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confidence in the said ambassadors. These blanks were publicly displayed,—and the king held them some time in his hand. There was a small article on a single sheet of paper containing the instructions for the ambassadors, which was likewise read aloud, and contained a repetition of the charges made against the duke of Burgundy, by the duchess of Orleans and her sons, for the death of the late duke of Orleans. It recited, that they had frequently demanded justice of the king of France for this murder, but could never obtain it, because the duke of Burgundy had prevented and evil counselled the king, by persuading him that the duke of Orleans had been a disloyal traitor to his king and country, which was false,_ adding, that the duke of Burgundy had seduced the commonalty of France, more especially the populace of Paris, by asserting that the late duke of Orleans wanted to destroy the king of France and his family, which was also a falsehood, for it had never even entered his thoughts. These instructions contained, likewise, that the duke of Burgundy had caused the king to be angry with the duke of Brittany, because he had obstructed his expedition against Calais, and several other attempts which the duke of Burgundy had plotted against England; that the duke of Burgundy had instigated the people of Paris so greatly against the king and the duke of Aquitaine that everything was governed to his will,—and he had now the royal family in such subjection that they dared hardly to open their mouths; that the Parisians, under pretext of a bull granted by pope Urban V. against the free companies that had ravaged France, had caused them and their adherents to be excommunicated, and had forcibly constrained the official at Paris to proceed against them in the severest manner, and to denounce them publicly, as excommunicated, with every aggravation of circumstance. These ambassadors were not to discover themselves to any man in England, unless they were sure of his support; and when they had read the contents of these papers to the king, they were to demand a private audience, and declare from the dukes of Berry, of Orleans, of Bourbon, and from the count d'Alençon, that they were most anxious for his welfare and honour, and ready to aid and assist him against the duke of Burgundy, as well as against the Welsh and Irish. They were to add, that if they could not succeed against the Scots, which they would attempt, and in case they could not obtain all they wished, they would engage to establish a peace between him and the king of France; and that if there were any lands to which he laid claim, or pretended any right, on their side the sea, they would manage the matter to his full satisfaction. They were also to say, that for want of due justice being administered at home, they were come to claim it from him, in regard to the death of the late duke of Orleans; and as bearing the name of king, it belonged to him to do justice; and he would acquire perpetual honour to himself, and great advantages to his subjects, by granting them his aid and support. It was also worthy of his interference, considering the high rank of the late duke of Orleans. They were likewise to say, that the undersigned would serve him and his family, as well as their descendants, in all times to come, and which they were enabled to do, even against the most potent in the realm of France. These ambassadors were also to require an immediate aid against the duke of Burgundy, of three hundred lances and three thousand archers, who should receive pay in advance for four months. The chancellor of Aquitaine next produced a sketch of their intended government of France, containing many articles, which were read aloud. Among other schemes, there was to be imposed on every acre a tax called a land-tax; and as there were deposits of salt in the kingdom, there were likewise to be granaries of wheat and oats for the profit of the king : that all lands or houses which were in a ruinous state should be instantly repaired, or otherwise forfeited to the crown: that every commoner should be forced to work or quit the realm, and that there should be but one weight and one measure throughout the country. Item, that the duchies of Lorrain and Luxembourg should be conquered, as well as the towns in Provence and Savoy, and annexed to the kingdom of France.—Item, that the university should be removed from Paris, and one erected and nobly endowed for the reception of numbers of discreet men. There were many rolls produced, but not read, as they were of little consequence. After the chancellor of Aquitaine had concluded, the provost of the WOL. I. P

