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having been a member of the chamber of accounts, was, by command of the princes, arrested by the bailiff of Amiens, and confined in his prison. But, after a short time, he, the bishop of Chartres, and the other prisoners at Paris, were suspended from their offices, and, having given bail, were permitted to go about Paris, or wherever they pleased. The princes, not being able to attend sufficiently to these matters of reform from their other occupations of greater weight, appointed a commission to examine carefully into them, which commission was composed of the counts de la Marche, de Vendôme and de St. Pol, with some members of the parliament. The men-at-arms that had been called together round Paris by the duke of Burgundy and others, were disbanded; and each, as they returned to the places whence they had come, devoured the substance of the poor people, according to the custom of that time. Sir Guichart Daulphin", before mentioned, was, by the princes, appointed grand master of the king's household, in the room of the murdered Montagu ; for the king was then troubled with his usual disorder. , The bishop of Paris now requested of the princes, that they would, in their mercy, permit him to have the body of his brother taken down from the gibbet, and, with many tears and supplications, petitioned for leave to bury him. But neither of these requests was granted him by the princes; on which the bishop, ashamed of the disgraceful death of one brother and the flight of another, the archbishop of Sens, soon after quitted his see, and taking with him his sister-in-law, the widow of Montagu, and some of their children, for the duke of Berry had already appointed another chancellor, went to the estate of his sister-in-law in Savoy: she was the daughter of sir Stephen de la Grange, formerly president of the parliament, and brother to the cardinal d'Amiens. The borgne de Foucal, not answering to the proclamations that were made for his appearance, was banished the realm of France, by sound of trumpet in the four quarters of Paris. In like manner were the archbishop of Sens, and many other fugitives, banished the kingdom. The king of Navarre, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy and Holland, with the counts de Vendôme and de la Marche, and several great lords, waited on the queen of France and the duke of Aquitaine, to make them acquainted with the reasons for the executing of Montagu, and what progress they had made in the reformation of abuses, and the measures they had pursued against such as were criminal. The queen testified her satisfaction, and was contented that they should proceed as they had begun. She was, however, far from being pleased with the duke of Burgundy, whom she dreaded, from the great power he was now possessed of, more than any of the other princes, although he treated her respectfully in his speech. The marriage of the lord Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen, was again talked of with the daughter of the king of Navarre; and he was presented with the castle of Marcoussi, with all its furniture and appurtenances, which had lately been confiscated to the king, by the death of Montagu, which was very agreeable to the queen. After these lords had for some days transacted business at Melun, where the court was, they all returned to Paris, carrying with them master Peter Bosthet, president of the parliament, and some members of the chamber of accounts, and assembled daily to inquire after those persons who had been in the receipt and expenditure of the public revenues. During this time, the king, who had been very ill, was restored to health, insomuch that on the 2d day of December, he rode from his palace of St. Pol, dressed in a hauberk under his robes, to the cathedral church of Nôtre Dame, where he made his prayers, a page carrying behind him a very handsome steel helmet and a Moorish lance. Having finished his prayers, he returned to his palace of Saint Pol. On the morrow, he held a royal council in person, at which were present the king of Navarre, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and of Bourbon, which last was lately returned to Paris. It was there resolved, that the king should summon the following lords to attend him personally at the ensuing feast of Christmas, namely, the dukes of Orleans, of Brittany, of Brabant, of Bar, and of Lorrain: the counts of Savoy-E, of Alençon, of Penthievre, of Namur, of Harcourt, of Armagnaci, and in general all the great lords within his realm of France and Dauphiny, with many prelates and other noblemen. After this summons of the king, the duke of Burgundy gave orders for a large body of menat-arms to be collected in his countries of Flanders, Artois, and Burgundy, for the safety of his person. Shortly after this council, duke William count of Hainault went to Melun, the residence of the queen of France, who was his near relation; and so managed that she, who could not bear the duke of Burgundy, and had strongly supported the party adverse to him, namely, that of my lord the duke of Orleans, was reconciled to him.

* Guichard Dauphin, descended from the old counts de + Amadeus VIII. the first duke of Savoy, son of Ama Clermont, dauphins of Auvergne, grand-master from 1409, deus VII. and Bona, daughter to the duke of Berry. to 1413. He was son to Guichard Dauphin I. grand- t Bernard VII. brother of John III., count of Artoaster of thc cross-bows. magnac, killed at Alexandria della Paglia, as related by


