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After he was beheaded in the market-place, his body was suspended by the arms to the gibbet at Montfaucon. This punishment was inflicted by order of sir Peter des Essars, who, as has been said, was lately re-established in his office of provost of Paris, in the room of sir Brunelet de Sainct-Cler. The duke of Orleans and his party were indignant at this execution, as well as at the late royal proclamation; and the duke of Bourbon was particularly angry at the disgraceful death of his knight. Thus affairs went on from bad to worse. One day, the duke of Orleans fixed his quarters, with a large force, at the castle of St. Ouen, which is a royal mansion, and thence made daily excursions to the gates of Paris. He pressed the Parisians so hard that they were much straitened for provisions; for they were not as yet accustomed to war, nor had they provided any stores or assembled a force sufficient to repel the attacks of their adversaries. The archbishop of Sens, brother to the late grand master Montagu, had joined the Armagnacs, but not in his pontifical robes; for instead of a mitre, he wore a helmet,_for a surplice, a coat of mail,-and for a cope, a piece of steel,-for his crosier, a battle-axe. At this period, the duke of Orleans sent his heralds with letters to the king and the duke of Aquitaine, to inform them that the duke of Burgundy had fled with his Flemings from Mondidier, not daring to wait his nearer approach. He took that opportunity of writing also to some of his friends in Paris, to know if through their means he could be admitted into the town. It was lost labour, for those who governed for the duke of Burgundy were too active and attentive in keeping the party together. By some intrigues between those of the Orleans party and one named Colinet du Puiseur, who was governor for the king in the town of St. Cloud, this place was given up to them. The duke of Orleans instantly re-garrisoned it, and continually harassed the Parisians; for now he could at any time cross the Seine at the bridge of St. Cloud, and attack both sides of Paris at once. Thus were the Parisians oppressed on all sides by the Armagnacs, on which account, another proclamation was issued in the king's name throughout the realm, complaining of the continued atrocious and rebellious acts, in spite of the positive orders of the king to the contrary, committed by the duke of Orleans and his allies, to the great loss and destruction of his subjects and kingdom; that since such grievous complaints had been made on the subject, and were continually made, he was resolved to have a stop put to such lawless proceedings. The king, therefore, with mature deliberation of council, now declares the aforesaid family of Orleans, and their allies, rebels, and traitors to himself and the crown of France; and in order that henceforward no persons may dare to join them, he declares all such to have forfeited their lives and estates, and by these presents gives power and authority to all his loyal subjects to arrest and imprison any of the aforesaid rebels, and to seize on their properties, moveable or immoveable, and to drive them out of the kingdom, without let or hindrance from any of the king's officers. Given at Paris, the 3d day of October, 1411. Signed by the king, on the report from the great council specially called for this purpose, at the hôtel de St. Pol, when were present the duke of Aquitaine, the count de Mortain, the count de la Marche, Louis de Baviere, the lord Gilles of Brittany, the count de St. Pol, the chancellor of France, with many other nobles of high rank. In consequence of this proclamation, many of the captains and noblemen of the Armagnacs grew cold in their service, or delayed joining them according to their former agreements; and fearing greater evils might befal them by further incurring the indignation of the king, they withdrew to the king's party, and excused themselves the best way they could. While these affairs were going forward, the duke of Burgundy remained at Pontoise, as I have before said, and was there joined by numbers of men-at-arms, as well vassals to the king as his own. During his stay at Pontoise, a man of a strong make entered his apartment, with the intention to murder him, and had a knife hid in his sleeve to accomplish his wicked purpose; but as he advanced to speak with him, the duke, having no knowledge of his person, and always suspicious of such attempts, placed a bench before him. Shortly after, some of his attendants, perceiving his design, instantly arrested him, when, on confessing his intentions, he was beheaded in the town of Pontoise. The king, in order to strike more terror into the duke of Orleans, and his allies, issued

