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to the pope. He was clothed in scarlet, and his horse's furniture was ornamented with small gilt bells: he was attended by about fifty knights dressed in his uniform. It was the last day of May that the king arrived,—and he was most graciously received by the pope. The ensuing day, the Florentines came to pay their duty and reverence to the holy father, They were about three hundred horse, among whom were eighteen knights dressed in scarlet, with feathers bespangled with gold. They were attended by six trumpets, two heralds, and ten musicians playing on different instruments. When they had made their reverence to the pope, they returned to their hotels, and the next day went to court. By reason of their alliance with king Louis, they supplicated the pope to give him assistance against his adversary king Ladislaus, adding, that they intended affording him every aid in their power of men and money. These Florentines were very indignant at the late conduct of the Genoese in regard to the king of Sicily; for when the king of Sicily was sailing with five galleys from Marseilles, near to the port of Genoa, the Genoese, being in the interest of king Ladislaus, hastily armed fifteen galleys with cross-bows and men-at-arms, and sent them to attack the remainder of king Louis's fleet that was following him, which they conquered, all but one, that escaped back to Marseilles by superior sailing, and carried the crews and all their baggage prisoners to Genoa. The pope, having heard their request, asked some time to consider of it before he gave an answer. He could not well consent to it, because the Genoese had been long connected with him, and he had also entered into some engagements with king Ladislaus. The matter was, therefore, deferred. King Louis was, notwithstanding this, magnificently feasted by the pope and cardinals; after which, he left his court well pleased, and returned to Provence, On the first day of June, the pope held an open court, and signed many graces and benefices, and all such things as with honour and justice he could sign. He continued from that time to hold public audiences, and to do whatever business appertained to the papacy.


This year, 1410, the grand master of the Teutonic order, accompanied by his brother knights and a numerous army of three hundred thousand Christians, invaded the kingdom of Lithuania, to destroy the whole of it. The king of Lithuania was soon ready to meet him; and, aided by the king of Sarmatia, he assembled an army of four hundred thousand infidels, and offered battle. The Christians gained a complete victory, for there remained dead on the field full thirty-six thousand infidels, the principals of whom were the grand general of Lithuania and the constable of Sarmatia. The remnant, with the other officers, escaped by flight. Of the Christians, only two hundred were slain, but a great many were wounded. Shortly after, the king of Poland, who was a determined enemy to the grand master of Prussia, (and who had but faintly accepted of Christianity in order to obtain his kingdom) marched his Polanders to the assistance of the infidels, whom he strongly pressed to renew the war against Prussia, insomuch that, eight days after this defeat, the king of Poland, in conjunction with the aforesaid two kings, assembled an army of six hundred thousand men, and marched against the grand master of Prussia, and other Christian lords. A battle ensued, which was lost by the Christians, who had more than sixty thousand killed and wounded. In the number of dead were the grand master of Prussia, with a noble knight from Normandy, called sir John de Ferriere, son to the lord de Ferriere, and another from Picardy, son to the lord du Bos d'Ancquin. It was currently reported that the day had been lost through the fault of the constable of Hungary, who commanded the second squadron of the Christians, by running away with all his Hungarians. The infidels, however, did not gain the glory without loss, for without counting the Polanders, who had ten thousand men slain, they lost upward of six-score thousand men, according to the reports of the heralds, and the bastard of Scotland, called the count de Hembe”. The lord de Kyeuraing and John de Grez, Hainaulters, * Count de Hembe. Q. were there, and with them full twenty-four gentlemen, their countrymen, who were unhurt at this battle, and returned home as speedily as they could. After the engagement, the infidels entered Prussia, and despoiled many parts of it, and took twelve inclosed towns in a short time and destroyed them. They would have persevered in their wickedness, and have done further mischief, had not a valiant knight of the Teutonic order, named Charles de Mourousle.*, rallied a great number of the Christians who had fled, and by his prudence and vigour regained the greater part of these towns, and finally drove the infidels out of the country t.


The duke of Berry, finding that he had not that government of the king and the duke of Aquitaine to which he had been accustomed, became very discontented, and retired to his estates, indignant at the ministers, and particularly at his nephew and godson, the duke of Burgundy. Shortly after, he went to Angers, where the dukes of Orleans and of Bourbon, and all the principal lords of that party, were assembled. They went in a body to the cathedral church, and there made oath, in the most solemn manner, to support each other, and mutually to defend their honour against all who should attempt anything against it, excepting the king, and ever to remain in strict friendship united, without acting to the contrary in any kind of measure. Many great lords in France were not pleased with this confederation; and when, shortly after, news of it was brought to the king and his council, he was much astonished and dissatisfied therewith.

