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men belonging to the count Waleran de St. Pol were quartered at Menil-Aubry, and the adjacent villages.—Because the count himself resided in Paris, he one day ordered his troops to be assembled under the lord de Chin, for him to march them to Paris to be mustered and enrolled for pay; but it happened, as they were marching through St. Denis to obey the order, that a dispute arose between them and the Brabanters, on account of some enterprise which the last had made against the lord de Carlian, a native of the Boulonois, so that the two parties armed and drew up in battle array to decide matters by combat. The duke of Brabant was soon informed of this tumult, and hastened from Paris to check his own men, and acted so prudently with both parties that an end was put to it; but he was very wroth with the first promoters of it, for he was married to the daughter and heiress of the count de St. Pol. When they had marched through Saint Denis, they came before their lord, the count de St. Pol, in Paris, who having reviewed them, and paid many compliments to their captains, dismissed them to the quarters whence they had come. In order to pay these troops which had been levied, as has been said, by orders from the king and the duke of Burgundy, and which amounted, by the muster-rolls, to fifteen thousand men with helmets, seventeen thousand cross-bows and archers, very heavy taxes were levied throughout the realm, and particularly on the city of Paris. It will be impossible to relate one half of the mischiefs the armies of both parties committed: suffice it to say, that churches, churchmen, and the poor people were very great sufferers. The Orleans party, shortly after this, marched from Chartres to Montlehery, seven leagues from Paris, and there, and in the neighbouring villages, quartered their army, ruining the whole country on their line of march. The lords and adherents of this faction, as well clergy as seculars, wore, as their badge, a narrow band of white linen on their shoulders, hanging over their left arm, like to a deacon when celebrating divine service. When the king of France and his council learnt that they had approached so near the capital, they hastily despatched to the leaders the count de la Marche, the archbishop of Rheims, the bishop of Beauvais, and the grand master of Rhodes, with some others, to persuade them to disband their army, and come before him at Paris, in consequence of his former orders, without arms, in the manner in which vassals should wait on their lords, and that he would do them justice in regard to their demands; but that, should they refuse, he would instantly march his forces against them.—The princes made answer, that they would not act otherwise than they had said in their letter to the king; and the ambassadors, seeing they could not gain anything, returned to Paris. In like manner, the university sent to them an embassy of learned men, headed by Noeëtz, abbot of Povegny and doctor in divinity, who harangued them very ably and gravely. They were very handsomely received by the princes, especially by the duke of Berry, who, among other grievances, complained much that his nephew, the king, should be counselled by such fellows as the provost of Paris, and others of the same sort, who now ruled the realm, which was most miserably governed, as he was ready to explain, article by article, when they should be admitted to an audience. They could obtain no other reply than that, with God's pleasure, they would accomplish, to the utmost of their power, the matters contained in their circular letters to the university and principal towns. On this repeated ill success, the king, by the advice of his council, sent another embassy, composed of the queen, the cardinal de Bar, the count de St. Pol, and others. The count de St. Pol had lately accepted, with the king's approbation, the office of grand butler of France which the provost of Paris had held, through the interest of the count de Tancarville, by a gift from the king. Notwithstanding the queen and her companions were received with every honour, she did not remain with their army, but went to the castle of Marcoussi, which is not far distant from Montlehery, with her attendants, and remained there some time negotiating with them, and some of the princes daily visited her. Although she acted with much perseverance, she failed in her object, for the princes were firm in their resolution of marching with their army to the king, and requiring that he would execute justice and attend to the affairs of government, and choose another set of ministers than those now in power. Finding she was labouring in vain, she returned with her companions to Paris, and related to the king all that had passed. He was very indignant, and much troubled thereat; and on the morrow, the 23d September, he ordered all the men-at-arms that were come to serve him to be drawn out, and the baggage and artillery waggons to be made ready instantly to march against the Orleans party, to give them battle. When all were ready, and he was going to attend mass and afterward to mount his horse, he was met by the rector of the university, magnificently accompanied by all the members and supporters of it, who remonstrated with him, that his daughter, the university of Paris, was preparing to leave that city, from the great want of provisions, which the men-at-arms of the two parties prevented coming to Paris, for no one could venture on the high roads without being robbed and insulted; and, likewise that all the low countries round Paris were despoiled by these men-at-arms. They most humbly requested, that he would provide a remedy, and give them such answer as might seem to him good. The chancellor, namely, master Arnauld de Corbie, instantly replied, “The king will assemble his council after dinner, and you shall have an answer.” The king of Navarre, being present, entreated the king that he would fix an hour for hearing them again after dinner; and the king, complying with his request, appointed an hour for the rector to return. When the king had dined, he entered the chambre certe, attended by the following princes: the dukes of Aquitaine, Burgundy, and Brabant, the Marquis du Pont, the duke of Lorrain, the counts de Mortain, de Nevers, and de Vaudemont, with many other great lords, as well ecclesiastical as secular. The king of Navarre made four requests to the king : first, that all the princes of the blood, as well on the one side as on the other, should retire to their principalities, and never more interfere in the king's government; and likewise that henceforth they should not receive any profits or pensions, as well from the subsidies arising from their lands as from other exactions, but live on their own proper revenues until the public treasury should be in a better state than it was at that moment: however, should the king be inclined to make them presents of anything, or call them near his person, they should be always ready to obey him. His second request was, that some diminution should take place in those taxes that most aggrieved the people. The third, that as some of the citizens of Paris had lent different sums of money to the king, of which repayment had been promised, but not made, sufficient assignments on the treasury should be given to them. The fourth, that the affairs of the king and realm should be governed by prudent men, taken from the three estates of the kingdom. When the king of Navarre had ended, the king himself replied, and said he would take advice on what he had proposed, and then give him such answers as ought to satisfy him and every one else. When this was over, the king showed the same determination as before to march, on the morrow morning, against the rebellious lords; but he was overruled, and the queen, with the former ambassadors, were again sent to negotiate a peace. On their arrival at the army of the princes, she exerted herself, as it was said, very much and loyally; for it was commonly reported that she was in her heart inclined to the Orleans faction. During the time of this embassy, the count Amé de Savoye, who had been sent for by the king, arrived at Paris with five hundred men-at-arms. His brothers-in-law the dukes of Burgundy and Brabant, and the count de Nevers, attended by many other lords, went out to meet him beyond the gate of St. Anthony, and thence conducted him to the palace to the king, who very kindly received him. Some days after, the queen, not having more success than before, returned to the king, and told him that she could not any way bring them to terms, for they were obstinate in their original intentions. She then hastened to the castle of Vincennes as speedily as she could. On the ensuing morning, the aforesaid lords quitted Montlehery; and the duke of Berry came to his hotel of Winchestre", which he had rebuilt, and was there lodged. The duke of Orleans fixed his quarters at Gentilly, in the palace of the bishop, and the count d'Armagnac at Vitry; the rest as near to each other as they could; and at vespers, they had advanced as far as the suburb of St. Marcel and the gate de Bordelles. The king, the duke of Burgundy, and the other princes, were greatly surprised at this boldness; and the Parisians, at their own expense, collected a body of a thousand men armed with helmets to serve as a guard during the night, and they also made great fires in very many of the streets. To prevent them from crossing the Seine at Charenton, they sent two hundred men-at-arms to defend that pass.