About this time, duke Louis of Bavaria was married at Melun to the daughter of the king of Navarre, according to what has been before mentioned. She had previously married the eldest son of the king of Arragon", who had lately been slain in a battle between him and the viscount de Narbonne and the Sardinians, which took place in Sardinia. There was much feasting at this wedding, which was attended by many lords, ladies, and damsels. About Christmas the greater part of those lords whom the king had summoned, arrived at Paris: the duke of Orleans and his brothers, however, did not come. On the eve of Christmas-day, the king went to the palace to hold his state, and remained there until St. Thomas's day, where he celebrated most solemnly the feast of the nativity of our Lord. . On this day the following persons were seated at the king's table at dinner: on his right, doctor William Bouratier, archbishop of Bourges, who had said the mass; next to him was the cardinal de Bar. The king was seated at the middle of the table, very magnificently dressed in his royal robes. On his left were the dukes of Berry and Burgundy. A great variety of ornamental plate was produced in gold and silver, which were wont to be served before the king on high feasts, but which had not for some time been seen, because they had been pawned to Montagu, and had been found after his death in his castle of Marcoussi, and in other places where he had hidden them. By orders from the princes of the blood they had been replaced, as usual, in the king's palace, which was a very agreeable sight to the nobles and people of Paris, from their regard to the honour of the king's person, and his royal state. A great many princes and others had obeyed the king's summons, and were at this feast, —namely, the king of Navarre, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, Bourbon, Brabant, duke William count of Hainault, the duke of Lorrain, duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen, —and nineteen counts, namely, the count de Mortain, brother to the king of Navarre, the count de Nevers, the count de Clermont, the marquis du Pont, son to the duke of Bar, the count de Vaudemont, the count d'Alençon, the count de Vendôme, the count de Penthievre, the count de St. Pol, the count de Cleves, the count de Tancarville, the count d'Angyt, the count de Namur, and several others, to the aforesaid amount. The number of knights who accompanied these princes was so great that, from the report of the heralds, they were more than eighteen hundred knights without including esquires. Nevertheless, there were not in this noble company the duke of Orleans nor his brothers, nor the duke of Brittany, nor the lord d'Albret, constable of France, nor the counts de Foix, d'Armagnac, and many other potent lords, although they had been summoned by the king in like manner as the others. On St. Thomas's day, after the king had feasted his nobles in royal state, the queen, by orders from the king, came from the castle of Vincennes to Paris. All the princes, prelates, and great crowds of people, went out to meet her and her son, the duke of Aquitaine, and

Froissart. This count was a man of the most unbounded
ambition, and had already, in the forcible seizure of the
county of Fesenzaguet, (the appanage of a younger branch
of Armagnac,) and the murder of its count, Geraud III.,
and his two sons, discovered an unprincipled cruelty of
disposition, remarkable even at this calamitous period of
history. He married Bona of Berry, the widow of
Amadeus VII., and mother of Amadeus VIII. above-
* Martin, king of Sicily, by whose death without issue
the king of Arragon was deprived of male heirs. The

island of Sardinia was at this time divided between the
Genoese and Arragonian factions. The chief of the former
was Brancaleon d'Oria, whose sister was married to William
count of Narbonne. Turquet calls him Aimery, - and
says that the king of Sicily was not killed, but died a
natural death at Cagliari, after obtaining a victory over the
t Q. Angennes 2 John d'Angennes, lord de la Louppe,
was governor of Dauphiné and afterwards of the Louvre,
and enjoyed great credit at court.

Charles Duke of Aquitaine, Fouath Dauphin of FRANCE, AND Second Son of Charles VI.
From a print in Wol. II. of Mezeray's Histoire de la France.

conducted her to the palace, where they presented her to the king, in the presence of all the before-mentioned lords. Her son had visited his government, to be properly instructed in arms, and other necessary matters, that he might be the better qualified to rule his kingdom when it should fall to him.


IN consequence of several meetings having been held in the presence of the king, queen, and duke of Aquitaine, the king ordered the great hall of the palace to be magnificently prepared for a royal sessions. Thither were summoned all the principal noblemen, prelates, and others, when the king appeared seated in his regal robes. On one side of him were the king of Navarre and the cardinal de Bar, and on the other the duke of Aquitaine, the duke of Berry, and all the other princes and nobles, each seated according to his rank: in like manner were the prelates, knights, and clergy, and a multitude of others, seated according to their respective situations in life. Then, by the king's commands the count de Tancarville, an able and eloquent man, harangued, with a loud and clear voice, how Richard, late king of England, and son-in-law to the king, had been basely and treacherously put to death, during the time of a truce, by Henry of Lancaster, calling himself king of England, but then earl of Derby, in conjunction with his partisans, as might be fully proved by several of the English, near relations of the deceased king Richard: and also how the young prince of Scotland, an ally to the king, when on his voyage to France, was taken by this same Henry, and detained his prisoner for a long time; as were likewise many Scots, who were in the company of the prince of Wales. Yvain Graindos”, with several of his Welchmen, allies also to the king, notwithstanding the aforesaid truce, were by the English harassed with war. The eldest son likewise to the prince of Wales was made captivet, carried to England, and imprisoned by Henry for a considerable time. “In consequence of the facts stated, the king thinks he may, without further consideration, lawfully wage war against the said Henry and his English subjects, without giving them any respite. Notwithstanding this,” continued the orator, “the king is desirous that whatever he may please to order should be for the common welfare of the state; and for this purpose a royal sessions has been held, for every one to consider these matters and what ought to be the line of conduct for him to pursue, and, having an opinion thereon, if they will inform the king or his council thereof, the king will thank them and follow that advice which shall seem to him the most advantageous for the general good."


