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of his forces, and thence, with an immense quantity of warlike stores and bombards, with other artillery, marched his army toward Estampes, wherein was sir Louis de Bourdon, who instantly withdrew into the castle. The townsmen immediately returned to their former obedience, and were kindly received by the duke of Aquitaine, in consideration of his uncle the duke of Berry. Sir Louis de Bourdon, however, refused to surrender, although he was summoned many times, when the castle was besieged on all sides. The lord de Ront was at this time prisoner there, for he had been taken by sir Louis not long before the arrival of the duke of Aquitaine. Many engines were now pointed against the walls, which they damaged in several places; and in addition, miners were employed to underwork the towers. The siege was carried on with such vigour, that the garrison, thinking it probable they should be taken by storm, opened a parley; and by means of the lord de Ront, surrendered themselves to the duke of Aquitaine. Sir Louis de Bourdon, with some other gentlemen, his confederates, were sent to the Châtelet at Paris. Great part of the wealth of Bourdon, with a most excellent courser of his, were given to the lord de Ront, to make amends for the losses which he sustained when he was made prisoner. The dukes of Aquitaine and Burgundy regarrisoned this place, and then returned with their army to Paris; for, in truth, they could not, from the severity of the winter, make any further progress. A few days after, by order of the duke of Burgundy, many noble prisoners were carried from Paris to the castle of Lille; among whom were the lord de Hangest, sir Louis de Bourdon, the lords de Gerennes, des Fontaines, sir John d'Amboise, and others, who had been arrested for supporting the party of the duke of Orleans. They suffered a long confinement, but were set at liberty on paying a heavy fine. At this period, sir Mansart du Bos was beheaded in the market-place of Paris, his body hung by the shoulders on the gibbet at Montfaucon, and his head affixed to the spike on the top of the market-house. This execution took place at the instance of the duke of Burgundy, because sir Mansart was his liege man, nevertheless he had sent him his challenge at the same time with the brothers of Orleans, as has been before noticed. Not all the solicitations of his friends could save him, and he had many of weight with the duke, who endeavoured earnestly to obtain his pardon; but it was in vain, for the duke had resolved upon his death. There were in the prisons of the Châtelet, and in other prisons of Paris, very many of the Orleans party, who perished miserably through cold, famine, and neglect. When dead, they were inhumanly dragged out of the town, and thrown into the ditches, a prey to dogs, birds, and wild beasts. The reason of such cruel conduct was, their having been several times denounced from the pulpits, and proclaimed from the squares, as excommunicated persons. It seemed, however, to many discreet men, as well noble as of the church, that it was a great scandal thus to treat those who were Christians and acknowledged the laws of Jesus CHRIST. The same rigorous conduct being persevered in, a short time after, a valiant knight, called sir Peter de Famechon, was beheaded in the market-place of Paris: he was of the household and family of the duke of Bourbon, and his head was affixed to a lance like the others. The duke of Bourbon was much exasperated at his death, especially when he was informed of the disgraceful circumstances that had attended it. At this time, therefore, all who sided with the Armagnacs, and were taken, ran great risk of their lives; for there were few that dared speak in their favour, however near their connexions might be.

CIIAPTER LXXXV.--THE KING OF FRANCE SENDS DIFFERENT CAPTAINS WITH TROOPS To HARASS THE ARMAGNACS ON THE FRONTIERS. – The DEFEAT OF THE COUNT DE LA MARCHE.

MANY of the nobles and captains were now sent by the king to the countries of such as were confederates with the duke of Orleans and his party. In the number, the count de la Marche was ordered into the Orleanois, to subject it to the king's obedience, in company with the lord de Hambre.

