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before, and that their authority was greatly lessened. Seeing themselves, as it were, banished from the government, they took leave of the king, queen, and princes, and each retired to his own domains.

The cardinal de Thurey had come to Paris to solicit the university and council of state to consent that pope Alexander might levy two-tenths on the Gallican church, to defray the great expenses he was bound to pay. This request was not granted, because the university opposed it, in the name of the whole church. The better to effect this, the university required and obtained a royal mandate, to command all officers under the crown forcibly to send out of their jurisdictions all persons who should come thither making similar demands. The solicitors of this levy had brought to Paris with them a bull containing many novelties, which were not usually advanced, namely, that the tythes, and other things, such as oblations to the church, belonged to them in preference to the parochial clergy, for that in fact they were in the same capacity, inasmuch as whoever should confess themselves to them were not under the necessity of so doing to their own clergyman. This doctrine they publicly preached throughout Paris, and the members of the university preached in opposition to it, so that during Lent the whole town was in confusion and discord by these quarrels of the university and the mendicants, until they were driven out of it by the university. The Jacobins, however, as the most prudent, renounced the bull, and made oath that they would never claim any advantages from it, nor from other privileges that had been granted to them. By this means, they were reconciled to the university. The pope, at this period, held his court with great state in Bologna la Grassa.

CHAPTER LX.—A GREAT DISSENTION TAKES PLACE THIS YEAR BETWEEN THE RING OF PolanD, ON THE ONE HAND, AND THE GRAND MASTER OF PRUSSIA AND HIS KNIGHTs ON THE OTHER.

This year, a great quarrel arose between the king of Poland and the grand master of the Teutonic order in Prussia; and the king assembled a large force from different nations, which he marched into Prussia, with the intent to destroy it. The grand master and his brethren soon made themselves ready to meet him with a great army, and showed every inclination to give him battle; but when the two armies were in sight of each other, through the will of God, the king of Poland retreated with his forces, among which were twenty thousand Tartars at least, without counting his Polanders and others his Christian allies, who were very numerous, and returned to his own country. Afterward, the king of Lithuania, by the exhortations of the king of Poland, invaded Prussia with an immense army, and destroyed the greater part which lay on the sea-shores. The Prussians made a thousand of them prisoners, and slew many. The king of Poland was formerly an infidel, and son to the king of Lithuania, but having a great ambition to reign, murdered his father, and was for this crime banished the country. He took refuge with the then king of Poland, who received him kindly, and admitted him into his friendship and confidence. He also gained the affections of the princes and nobles, insomuch that, on the death of their king, they unanimously elected this parricide to succeed him, had him baptised, and married him to the widow of the late king; and, since that time, he has happily enough governed that kingdom.” At this period, Sigismond king of Hungary, brother to the king of Bohemia, took to wife the sister of the above queen of Poland : they were daughters to a German count, called the count de Cilly, of the royal branch of Hungary +. The king of Poland laid claim to Hungary in right of his wife, and thence took occasion to harass that country as well as Prussia. He sent secret messengers to the king of Lithuania, his cousin-german and ally, to press him to invade Prussia on the quarter nearest the sea, when he would march his Polanders to form a junction and destroy the whole of it. His intentions were discovered by the messenger being arrested by orders of the king of Hungary, and information sent of them to Prussia, whenceforward the king of Hungary and grand master took such wise precautions that his future attempts were fruitless.

* I suppose Monstrelet must mean Jagellon, grand duke of Lithuania, who was called to the throne of Poland in 1386, on condition that he would become a Christian, marry the daughter of the late king, and annex Lithuania to Poland. This last condition, however, was not completely fulfilled until the reign of Sigismond Augustus in 1569.-BAUDRAN.

Jagellon took the name of Uladislaus W. on his baptism; but Hedwige, daughter to the king of Poland, reigned two years before she married Uladislaus.—ANDEason.

† Sigismond was king of Hungary in 1387,-Roman emperor, 1411,–king of Bohemia, 1419,-died, 1437, aged 70. He married for his second wife Barbara, daughter

to Hermannus II., count of Cilly in Crain.—ANDERson.

cHAPTER LXI.--THE DUKE of BERRY, BY THE KING's commANDs, RETURNs to PARIs.-
The MARRIAGE OF THE SON OF THE KING OF SICILY.—THE ASSEMBLY THAT IS HOLDEN
At Meun Le CHASTEL.
[A. D. 1410.]

This year, the duke of Berry was, by the king's orders, remanded to Paris, and on his arrival, was sent, with the king of Navarre, to Giens sur Loire, to put an end to the quarrels between the duke of Brittany and the count and countess of Penthievre. Although both parties had promised to meet them, they did not personally attend, but sent commissioners. The king of Navarre and the duke of Berry took great pains, and proposed various means, to bring about a reconciliation. Finding all their attempts fruitless, they referred the whole matter, with the consent of the commissioners, to the king's decision on All-saints-day next coming, and then they returned to Paris. In this year was concluded the marriage between the eldest son of Louis king of Sicily, and Catherine, daughter to the duke of Burgundy. The lady was conducted by sir John de Châlons, lord de Darlay, the lord de St. George, sir William de Champdivers, and sir James de Courtjambe, to Angers, and there delivered to the queen of Sicily, who received her most affectionately and honourably,–and she magnificently entertained the knights who had brought her. After a short stay at Angers, they returned to their lord, the duke of Burgundy, at Paris.