other proclamations throughout his kingdom. Underneath is the tenor of the one which he sent to the bailiff of Amiens. “Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, sends health. It has lately come to our knowledge, by informations laid before our council, that John our uncle of Berry, Charles our nephew, duke of Orleans, and his brothers, with John de Bourbon, John d'Alençon, Charles d'Albreth, our cousin Bernard d'Armagnac, in conjunction with others, their aiders and abettors, moved by the wicked and damnable instigations of their own minds, have for a long time plotted to depose and deprive us of our royal authority, and with their utmost power to destroy our whole family, which God forbid! and to place another king on the throne of France, which is most abominable to the hearing of every heart in the breasts of our loyal subjects. We, therefore, by the mature deliberation of our council, do most solemnly, in this public manner, divulge these abominable and traitorous intentions of the aforesaid persons, and earnestly do call for the assistance of all our loyal subjects, as well those bound to serve us by the tenure of their fiefs as the inhabitants of all our towns, who have been accustomed to bear arms, to guard and defend our rights and lives against the traitors aforesaid, who have now too nearly approached our person, inasmuch as they have entered by force our town of St. Denis, which contains not only many holy relics of the saints but the sacred bodies of saints, our crown and royal standard, known by the name of the Oriflamme, with several other precious and rare jewels. They have also gained forcible possession of the bridge of St. Cloud, and have invaded our rights, (not to say anything of our very dear and well-beloved cousin, the duke of Burgundy, to whom they have sent letters of defiance,) by setting fire to and despoiling our towns and villages, robbing churches, ransoming or killing our people, forcing married women, and ravishing maidens, and committing every mischief which the bitterest enemy could do. We therefore do enjoin and command thee, under pain of incurring our heaviest displeasure, that thou instantly cause this present ordinance to be proclaimed in the usual places in the town of Amiens, and in different parts within thy said bailiwick, so that no one may plead ignorance; and that thou do punish corporally, and by confiscation of property, the aforesaid persons, their allies and confederates, whom thou mayest lay hands on, as guilty of the highest treason against our person and crown, that by so doing an example may be held forth to all others. We also command, under the penalty aforesaid, all our vassals, and all those in general who are accustomed to carry arms, to repair to us as soon as possible. Be careful to have the within ordinances strictly executed, so that we may not have cause to be displeased with thee. “Given at Paris, the 14th day of October, 1411, and in the 32nd year of our reign.” This ordinance was signed by the king, on the report of his council, and thus dispatched to Amiens and other good towns, where it was proclaimed in the usual places, and with such effect on the vassals and loyal subjects of the king that they hastened in prodigious numbers to serve him. On the other hand, very many of those who were of the Orleans party were arrested in divers parts of the realm, some of whom were executed, and others confined in Prison, or ransomed, as if they had been public enemies. It was pitiful to hear the many and grievous complaints which were made by the people of their sufferings, more especially by those in the neighbourhood of Paris and in the isle of France. I must not forget, among other circumstances, to relate, that the Parisians, to the amount of three thousand, as well those of the garrison as others, sallied out of Paris, and went to the palace of Winchester (Bicêtre), a very handsome mansion of the duke of Berry, where, from hatred to the duke, they destroyed and plundered the whole, leaving the walls only standing. When they had done this, they went and destroyed another house, where the duke kept his horses, situated on the river Seine, not far from the hôtel de Nesle. The duke was much enraged when he was told of the insult and mischief that had been done to him, and said aloud, that a time would come when these Parisians should pay dearly for it. Affairs daily grew worse; and at length, the duke of Berry, the duke of Orleans, and his brothers, the duke of Bourbon, the counts d'Alençon and d'Armagnac, the lord d'Albreth, were personally banished the realm by the king, with all their adherents, of whatever rank they might be, by sound of trumpet in all the squares of Paris, and forbidden to remain or

set foot within it until they should be recalled. They were not only banished the kingdom of France, but, by virtue of a bull of pope Urban V. of happy memory, (preserved in the Trésor des Chartres of the king's privileges in the holy chapel at Paris), they were publicly excommunicated and anathematised in all the churches of the city of Paris, by bell, book,

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and candle. Many of their party were much troubled at these sentences, but, nevertheless, continued the same conduct, and made a more bitter war than before.

CIIAPTER LXxx.—THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY MARCHES A LARGE ARMY FROM PONTOISE to PARIs, THROUGH MELUN.—THE SITUATION AND conduct of THE DUKE of ORLEANs.