Aymé de Vitry, Fierbourd, and others, were sent against the duke of Bourbon, who had done much mischief to the country of Charolois; and having a large force with them, they despoiled the Bourbonois and Beaujolois. They advanced with displayed banners before the town of Willefranche, in which was the duke of Bourbon and his bastard brother, sir Hector, a very valiant knight, and renowned in war. There was with them a large company of knights and esquires, vassals to the duke, who, seeing the enemy thus boldly advancing, drew up in handsome array and sallied forth to meet them, and the duke himself joined them in their intent to offer battle. A severe skirmish ensued, in which many gallant deeds were done on each side. The bastard of Bourbon distinguished himself much in the command of the light troops, and fought most chivalrously. He was, however, so far intermixed with the enemy that the duke was fearful of his being slain or taken, and, sticking spurs into his horse, cried out to his people, “Push forward' for my brother will be made prisoner unless speedily succoured.” Great part of his battalion followed him on the gallop toward the enemy, and the battle was renewed with more energy: many men-at-arms were unhorsed, wounded, and slain: at length, the van of the Burgundians, under the command of Aymé de Vitry, was forced to fall back on the main army, which was at a short distance off. The bastard, who had been struck down, was remounted, and returned to the duke. Before that day, no one person had ever heard the duke call him brother. About forty were slain on both sides, but very many were wounded. When the skirmish was ended, each party retreated without attempting more ; the duke and his men into Villefranche, and the others toward the country of Charolois, destroying everything on their march. Other parties were sent to Languedoc, Aquitaine, and Poitou, to despoil the countries of the duke of Berry, the count d'Armagnac, and the lord d'Albreth. Sir Guichard Daulphin, master of the king's household, commanded one division; and the two others were under the lord de Heilly, marshal of Aquitaine, and Enguerrand de Bournouville. They did infinite damage to the lands of the aforesaid lords; but one day, as the lord de Heilly was lodged in a large village, called Linieres, he was attacked at day-break by a party of the duke of Berry, who defeated and plundered great part of his men of their horses and baggage: a few were killed and taken; but he and the majority of his army saved themselves by retreating within the castle, which held out for the king. I must say something of the count de la Marche and the lord de Hambre, who, as I have said, were ordered into the Orleanois. It is true, they might have under their command from five to six thousand combatants, whom they conducted, destroying all the country on their line of march, as far as Yeure-la-Ville and Yeure-le-Chastel. The count de la Marche was quartered in the village of Puchet, and the lord de Hambre in another town. The moment their arrival at Yeure-la-Ville was known in Orleans, where were considerable numbers of men-at-arms for the guard of the country, about six hundred of them were assembled under the command of Barbasan de Gaucourt, sir Galliet de Gaulles, and a knight from Lombardy, together with three hundred archers. They marched all night as secretly as they could to Yeure-la-Ville, to the amount of about a thousand men, under the guidance of such as knew the country well, and where the count was lodged. The count was, however, somehow informed of their intentions, and, having armed his men, posted the greater part of them in and about his lodgings: the others he ordered to keep in a body, and sent to the lord de Hambre to acquaint him with the intelligence he had received, that he might be prepared to come to his assistance, should there be any necessity for it. The count and his men were under arms, waiting for the enemy, the whole of the night; but when day appeared, and no news of the enemy arrived, he was advised to repose himself, and to order his men to their quarters. Soon after sun-rise, one of the adversary's scouts rode into the town, and seeing that no watch was kept, hastened back to inform his friends, whom he met near the place, of this neglect. They instantly entered the town, shouting, “Wive le roi!" but soon after, crying out “Vive Orleans !” made a general attack on the houses. The greater part hastened to the lodgings of the count, who was preparing to hear mass, and the tumult became very great, for the count and his people fought gallantly; nevertheless, he was conquered, and made prisoner. The whole quarter was carried, and all taken or slain. After this defeat, the count and his men were conducted hastily to Orleans. In the mean time, as the lord de Hambre was coming to their assistance, he was misled by a man whom he had chosen for his guide, and, on his arrival, found the whole town destroyed, and the count with his men carried off. Notwithstanding his grief for this event, he pursued the enemy with all speed, and, by his activity, overtook the rear; upon which he fell manfully, and defeated part of it. He rescued some of the prisoners; but the count, with about four score (as it was told him), were sent forward as fast as horses could carry them, and were to be confined in the prisons of Orleans. The lord de Hambre was much troubled that he could not rescue him. There were slain in these two affairs from three to four hundred men on both sides, but the greater part were Armagnacs. Among others of the party of the count de Vendôme that were mortally wounded, was Guoit le Gois, eldest son to Thomas le Gois, a capital citizen of Paris, which caused great sorrow to the Parisians. After this affair, the lord de Hambre assembled, by the king's orders, a larger force than before, and made a very severe war on the duchy of Orleans, and all attached to that party, which caused the country to suffer greatly. King Louis of Sicily arrived at this time at Paris, from Provence, attended by three hundred men-at-arms well equipped, and was lodged in his own hotel at Anjou. He was grandly received by the king, the duke of Aquitaine, and the other princes; and united himself with the king and the duke of Burgundy, promising to join their party against the family of Orleans and their adherents. The duchess of Burgundy and her daughter came, nearly at the same time, from Burgundy to the Bois de Vincennes, where the queen and the duchess of Aquitaine resided, who received her with much pleasure. Thence they went to visit the dukes of Aquitaine and Burgundy; and very gay and magnificent feasts were made on their arrival. They remained for a long time with the queen, living at the expense of the king. At this period, the king of France sent the lord de Dampierre, admiral of France, with other lords, to Boulogne-sur-mer, to meet the English ambassadors who were arrived at Calais. They went together to Leulinghen, where they agreed on a truce between the two crowns for one year; after which the admiral and his companions returned to the king at Paris, where he was holding a grand assembly of prelates and ecclesiastics for the general reformation of the church. The particular object of this assembly was to select proper delegates to send to the holy father the pope, to request that a convenient place might be appointed for the holding of a general council; but, in truth, very little was done, for they could not agree on one single point. Another meeting was therefore fixed upon, when a greater number of churchmen should be summoned to attend it. The Parisians, having loyally served the king and the duke of Aquitaine in the late wars, obtained, through the means of the duke of Burgundy, that the power of the shrievalty, with all its franchises, of which the city of Paris had been deprived by royal authority, in the month of January, in the year 1382, should be restored to it fully and freely by letters patent from the king. This created very great rejoicings, and much increased the popularity of the duke of Burgundy.