The king, in consequence of the advice of the duke of Burgundy and his friends, marched out of Paris, accompanied by him, the duke of Brabant, the count de Montagu, and a large body of chivalry, and went to Senlis: thence to the town of Creil, to regain the castle of that place, which the duke of Bourbon held, and had given the government of it to some of his people. The governor made so many delays before he surrendered it that the king became much displeased ; and because they had not obeyed his first summons, the garrison were made prisoners, and carried bound to the prisons of the Châtelet in Paris. The countess of Clermont, cousin-german to the king, soon after made application for their deliverance, and obtained it; and on the morrow the king appointed another garrison, and returned to Paris. This expedition was not very agreeable to the Orleans-faction,-and they continued to collect daily, and inlist in their party as many as they could.

The duke of Burgundy became very uneasy at their proceedings; for he suspected the duke of Orleans and his party would infringe the peace which had so lately been patched up between them at Chartres, or that they would march a large force to Paris, to seize the government, together with the persons of the king and duke of Aquitaine. To obviate this, he caused several royal summons to be proclaimed in various parts of the realm, for the assembling of men-at-arms and quartering them in the villages round Paris, to be ready to defend the king and his government against the ill-intentioned. By the advice of his brothers and the king of Navarre, he resolved to defend himself by force against his adversaries, and caused it to be proclaimed throughout the kingdom, in the king's name, that no one should dare to assemble armed in company of the dukes of Berry and Orleans, and their allies, under pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of goods. The Orleans faction, however, continued their meetings in spite of this proclamation, and even forced their vassals to serve under and accompany them : I mean, such of them as were dilatory in obeying their summons. There were, therefore, at this time, great and frequent assemblies of armed men in different parts of France, to the prejudice of the poor people. Those lords that were well inclined to the king came to Paris, and their men were quartered in the flat country of the island of France. The Orleans party fixed their quarters at Chartres and the adjacent parts; and their forces might amount, according to the estimate of well-informed persons, to full six thousand men in armour, four thousand cross-bows, and sixteen hundred archers, without counting the unarmed infantry, of which there were great numbers. In regard to the army which the duke of Bungundy had assembled by orders from the king, it was estimated to consist of upward of sixteen thousand combatants, all men of tried courage. During this time, the king of Navarre and his brother, the count de Mortain, at the request of the duke of Burgundy, negotiated a peace between the duke of Brittany, their nephew, and the count de Penthievre, son-in-law to the duke of Burgundy. This was done in the hope that the duke of Brittany would be induced to assist the king with his Bretons, and give up the Orleans party, to whom he had engaged himself. On the conclusion of this peace between the two parties, twenty thousand golden crowns were sent the duke, to defray the expenses he had been at in raising men-at-arms. Large sums of money were also sent to the lord d'Albreth, constable of France, that he might collect a numerous body of men-at-arms, and march them to Paris, to serve the king. He had not any great desire to perform this, for he was wholly inclined to the duke of Orleans and his allies, as was perfectly notorious shortly afterward.

* Charles de Mouroufle. Q. meet his enemy. Such a battle as this was never heard

f The author of “An Account of Livonia, with a Relation of the Rise, Progress, and Decay of the Marian Teutonic Order,” London, 1701, relates these transactions in the manner following:

“The order was now on the highest pinnacle of prosperity and honour, exceeding great kings and potentates of Europe in extent of dominions, power and riches, when Ulricus à Jungingen was chosen great master; but he being of a boisterous, fiery temper, soon broke the peace concluded between Poland with his brother Conradus A Jungingen, whereupon king Uladislaus Jagellon joining forces with his father Witoldas of Lithuania, formed an army of 150,000 fighting men and marched into Prussia. To stop the progress of this formidable army, the great master drew up as many forces as he could, and, after the Livonians had joined him, found his army consisted, in a general muster, of 83,000 well-armed stout combatants; and thus, with an undaunted spirit, he marched forth to

of before in these parts, and was given the 15th day of July, 1410, in Prussia, near the town Gilgenbourg, between the two villages Tannenberg and Grunwald, on a large plain, with such obstinacy, that, according to an exact computation, there were actually killed, on both sides, 100,000 on the spot. The Poles got the victory, but lost 60,000 men. The order lost 40,000,—but among them almost all their generals and commanders. The great master himself, and the chief of the order, with 600 noble German Marian knights, were there slain. There is still kept every year a day of devotion upon that plain, in a chapel built to the remembrance of this battle, marked with the date of the year it happened, and this inscription, Centum mille occisi. The king of Poland was so weakened by this dear-bought victory, that he very readily agreed to a peace. This memorable battle is called the battle of Tannenberg.”