At this time, the dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, the counts de Clermont, d'Alençon, d'Armagnac, the lord Charles d'Albreth, constable, and many other lords of great power and authority, held a meeting in the town of Meun le Châtel,-where they had several long consultations with each other on the state of public affairs, and particularly as to the murder of the late duke of Orleans, principally to consider how they should proceed to take vengeance on the person who had committed it. Many different opinions were urged: one was, that the duke of Orleans should declare a deadly war against him, and carry it on by every possible means, with the assistance of his relations, friends, and the well-wishers to his cause. Others said, it would be better to follow another course, and remonstrate strongly to the king, their sovereign lord, on the necessity he was under to do strict justice on the duke of Burgundy, to which he was the more particularly bound, as the murder was committed on his own brother. But, as they could not all agree in the same opinion, they broke up the meeting, and appointed another day to assemble again. Before they separated, a treaty of marriage was entered upon between Charles duke of Orleans and the daughter of the count d'Armagnac. She was niece to the duke of Berry, by her mother's side, and sister * to the count de Savoye. This done, the lords departed for their own domains.

The duke of Burgundy resided in Paris, and ruled there more despotically than any other of the princes: affairs were solely carried on by him and his partisans, which, no doubt, made very many jealous of him.

* Of the half blood. See pp. 149, 150.

- f ciiAPTER LxII.—THE KING OF SICILY Goes To PRovence AND To BologNA, to MEET His

Riv AL KING LADISLAU.S.—THE DEATH of Pope ALEXANDER, AND THE ELECTION of POPE JOHN.

About this period, Louis king of Sicily set out from Paris with a numerous body of menat-arms, and went for Provence, and thence to Bologna, to meet king Ladislaus, his opponent, and to defend his kingdom of Naples, where his rival was committing great devastation. King Louis had for this raised so considerable a force, that he might be enabled to offer him combat; and he had also the hope that pope Alexander would assist him, to the utmost of his ability, in money and in men. An end was soon put to his expectations in this respect; for, on the morrow of the feast of the discovery of the holy cross, pope Alexander was poisoned in the town of Bologna, as was currently reported, and died most pitifully *. His bowels were interred, and his obsequies were performed in the church of the Cordeliers. Mass was celebrated by the cardinal de Vimers: the deacon and under deacon were the cardinals d'Espaigne and de Thurey. The whole court was dressed in deep mourning.

The 6th of May, the corpse of the pope, having been embalmed with fine spices, was placed in the hall of audience, dressed in his papal robes, his face uncovered, gloves on his hands, but his feet naked, so that whoever pleased might kiss them,-and nine funeral services were there performed. There were present twenty cardinals, two patriarchs, four archbishops, twenty-four bishops, with many prelates, abbots, and other churchmen. His escutcheon of arms were placed at the four corners of his coffin ; and for nine days, masses were celebrated in the same manner as on the morrow of his death. The masses were said by the cardinals in rotation; and the ninth day, the body was carried to the Cordeliers for interment. The two first bearers were the cardinals de Vimers and de Challant, and the two last the cardinals d'Espaigne and de Thurey. The cardinal Milles preceded the body bearing a cross. The chorists were the cardinals de Bar, (not the son of the duke of Bar, but the cardinal of Bart in Calabria), and d'Orsini. The cardinal de Vimers performed the service, as he had done at the interment of the bowels. When this ceremony was over, the cardinals returned home dressed in black; and after dinner, they assembled at the palace, and entered into conclave, where they remained shut up from the Wednesday to the Saturday following. Some of the cardinals, having consulted together, proposed Balthazar, cardinal of Bologna, as sovereign pontiff of the universal church; and the others, who were not of this opinion, seeing their numbers were very small, consented to it; and the new pope was conducted by them to the church of St. Peter, where they placed the tiara on his head, and took the oaths of fidelity to him. They then led him to the palace of his predecessor, where every piece of furniture had been carried off, and there did not remain even a door or window-frame. On the morrow, he took the name of pope John XXIII. and great were the rejoicings and feasts that ensued. In the procession were twenty-three cardinals, two patriarchs, three archbishops, twenty-seven abbots, mitred and non-mitred, without reckoning other churchmen, who were almost numberless. The pope wore on that day a silver-gilt tiara bound with white. The following Saturday, the 23d of May, the pope received, in the chapel of his predecessors, the holy order of priesthood, when the cardinal de Vimers said the mass, and the cardinal de Challant was deacon: at this service, all the before-named prelates attended.