CHAPTER LXXXVI.--THE KING OF FRANCE SENDS AMBASSADORS TO ENGLAND.—THE LORD DE CROY AND THE DUKE of Bourbo N's CHILDREN obTAIN THEIR LIBERTY.—of COUNT WALERAN De SAINT POL.

At the beginning of the month of May, the duke of Burgundy, with the approbation of the king of France, sent ambassadors to England, namely, the bishop of Arras, the provost of Saint Donas de Bruges, and the provost of Viefville, to treat of a marriage between one of the duke's daughters and the prince of Wales, a matter which had been talked of before". They found the king of England at Rochester, who honourably entertained them, as did the other princes; but the prince of Wales was particularly attentive, as their mission more immediately concerned him. In the course of a few days, the bishop had fully explained the object of his coming to the king, his sons, and council; and having received a favourable answer, with very handsome presents to himself and his colleagues, they returned by way

* Their passport is, in the Fordern, dated January 11, 1412.

of Dover to Calais, and shortly after arrived at Paris. The ambassadors related, in the presence of the kings of France and Sicily, the dukes of Aquitaine, Burgundy, and Bar, and other great lords of the council, a full detail of their proceedings, and that the king of England and his family were well pleased with their proposals. Upon this, the duke of Burgundy sent orders to his son the count de Charolois, then at Ghent, to repair to Paris, to be present at the festivals of Easter. At this time, by the intercession of the duchess of Bourbon, daughter to the duke of Berry, with the duke of Orleans and others of that party, the lord de Croy obtained his liberty from the prison in which he had for a considerable time been confined, and was escorted safely to Paris. On his departure, he promised by his faith to make such earnest applications to his lord, the duke of Burgundy, that the duke of Bourbon's children should be delivered. On his arrival at Paris, he was received with joy by the dukes of Aquitaine and Burgundy, especially by the latter; and a few days after, he made the request he had promised, and so successfully that the king and the other lords gave the duke of Bourbon's children their liberty. They were sent for to Paris from the castle of Renty, where they were confined; and they and their attendants were delivered without any ransom to the care of sir John de Croy, who escorted them to the territories of the duke of Berry. The son of sir Mansart du Bos, who had been taken with them, remained prisoner in the castle of Renty. The lord de Croy was nominated governor of the county of Boulogne and captain of the castle of Braye-sur-Somme, by the king, with the approbation of the duke of Berry and the aforesaid duchess. He also obtained, through the recommendation of the duke of Burgundy, the office of grand butler of France. To sir Peter des Essars, provost of Paris, was given the office of grand master of waters and forests which had been held by count Waleran de St. Pol, who was contented to yield it up. The count de Saint Pol, now constable of France, ordered a large body of men-at-arms to assemble at Vernon-sur-Seine. In consequence, full two thousand armed with helmets came thither, with the design of making war on the inhabitants of Dreux, and on the count d'Alençon and his people, who had overrun parts of Normandy, near to Rouen, where they had plundered everything they could lay their hands on. To provide for the payment of this force, as well as for others in different parts of the country which the king had employed under various captains, a heavy tax was imposed on the whole kingdom, to be paid at two instalments, the first on the Sunday before Easter, and the second at the end of June following. This affected the poor people very much ; and in addition, the pope had granted to the king a full tenth to be levied, through France and Dauphiny, on all the clergy, payable also at two terms, the one on St. John the Baptist's day, and the other on Allsaints following. The clergy were greatly discontented,—but it was not on that account the less rigorously levied,—and commissioners were appointed to receive it from them. The constable set out in the holy week from Paris for Vernon, to take the command of the men-at-arms, and to lead them against the king's enemies.