* Winchestre, or rather Winchester-now called For further particulars, see “Sauval, Antiquités de Paris,” **tre, was a palace built by a bishop of Winchester, 1290. vol. ii. book vii.

The third day, Arthur count de Richemont, brother to the duke of Brittany, joined the dukes of Berry and Orleans, with six thousand Breton horse, to the great displeasure of the king, and especially of the duke of Burgundy; for the duke of Brittany had lately been summoned by the king to attend him with his Bretons, and had, for this purpose, received a very large sum of money. The duke, in consequence, having other business in hand, sent his brother to serve the king in his room. It was also said, that the lord d'Albreth, constable of France, had disposed of the money sent him in the same manner, and had employed it in the service of the duke of Berry. The army of the princes marched to Saint Cloud, and to the adjoining towns, which they plundered, taking by force whatever they were in need of. Some of the worst of them ravished and robbed many women, who fled to Paris, and made clamorous outcries against their ravishers, requiring vengeance from the king, and restitution, were it possible, of what they had been plundered of. The king, moved with pity, and by the importunity of his ministers, ordered a decree to be drawn out, which condemned the whole of the Orleans party to death and confiscation of goods. While this was doing, the duke of Berry, uncle to the king, hastily sent ambassadors to Paris to prevent it from taking effect, and in the name of their lord requested that the decree might be a little delayed, when other means of accommodation, through God's grace, would be found.