On the following day, Sunday, the pope celebrated mass in the church of St. Peter, having the cardinal de Vimers near him to show him the service. The marquis of Ferrara and the lord of Malatesta were present, and held the bason wherein the pope washed his hands. The marquis of Ferrara had brought with him fifty-four knights, all clothed in scarlet and blue, having five trumpets and four companies of minstrels, each playing on a different instrument. When mass was finished, pope John was carried out of the church to a very handsome platform erected without the porch, and there solemnly crowned in the presence of all those whom I have mentioned, and a great multitude of doctors and clergy. When seated on his throne, which was covered all over with cloth of gold, he was surrounded by the cardinals de Vimers, de Challant, de Milles, d'Espaigne, de Thurey, and de Bar, having tufts of tow in their hands. The cardinals lighted their tufts; and as the flame was suddenly extinguished, they addressed the pope, saying, “Thus, holy father, passes the glory of this world !” This was done three times. The cardinal de Vimers having said some prayers over him and on the crown, placed it upon his head. This crown was a triple one: the first of gold, which encircled the forehead within the mitre; the second of gold and silver, about the middle of the mitre; and the third, of very fine gold, surmounted it. He

* His successor, Balthazar Cozza, was accused of having + i. e. Bari. administered poison to him, but the fact was never estab- : We have attempted in vain to ascertain the meaning lished ; and, in those days, it was but too common to raise and origin of this very peculiar ceremony, if it may be so such suspicions without foundation. The following account termed.—Ed.

of the funeral of the pope, and the installation of his sucressor, is very curious.-Ed.

Tiana AND Official Badges of the PopeDow.—Selected from old Italian pictures.

was then led down from the platform, and placed on a horse covered over with scarlet furniture. The horses of the cardinals and bishops, &c. were caparisoned in white; and in this state he was conducted from street to street, making everywhere the sign of the cross, until he came to where the Jews resided, who presented him a manuscript of the Old Testament. He took it with his own hand, and having examined it a little, threw it behind him, saying, “Your religion is good, but this of ours is better.” As he departed, the Jews followed him, intending to touch him, in the attempt of which, the caparison of his horse was all torn.—Wherever he passed, the pope distributed money, that is to say, quadrini and mailles of Florence, with other coins. There were before and behind him two hundred men-at-arms, each having in his hand a leathern mallet, with which they struck the Jews in such wise as it was a pleasure to see. On the morrow, he returned to his palace, accompanied by the cardinals dressed in crimson, the patriarchs in like manner, the archbishops and bishops in similar dresses, having white mitres on their heads, and numbers of mitred and non-mitred abbots. In this procession were, the marquis of Ferrara", the lord Malatestat, the lord of Gaucourti, and others, to the amount of forty-four, as well dukes as counts and knights of Italy, all dressed out in their liveries. In each street, two and two by turns led the pope's horse by the bridle,_the one on the right hand, and another on the left. There were thirty-six bagpipes and trumpets, and ten bands of minstrels playing on musical instruments, each band consisting of three performers. There were also singers, especially those of the chapel of his predecessor, as well as those belonging to the cardinals and from different parts of Italy, who rode before the pope loudly chaunting various airs, sacred and profane. When he arrived at the palace, he gave his peace to all the cardinals, who, according to their rank in the college, kissed his foot, hand, or mouth. The cardinal de Vimers first performed the ceremony, and was followed by the other cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops; bishops, abbots and clergy. He then gave his benediction to the four elements, and to all persons in a state of grace, as well to those absent as present, and bestowed his dispensations for four months to come, provided that, during this time, three Pater-nosters should be said by each in praying for his predecessor, pope Alexander. Pope John then went to dinner, as it was now about twelve o'clock, and this ceremony had commenced between five and six in the morning. In honour of him, feasts were continued at Bologna for the space of eight days; and on each of them very handsome processions were made round St. Peter's church, when the prelates were all dressed in vermilion robes, with copes of the same. In like manner did the Carthusians of St. Michael's Mount, without the walls of Bologna. *

* Probably Nicholas d'Este, connected by marriage with posts of chamberlain, governor of Dauphiné, and grand

the house of Malatesta. master of the household, became a distinguished actor in + Probably Pandulph Malatesta, lord of Rimini, a cap- the wars with the English, from 1427 to 1437 particularly. tain of great reputation and adherent of king Ladislaus. There was also a sir Eustace de Gaucourt, lord of Vicy,

: Sir Raoul de Gaucourt, successively promoted to the who was grand falconer in 1406 and 1412.

[graphic]

Public Inauguration of the Pope. The Pope is crowned with the Tiara, and seated on a richly-caparisoned Mule led by two Cardinals.—Original design.

The next day, the 25th of May, pope John held a consistory, in the presence of the cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, and presented to the marquis of Ferrara and the Italian heralds many and various rich gifts. This was followed by a great feast, with dancing and music. The ensuing day, the pope revoked all that his predecessor had done, excepting what he had confirmed, or what had been taken corporal or spiritual possession of. King Louis of Sicily arrived at Bologna the Friday after the coronation of the pope, and twenty-two cardinals, two patriarchs, six archbishops, twenty bishops, and eighteen abbots, handsomely equipped, went out of the city to meet him: on his entrance, he went directly

[graphic]
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