chapTER LXxxvii.--THE DUKES OF BERRY AND OF ORLEANs, witH others of THEIR ADHERENTs, SEND AN EMBASSY TO THE KING OF ENGLAND.—THE CONSEQUENCES OF IT. [A.D. 1412.]

At the commencement of this year, the dukes of Berry, of Orleans, and of Bourbon, the counts de Vertus, d'Angoulême, d'Alençon, and d'Armagnac, and the lord d'Albreth, calling himself constable of France, with other great lords, their confederates, sent ambassadors to the king of England, with instructions, under their seals, for them to act according to the occasion with the king of England, his children and ministers. As they were journeying through Maine to go to Brittany, and thence to England, they were pursued by the bailiff of Caen in Normandy, who, with the aid of the commonalty, attacked and defeated them, making some of them prisoners, with their sealed instructions and other articles: the rest escaped as well as they could.

After the defeat, the bailiff dispatched an account of it to the king and council at Paris, and sent the sealed instructions, with the other articles, in a leathern bag, well secured. The king assembled a great council at his palace of St. Pol, on the Wednesday after Easter,

Chaales Lord d'Albreth, Constable of France.—From the MS. of Berry, engraved in Montfaucon, Vol. III.

for the full examination of these papers. He was present, as were the king of Sicily, the dukes of Aquitaine and Burgundy, the counts de Charolois, de Nevers, and de Mortaigne, the lord Gilles de Bretagne, the chancellor of France, namely, master Henry de Marle”, the bishops of Tournay, of Amiens, of Constance, and of Auxerre, the rector of the university, the provost of Paris, and several others, as well of the king's council as capital citizens of Paris and students of the university. The chancellor of the duke of Aquitaine, the lord d'Olhaing, lately an advocate in the parliament, then declared, that there had been given to his charge, by the king's ministers, a leathern bag, which had been taken by the bailiff of Caen, together with a knight, chamberlain to the duke of Brittany, from de Faulcon d'Encre and friar James Petit, of the order of the Augustins, and other ambassadors from the lords mentioned in the papers contained in the bag, which had been transmitted by the said bailiff to the king's council. He added, that he had found in this bag four blank papers, signed and sealed by four different persons, namely, Berry, Orleans, Bourbon, and Alençon. Each blank had only the name signed on the margin above the seal. He had also found many sealed letters from the duke of Berry addressed to the king of England, to the queen, and to their four sons; and in like manner from the duke of Brittany to the earl of Richmond and to other noblemen in England. There were also many letters without any superscription, being credential ones for the aforesaid Faulcon and friar James Petit, to the king and queen of England. These letters were publicly read, and in them the duke of Berry styled the king of England, “My most redoubted lord and nephew;” and the queen, “My most redoubted and honoured lady, niece and daughter;" and they were signed with the duke of Berry's own hand. In the one to the queen, there were two lines in his own handwriting, desiring her to place full

* Moreri, in his list of chancellors, places Arnauld de year.—See post., where it is said, that sir Reginald (i. e. Corbie, lord of Joigny, from 1409 to 1413, and makes Henry sir Arnauld) de Corbie was displaced (1413), and Eustace de Marle, lord of Versigny, his successor in the latter de Lactre appointed in his place.

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