DURING this troublesome time, Louis duke of Bourbon, uncle to the king of France by the mother's side, being full sixty years of age, feeling himself oppresssd with years and sickness, caused himself to be conveyed to his residence at Moulins " in the Bourbonnois, where he departed this life, and was buried in the church of the Canons, which he had founded. He was succeeded by his only son, the count de Clermont, who, after some days of lamentation, had the funeral obsequies of his father performed, and, having arranged his affairs, returned to the duke of Orleans and the other lords at Chartres, and firmly united himself with them, treading in the steps of his late father. The duke of Bourbon had long held the office of great chamberlain of France, from the friendship of the king, and was in possession of it even at the time of his death; but at the entreaty of the king of Navarre and the duke of Burgundy, the king now gave it to the count de Nevers, to exercise the duties of it in the usual manner.

At this time, the duchess of Brittany, daughter to the king of France, was brought to bed of a son; and she sent to request the duke of Aquitaine, her brother, to stand godfather. He sent, as his proxy, sir David de Brimeu knight, lord of Humbercourt, with a handsome present of jewels, which sir David gave her on the part of the duke of Aquitaine. The king again issued his summons to the different bailiwicks and seneschalships in the realm, for all

* Moreri says, that the good duke Louis died at Mon- children, Louis and two daughters, died without issue and *an, on the i8th of August, 1410. By his wife Anne, unmarried. He left also a natural son, named Hector, who *Phiness of Auvergne and countess of Forez, he left was killed at the siege of Soissons in 1414. John count of Clermont, his son and successor : his other