This request was granted, and the proclamation of the decree put off: a negotiation was entered into warmly by both parties, although the king was very much displeased that the princes of his blood were thus quarrelling with each other, so that he should be forced to proceed with rigour against them. To prevent the effusion of blood, the king desired his chancellor and others of his privy council to exert themselves diligently that peace might be established; and he likewise spoke to the same purpose to the duke of Burgundy, the count de St. Pol, and other princes, who promised faithfully that an accommodation should take place. While these matters were going on, the lord de Dampierre, the bishop of Noyon, the lord de Tignonville, master Gautier de Col, and others, ambassadors from the king of France, were sent from Paris to Boulogne, to meet an embassy from the king of England, consisting of the lord Beaumont, the bishop of St. David's, and others, who had arrived at Calais to treat of a truce. It was prolonged from All-saints-day, when the former one expired, to the feast of Easter ensuing.


AFTER the ambassadors from both parties, namely those of the king and duke of Burgundy on the one hand, and those of the dukes of Berry, of Orleans, and of Bourbon, on the other, had held several conferences, the following treaty was at length concluded, on the 2d of November. The princes of the blood on each side, with the exception of the count de Mortain, were to retire to their principalities, and lead back their forces, committing as little damage as possible to the countries they should pass through, without fraud or deception. The duke of Berry had liberty, if he pleased, to reside at Giens-sur-Loire, and the count d'Armagnac might stay there with him for fifteen days. The king of Navarre was to depart for his duchy of Nemours. The duke of Brabant might, if he so pleased, visit his sister, the duchess of Burgundy, in that country. The aforesaid princes were to conduct their men-at-arms so that all trespassing might be mutually avoided on each other's lands,nor should they suffer any of their adherents to commit waste or damage, so that all inconvenience or source of quarrel might be avoided. Item, in whatever garrisons there shall be more men than are usually kept, the same shall be reduced to the accustomed number of men retained therein for its defence, without any fraud or deception. And that these terms may be faithfully observed, the aforesaid lords shall promise, on their oaths, made before such princes as the king may nominate, that they will punctually and loyally keep every article.—Item, the captains of their troops shall make oath also to the due observance of this treaty; and if it be the good pleasure of the king he may appoint some of his knights as conductors to the men-at-arms, and superintendants on their leaders, to prevent them and their men from delaying their march, and also from committing waste in the countries through which they shall pass.-Item, the aforesaid lords will not return near the person of the king, unless they be sent for by him, by letters patent under the great seal, confirmed by his council, or on urgent business, nor shall any of the aforesaid lords intrigue to obtain orders for their return ; and this they shall especially swear to before commissioners nominated for the purpose. The king shall make the terms of this treaty public, and all the articles they shall swear to observe. Should the king think it necessary to send for the duke of Berry, he shall, at the same time, summon the duke of Burgundy, and rice rersa ; and this he will observe, in order that they may both meet at the same time on the appointed day, which will hold good until the ensuing Easter in the year 1411; and from that day until the following Easter in 1412, no one of the aforesaid shall proceed against another by acts of violence or by words.-Every article of this treaty to be properly drawn out and signed by the king and his council, with certain penalties to be incurred on the infringement of any of them.—Item, the king shall select certain able and discreet persons, of unblemished characters, and no way pensioners, but such as have solely given their oaths of allegiance to the king, to form the royal council; and when such persons have been chosen, a list of their names shall be shown to the princes on each side.—Item, the dukes of Berry and Burgundy, having the wardship of the duke of Aquitaine, shall agree together as to the person who shall be their substitute in that office during their absence; and powers for so doing shall be sent to the duke of Berry, as he is at present without them.—Item, the provost of Paris shall be dismissed from all offices which he holds under the king, and another shall be appointed according to the king's pleasure, and as he may judge expedient.—Item, it was ordained, that no knight, or his heirs, should in future suffer any molestation because he had not obeyed the summons sent him by either of the parties; and should they be any way molested, the king would punish the offender by confiscation of his property. Letters, confirming this last article, shall be given by the king and the aforesaid lords to whoever may require them. This treaty was concluded on All-saints day, and on the ensuing Monday confirmed; and four days after, the greater part of the articles were fulfilled. Sir John de Neele, chancellor to the duke of Aquitaine, was, by the king's command, appointed to receive the oaths of the lords on each side. The king dismissed his provost of Paris, sir Peter des Essars, knight, from all his offices, and nominated sir Brunelet de Sainct-Cler, one of his masters of the household, to the Provostship. He also sent letters, sealed with his geat seal, to the duke of Berry, appointing him to the guardianship of his son, the duke of Aquitaine. In consequence of one of the articles above recited, twelve knights, four bishops, and four lords of the parliament, were appointed to govern the kingdom, namely, the archbishop of Rheims, the bishops of Noyon and St. Flour, master John de Torcy, lately one of the parliament, but now bishop of Tournay, the grand-master of the king's household sir Guichart Daulphin, the grandmaster of Rhodes, the lords de Montenay, de Toursy, de Rambures, d'Offemont, de Rouvroy, de Rumacourt, Saquet de Toursy, le vidame d'Amiens, sir John de Toursy, knight to the duke of Berry, and grand-master of his household, and the lord de St. George. The two last Were nominated, by the dukes of Berry and Burgundy, guardians to the duke of Aquitaine during their absence. The two parties now left Paris and the adjoining fortresses and castles; but on the following Saturday, the king was again strongly seized with his usual malady, and confined in his hôtel of St. Pol. The queen and her attendants, then at Vincennes, returned to Paris With her son, the duke of Aquitaine, and fixed their residence, with her lord, in the hôtel de St. Pol. The duke of Burgundy went to Meaux, where he was met by the king of Navarre;—and thence the duke went to Arras and Flanders, accompanied by sir Peter des Essars, late provost of Paris, and his most confidential adviser; and he always gave him the title of provost of Paris, as though he had still retained the office. Conformably to the treaty, all the men-at-arms on each side returned to the places whence they had come, but plundering the poor people on their march. A number of Lombards and Gascons had formed part of the army of the duke of Orleans, who were mounted on terrible horses, that were taught to wheel round when on full gallop, which seemed very astonishing to the French, Flemings, Picards, and Brabanters, who had not been accustomed to such movements. Because the count d'Armagnac had joined the duke of Orleans with a large body, his men were called Armagnacs ; and in consequence, the whole of that faction were called Armagnacs. Although there were many princes of much higher rank in either party than the count d'Armagnac, they were not pleased if they were not called by this name, which lasted a very considerable time. . As the treaty before mentioned had been concluded at the hôtel de Winchester, where the dukes of Berry and Orleans, with others of their party were amusing themselves, it was called “The Peace of Winchester.” All who had come to these meetings at Paris, now departed, and those to whom the government had been intrusted, remained near the person of the king and the duke of Aquitaine. The people expected, that by this means they should enjoy more peaceable times; but it happened just the contrary, as you shall shortly hear.


