leaving the usher on the other side waiting for the return of the ferry-boat; but, thunderstruck at his being so cheated, he returned to Paris without his prisoner. The lord de Tignonville,

* Q. Louis king of Sicily? or Charles king of Navarre? Probably the latter.

* John VI. count of Roucy and Braine, son of Hugh younger branch of the house of Melun, counts of Tancarcount de Roucy and Blanche of Coucy. He married Isabel ville. John I. viscount of Melun, was grandfather both de Montagu, and was killed at Azincourt. to the count of Tancarville and the lord d'Antoing, men

f The lords of Antoing and princes of Espinoy were a tioned in this volume.

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