persons to arm without delay, who were bounden so to do from the tenure of their fiefs or arriere-fiefs, and to march instantly to Paris to serve the king against the dukes of Orleans, Berry, Bourbon, the counts d'Armagnac, d'Alençon, and others their allies, who, notwithstanding the king's positive orders to the contrary, continued daily to assemble large bodies of men-at-arms, to the destruction of his country and subjects. The above dukes wrote letters to the king, to the university of Paris, and to many of the principal towns, to explain the causes why they had thus confederated and collected men-at-arms; one of which, signed with their signs-manual, they sent to the town of Amiens, and the contents were as follows: “To our well-beloved and very dear citizens, burgesses, and inhabitants of the town of Amiens, health and affection. We have written to our most redoubted and sovereign lord the king of France, in manner following:—We dukes of Berry, of Orleans, and of Bourbon, counts of Alençon and of Armagnac, your humble uncles, relations and subjects, for ourselves and all others our adherents, well wishers to your person, as the rights of your domination, your crown and royal majesty, have been so nobly instituted, and founded on justice, power, and the true obedience of your subjects, and as your glory and authority are resplendent through all parts of the world, you having been worthily consecrated and anointed by the holy roman see, and considered by all Christendom as sovereign monarch and equal distributor of justice, as well to the poor as to the rich, without owing obedience to any other lord, but God and his Divine Majesty, who has been pleased most worthily to have gifted you, -may all those who are connected with you by blood, by their frank and loyal affections, guard and defend your sacred person as your relations and subjects. And may we, in particular, as your near relations, and for that cause more cbliged to it, set an example of due obedience to your other subjects, and exert ourselves in preserving to you free liberty of action in every part of your government, insomuch that you may have power to reward the good and punish the wicked, and to preserve every one in his just rights, and likewise that you may execute justice in such wise that your kingdom may remain in peace, first to the honour of God, and then to your own honour, and to the example of your good friends and subjects, by following the paths of your predecessors, the kings of France, who, by this noble way of governing their great kingdom, have ever preserved tranquillity and peace, insomuch that all Christian nations, far and near, and even infidels, have had recourse to them in their disputes, and have been perfectly contented with their decisions on the cases referred to them, as the fountains of justice and loyalty. And, most sovereign lord, that your power, justice, and the state of your government may not suffer at present any wound or diminution, and that public affairs may be managed according to the principles of reason, in such wise as may be apparent to all men of sound understanding;“For this effect, most redoubted sovereign, we, the above-written, have confederated and assembled, that we may most humbly lay before you the real state of your situation, in regard to your royal person, and also that of my lord of Aquitaine, your eldest son. We have likewise to lay before you the manner in which you are enthralled, and the government carried on, that justice may be restored, and the public weal no longer suffer, as we can more fully explain. Should any persons deny this, let your majesty, by the advice of your council, appoint some of the princes of your blood, and other impartial and unprejudiced persons, to inquire into it, in whatever number you in your wisdom may select. But we advise that you speedily and effectually provide for the safety of your own person, and for that of my lord of Aquitaine, your eldest son, so that your state may enjoy justice and a good government, to the advancement of the public welfare, and that the power and authority may be exercised by you alone, freely and uncontrolled by any other person whatever; and that such a desirable object may be obtained, we, the above-named, offer our earnest prayers, and, at the same time, our lives and fortunes, whatever they may be, which God has graciously granted us in this world, for the just defence of your rights, and in opposing all who may attempt to infringe on them, if any such there be. “Most redoubted lord, we also inform you, that we shall not break up our confederation until you shall have listened to us, and until we shall see that you have properly provided against the inconveniences we have mentioned, and until you be fully and wholly reinstated in that power which is your right. To this, most redoubted lord, are we bound, as well in regard to what we have already said, as from fear, honour, and reverence to our Creator, from whom originates your royal authority, and also to satisfy justice, and then yourself, who are sovereign king on earth, and our sole lord. To your support we are urged by our kindred and by our love to your person; for in truth, most redoubted sovereign, there is nothing we dread so much as having offended God, yourself, and wounded our own honour, by leaving for so long time unnoticed the aforesaid grievances, which are notorious to every one. In like manner as we signify the above to you, we shall do the same to all prelates, lords, universities, cities, and principal towns of your realm, and in general to all your wellwishers. Most redoubted lord, we humbly supplicate that you will deign to hear us, and consider of what we have written,-for the sole object we aim at personally affects yourself and your government; and we earnestly beg that you will speedily adopt the most effectual measures for the enjoyment of your own freedom of action, and that your government may be carried on to the praise of God first, and your own glory, and to the advantage of all your good subjects who are anxious for your welfare. “We have written this, that you may know our intentions, and the cause of our assembling, which is solely for the preservation of the personal liberty of our lord and king, and the affranchisement of his government from any hands but his own. For this object we have sought the advice of the most prudent men, and shall follow their counsels, with all the means God has put in our power, to obtain so desirable an end, for the general welfare of the realm; and we intend so to act toward our lord the king that God and the world shall be satisfied with us. And we most earnestly entreat, that for so praiseworthy an object you will join us, and exert yourselves in the same cause; for it is not properly us but the king your lord that you will serve, whom by your oaths you are bounden to assist,-and know that for so doing you will be commended by all men of understanding and prudence. Given at Chartres, the 2d day of December, 1410.” This letter, when received by the council of the town of Amiens, produced very little sensation,-for all, or the greater part of the inhabitants, were inclined to the duke of Burgundy. When a similar one was read in the council of state, it did not make any impression on the king, nor did it seem advisable that the dukes should have an audience; but, on the contrary, orders were sent to them to disband their forces without delay, on pain of incurring the royal indignation. They refused to obey this order, and bade the messenger tell the king, that they would not cease assembling until he should grant them an audience, and hear their complaints. At this period, the dukes of Aquitaine and Burgundy paid a visit to the queen of France at her residence in the castle of Melun, and left there a garrison, having brought back with them the queen and her children to the castle of Vincennes. The duke of Brabant at this time left Paris, to go to his country, and assemble his Brabanters to serve the king. Many able ambassadors were sent, in the king's name, to the lords assembled at Chartres; and among them was the grand-master of Rhodes, to signify to them that they must disband their army, and that, if they pleased to wait on the king in their private capacity, he would see them. This they refused; and as they continued disobedient, the king took possession of the counties of Boulogne”, Estampes, Valois, Beaumont, Clermont, and other lands belonging to the said dukes, counts, and their adherents, of whatever rank they might be. The king's officers appointed governors to the castles and fortresses within these countries, whom they ordered to govern them at the expense of the aforesaid lords. So very numerous were the forces that assembled near Paris, in obedience to the summons from the king and the duke of Burgundy, that the oldest persons had not for a long time seen so many men-at-arms together. Among the number was the duke of Brabant, with a great force. He was quartered in the town of St. Denis, where he lived at the expense of the greater part of the inhabitants, as if he had been in the open country. The count de Penthievre, son-in-law to the duke of Burgundy, was there with him, accompanied by a large body of Bretons. Two thousand * Boulogne, the property of the duke of Berry, by mar- I believe, to the count d'Alençon; Beaumont to the duke

riage with Jane, heiress of Auvergne and Boulogne. The of Orleans;—and Clermont to the duke of Bourbon. county of Estampes belonged to the duke of Berry; Valois,

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