WHEN peace had been established, a large congregation was held, by order of the university, on the 23d of November, in the church of the Bernardins in Paris, -to which were called, the bishop of Puy in Auvergne, many other prelates, and in general all bachelors and licentiates in canon and civil law, although in former times doctors only had been summoned. This assembly was holden at the request of the archbishop of Pisa, and other legates from the pope, on the subject of tithes, the vacant benefices, and the effects of the dead. But it was opened by the adoption of a solemn ordinance, which had been ordained during the papacy of Pietro della Luna, respecting the liberties of the French church, in the year 1406, and since confirmed by the king, his great council, the parliament, namely, that the said church shall be maintained in all its ancient privileges. It was thus freed from all tithes, procurations, and subsidies, or taxes whatever. And as the object of these legates was to establish the above impositions, it was resolved that the aforesaid ordinance should be strictly conformed to ; and the more effectually to have it observed, they sent deputations to the king, to his council, and to the parliament, to whom the guard of this ordinance belonged, to obviate the inconveniences that might follow should any article of it be infringed.

It was also concluded, that should the legates attempt, by menaces of ecclesiastical censures or otherwise, to compel payment of any tribute, an appeal should be made from them to a general council of the church. Item, should any collectors or sub-collectors exact subsidies to the church, they shall be arrested, and punished by confiscation of property, and when they have no property, by imprisonment. It was also concluded, that to settle this matter, the king's attorney, and other lords, should be requested to join the university. But it was at last resolved, that should the pope plead an evident want of means to support the church, a council should be called, and a charitable subsidy granted, the which should be collected by certain discreet persons selected by the council, and the amount distributed according to the directions of the said council.

On the ensuing Monday was held a royal sessions, at which the duke of Aquitaine, the archbishop of Pisa, and the other legates from the pope, the rector and the members of the university, were present. In this meeting, the archbishop declared, that what he demanded was due to the apostolic chamber, by every right, divine, canon, civil and natural, and that it was sacred and simple justice, — adding, that whoever should deny this right was scarcely a

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