John Duke of BERRY.-From an original in Crayons, engraved in Montfaucon, Vol. II."

Upon this, the eldest of the princes of the blood, namely, the king's uncle the duke of Berry, arose from his seat, and, advancing in front of the king's throne, fell on his knees, and, speaking for himself and the other princes of the blood, declared they would relinquish, to the use of the state, all taxes and impositions which they annually levied on their lands,and in like manner would they relinquish all the fees and perquisites of office which they were in the habit of receiving from their places under the king, and as the members of his council. The king kindly listened to the duke's speech, and accepted his offers, and then commanded him to be reseated. The lord Tancarville continued his harangue, saying, that the king, then present, revoked all pensions and grants which he had given, and thus publicly annulled them. In regard to the reformation and future management of the finances, the king declared his intention that such regulations as should be ordered by himself, and by the advice of the count de la Marche (who had now lost his wife, the daughter of the king of Navarre), his brother the count de Vendôme, the count de Saint Pol, and the other commissioners from the parliament, should be fully executed without excepting any person whatever; and that the reformations by them proposed should take place, as well in the chambers of accounts as in the generalities and in the household of the king, and that all receivers, comptrollers, and all persons any way interested in the management of the finances of the realm, whether bishops or archbishops, and of what rank soever, should be subjected to them.” The orator continued,—“That the king willed and ordered, that during his absence, the queen should call to her assistance some of the princes of the royal blood, and should govern the affairs of this kingdom according as she might judge most conducive to its welfare; and in case of the absence of the queen, the duke of Aquitaine, his son, then present, should govern the kingdom, with the assistance of the dukes of Berry and Burgundy.” When the lord de Tancarville had more fully enlarged on the above matters, and concluded his speech, the king descended from his royal throne, and, with a small company, entered his apartment to dinner; and the whole assembly broke up, and departed to their hôtels. After the dinner, the queen set out with her attendants for the castle of Vincennes, as it was the eve of the feast of the Circumcision, but left her son with the king. On the morrow, the feast-day, the duke of Burgundy (who had alone more princes, knights, and gentlemen attached to him than all the other princes together,) gave presents of jewels and rich gifts, of greater magnificence than any one, according to the custom of that day. He made presents to all the knights and nobles of his household, to the amount, as was estimated, of fifteen thousand golden florins, of medals formed like to a mason's level, of gold and silver gilt; and at the pointed ends of these levels was fastened a small gilt chain, with a plummet of gold, so that it might be used as a rule.—Item, on Twelfth-day following, Louis king of Sicily, having been sent for by the king, entered Paris. He came from the city of Pisa, whither he had gone to visit pope Alexander W. and made his entry, attended by numbers of the nobility and clergy, who had gone out to meet him.' Shortly after, the cardinal de Thurey came to Paris, as ambassador from the pope to the king, who most honourably received him, as he likewise did Philibert de Lignac, grand master of Rhodes, and chief of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, who had come from England. The king now disbanded all the troops he had collected, as did the duke of Burgundy, excepting about one hundred or six score gentlemen, whom he retained, with those of his household, to guard his person: the others returned to their homes. Before the duke of Burgundy left Paris, the duke of Aquitaine, with the consent of the king and queen, was intrusted to his care and guardianship, that he might be properly instructed in the arts of war and government. He had been very anxious to obtain this, and had caused several of the princes of the blood to press the matter: even his uncle, the duke of Berry, had, on this account, more than once refused the queen to accept of the guardianship of the duke of Aquitaine; but had so urged the business that the lord de Dolhaing", knight, his principal esquire, counsellor, and advocate, had, by the earnest desire of the queen, been made chancellor to the duke of Aquitaine, and the lord de Saint George his first chamberlain. The government of the castles of Crotoy and Beaurain-sur-Cance were granted to the duke of Berry for his life, on giving the preceding governors the usual pension, in whose room he appointed two of his own knights; the lord de Croy to Crotoy, and the lord de Humbercourt to Beaurain; and sir Reginald Pot was, at his request, appointed governor of Dauphiny for the dauphin. Soon after this, the king relapsed into his usual disorder, and was put under good guard. Those who were intrusted with the reform of abuses continued daily at work, and with such success that large sums were recovered from the late directors of the finances. At this period, the princes and council of state went often to the castle of Vincennes, where the queen resided,—for without her knowledge no business of any importance was carried on. The dukes of Berry and Bourbon, however, were much discontented that they were not so often summoned to the council as * De Dolhaing. Q. D’Olhaing 2

* This Yvain Graindos is a strange corruption, if any sovereign, from thenceforward always styled himself Prince corruption in the French nomenclature can be strange to of Wales, as appears from several acts.” a practised car, of Owen Glendower, who, as Rapin says, + In a battle fought May 14, 1405. See Rapin’s His

“upon the Welch unanimously renouncing their allegiance tory of England in loco. to the crown of England, and acknowledging him for

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