I HAve mentioned, that during the stay of the duke of Burgundy at Pontoise, he received great reinforcements of men-at-arms from all parts: among others, the count de Penthievre, his son-in-law, joined him with a noble company. Having remained there for about fifteen days, and made diligent inquiry into the state of his adversaries, on the 22d day of October, he marched his whole army thence about two o'clock in the afternoon. As the royal road from that place to Paris was occupied by the enemy, he quitted it for that through Melun sur Seine, where he crossed the river with full fifteen thousand horse, and, marching all night, arrived, on the morrow morning, at the gate of St. Jacques at Paris. Great multitudes went out of the town to meet him; among whom were the butchers of Paris, well armed and arrayed, conducted by the provosts of the Châtelet and of the merchants, under the command of the count de Nevers, brother to the duke of Burgundy, who was attended by several princes, noble lords, and captains: even the great council of state went out upwards of a league to meet him, and to do him honour. Indeed, they all showed him as much deference and respect as they could have done to the king of France, on his return from a long journey. With regard to the people of Paris, they made great rejoicings on his arrival, and sang carols in all the streets through which he passed; and because his entry was made late in the day, and it was dusk, the streets were illuminated with great quantities of torches, bonfires, and lanthorns. On his approach to the Louvre, the duke of Aquitaine, who had married his daughter, advanced to meet him, and received him with joy and respect. He led him into the Louvre, and presented him to the king and queen, who received him most graciously. Having paid his due respects, he withdrew, and went to lodge at the hôtel de Bourbon. The earl of Arundel was quartered, with his attendants, at the priory of St. Martin des Champs, and his Englishmen near to him in the adjoining houses. The rest quartered themselves as well as they could in the city. On the morrow, which was a Sunday, Enguerrand de Bournouville, with many valiant men-at-arms and archers, as well Picards as English, made a sally as far as La Chapelle, which the Armagnacs had fortified, and quartered themselves within it. On seeing their adversaries advancing, they mounted their horses, and a sharp skirmish ensued, in which many were unhorsed. Among those who behaved well, sir Enguerrand was pre-eminent. Near his side was John of Luxembourg, nephew to the count de St. Pol, but very young. Many were wounded, but few killed. The English, with their bows and arrows, were very active in this affair. While this action was fought, the Armagnacs quartered at St. Denis, Montmartre, and other villages, hearing the bustle, mounted their horses, and hastened to cut off the retreat of Enguerrand. He was informed of this in time, and, collecting his men, retreated towards Paris; but as the enemy were superior in numbers, they pressed hard on his rear, and killed and made prisoners several of his men. The duke of Orleans and the princes of his party, on hearing of the arrival of the duke of Burgundy with so large an army in Paris, ordered their men-at-arms, and others that were lodged in the villages round, to unite and quarter themselves at St. Denis. To provide forage, sir Clugnet de Brabant was sent with a body of men-at-arms into the Valois and Soissonois, where there was abundance. Sir Clugnet acquitted himself well of his command, and brought a sufficient quantity to St. Denis; for at this time there was great plenty of corn and other provision in France. The Armagnacs were, therefore, well supplied; and as they were the strongest on that side of Paris, they daily made excursions of different parties as far as the rivers Marne and Oise, and throughout the isle of France. In like manner, the army of the king and the duke of Burgundy scoured the country on the other side of the Seine, as far as Montlehery, Meulan, and Corbeil; and thus was the noble kingdom of France torn to pieces There were frequent and severe rencounters between the men-at-arms of each side; and a continued skirmish was going forward between those in Paris and in St. Denis, when the honour of the day was alternately won. Among other places where these skirmishes took place was a mill, situated on an eminence, and of some strength. In this mill, two or three hundred of the Orleans party sometimes posted themselves, when the Parisians and Burgundians made an attack on them, which lasted even until night forced them to retreat.—At other times, the Burgundians posted themselves in the mill, to wait for the assault of their adversaries. The duke of Orleans had with him an English knight, called the lord de Clifford, who had, some time before, joined him with one hundred men-at-arms and two hundred archers, from the country of the Bourdelois. Having heard that the king of England had sent the earl of Arundel, with several other lords, to the duke of Burgundy, he waited on the duke of Orleans to request that he would permit him to depart, for that he was afraid his sovereign would be displeased with him should he remain any longer. The duke of Orleans having for a while considered his request, granted it, but on condition that neither he himself nor his men should bear arms against him during the war. The knight made him this promise, and then returned to England. On the 6th day of November, Troullart de Moncaurel, governor and bailiff of Senlis, having marched about six score combatants of his garrison to the country of Valois, was met by seven score of the Armagnacs, who vigorously attacked him; but, after many gallant deeds were done, Troullart remained victorious. From sixty to eighty of the Armagnacs were taken or slain; and among the prisoners was sir William de Saveuse, who had followed the Orleans party, when his two brothers, Hector and Philip, were in arms with the duke of Burgundy. Thus, in this abominable warfare, were brothers engaged against brothers, and sons against fathers. After this defeat, Troullart de Moncaurel and Peter Quieriet, who had accompanied him, returned with their booty to Senlis, when, shortly after, by the exertions of the old lord de Saveuse and the two brothers, Hector and Philip, sir William obtained his liberty.

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cIIAPTER LXxx1.—THE DUKE of BURGUNDY LEADS A GREAT Force, witH THE PARISIANs, To ST. CLOUD, AGAINST THE ARMAGNACS.

THE duke of Burgundy having remained some time at Paris with his army, and having held many councils with the princes and captains who were there, marched out of the town about midnight, on the 9th of November, by the gate of St. Jacques. He was magnificently accompanied by men-at-arms and Parisians, among whom were the counts de Nevers, de la Marche, de Vaudemont, de Penthievre, de St. Pol, the earl of Arundel, Boucicaut marshal of France, the lord de Vergy marshal of Burgundy, the lord de Heilly, lately appointed marshal of Aquitaine, the lord de St. George, sir John de Croy, Enguerrand de Bournouville, the lord de Fosseux, sir Regnier Pot governor of Dauphiny, the seneschal of Hainault sir John de Guistelle, the lord de Brimeu, the earl of Kent, an Englishman, with many other nobles, as well from Burgundy as from Picardy and different countries. They were estimated by good judges at six thousand combatants, all accustomed to war, and four thousand infantry from the town of Paris. When they had passed the suburbs, they advanced in good array, under the direction of trusty guides, to within half a league of St. Cloud, where the Armagmacs were quartered. It might be about eight o'clock in the morning when they came thither, and the weather was very cold and frosty. Being thus arrived without the enemy knowing of it, the duke of Burgundy sent the marshal of Burgundy, sir Gaultier des Ruppes, sir Guy de la Tremouille, and le veau de Bar, with eight hundred men-at-arms, and four hundred archers, across the Seine, towards St. Denis, to prevent the enemy from there crossing the river by a new bridge which they had erected over it. These lords so well executed the above orders that they broke down part of the bridge, and defended the passage. The duke, in the mean time, ascended the hill of St. Cloud in order of battle, and at the spot where four roads met posted the seneschal of Hainault, sir John de Guistelle, the lord de Brimeu, John Phillips and John Potter", English captains, at one of them, with about four hundred knights and esquires, and as many archers. At another road, he stationed the lords de Heilly and de Ront, Enguerrand de Bournouville, and Aymé de Vitry, with as many men as the knights above-mentioned. The third road was guarded by Neville earl of Kentt, with some Picard captains; and the Parisians and others, to a great amount, were ordered to Sevres, to defend that road. When these four divisions had arrived at their posts, they made together a general assault on the town of St. Cloud, which the Armagnacs had fortified with ditches and barriers to the utmost of their power. At these barriers, a notable defence was made by those who had heard of the arrival of the enemy, under the command of their captains, namely, sir James de Plachiel, governor of Angoulême, the lord de Cambour, William Batillier, sir Mansart du Bos, the bastard Jacob, knight, and three other knights from Gascony, who fought bravely for some time; but the superiority of numbers, who attacked them vigorously on all sides, forced them to retreat from their outworks, when they were pursued, fighting, however, as they retreated, to the tower of the bridge and the church, which had been fortified. The whole of the Burgundian force which had been ordered on this duty, excepting the * Called William Porter by Stowe. this conjecture somewhat confirmed by the original, which + Q. If this is not Umfreville earl of Angus and Kyme is, “Ousieville comte de Kam.’ It is true, that Holin(as Stowe calls him) 2. There was at this period no Neville shed mentions the earls of Penbroke and of Kent as being

earl of Kent. The only earl of Kent of that family was of the expedition: but he cites Monstrclet as his authority, William Nevil lord Falconbridge, created 1461. I find and is therefore likely to be mistaken.

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