merchants and the sheriffs preferred two requests to the king, by the mouth of a monk of the order of St. Benedict and doctor of divinity. One was, that the king would be pleased to grant to the city of Paris a third of the taxes collected in that city in the same form and manner as had been done during the reign of king Charles, whose soul may God receive 1 for the reparations of the said town and the improvement of the river Seine, of which, as the provost of merchants declared, they were in great need; that it would be for the advantage of the king and his good city that certain repairs, very much wanted, should be undertaken, and the place better fortified against the bitter hatred which the dukes of Berry, Orleans, Bourbon, and their faction bore to it. He added, that the town of Tournay was the best fortified, and in the most complete repair of any in the kingdom, because the inhabitants allot certain sums for this purpose; and that, if all the king's enemies were to besiege it, they would never be able to injure it. The other was, that orders should be given to the chancellor to seal without opposition the patent of an office vacant, or becoming so, by the demission of one of the Armagnacs, which had hitherto been refused. They were told, that on the Thursday ensuing, they should have answers to both of these requests. The provost and sheriffs demanded beside, that the chancellor of France should lay before the king such letters as had come to the knowledge of the duke of Aquitaine, mentioning that the dukes of Berry, Orleans, Bourbon, and the count d'Alençon intended making a new king, to the exclusion of his present majesty and the duke of Aquitaine. The chancellor replied, that the subject of their present consideration was the letters contained in the bag; that it was true, he was in possession of letters and other papers mentioning this circumstance, and that he had assured the duke of Aquitaine of their contents. The chancellor of Aquitaine then declared publicly to the king, that the grand master of his household, sir Guichard Daulphin, had written to inform the duke of Burgundy, that the dukes of Berry, Orleans, Bourbon, and the count d'Alençon, had again renewed their oaths of alliance in the city of Bourges; that the leaders of the confederacy had met in that city, and had there determined to destroy the king of France, his whole royal family, the kingdom of France, and the good city of Paris, or perish themselves in the attempt. The king was much affected on hearing this, and replied with tears, “We now fully see their wickedness, and we entreat of you all that are of our blood to advise and aid us against them; for the matter not only regards you personally, but the welfare of the whole kingdom is in danger; and we shall therefore expect the support of all present, and of every loyal subject.” The king of Sicily then rose, and, falling on his knees before the king, said, “Sire, I entreat, in regard to your own honour and welfare, as well as for that of your realm, you will order the most efficacious measures to be pursued against these rebels, for there seems to be instant need of it.” In like manner, the dukes of Aquitaine and Burgundy, and all the other lords, knelt to the king, and proffered him their services to the utmost of their power. When this was done, the assembly broke up, and all that had passed was promulgated through Paris: even accounts of it were sent in writing to different bailiffs in the kingdom, to the great astonishment of many.

CHAPTER Lxxxv III.-DUKE Louis of BAvARIA Is DRIVEN out of PARIS BY THE PARISIANs, AND HIS PEOPLE ROBBED.—OF THE CARDINAL DE CAMBRAY, AND THE PROHIBITION OF THE KING OF ENGLAND.

ABOUT this time, duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen of France, and residing at Paris, was much suspected by the Parisians of having in secret spoken favourably to the king and queen of the dukes of Berry and Orleans; and fearing it might be prejudicial to them, knowing how much they were hated by these dukes, they assembled one day in great numbers, and sent to tell duke Louis, that they were much displeased with him, for that he was of the Orleans party; and since he was so well inclined to them, he must go and join them. Duke Louis sent for answer, that he was not of any party, but of that of the king. The matter, therefore, rested in this state for the present; but as he perceived they were dissatisfied with him, and apprehending some insult, he went away with very few attendants to the castle of Marcoussy. Before his departure, he had a waggon laden with his plate and other most valuable effects, which he sent off under the escort of three gentlemen of his household,—one of whom was a young nobleman of about fifteen years old, of high rank in Germany, and some servants, to the town of Valenciennes, intending to follow them speedily. They had not proceeded far on their journey when some of the Burgundian party, incited by avarice and cruelty, namely, the bailiff de Foguesolle, his brother Jacotin, Jacques de Bracquencourt, and others of their companions, the greater part from Picardy, having learnt the value of this convoy, by the treachery of sir Morlet de Betencourt, followed and overtook it between the rivers Seine and Oise. They made a sudden attack, which was no way resisted, putting to death most of the attendants, and seizing the waggon, which they carried off, with the young esquire above-mentioned, and lodged themselves at a nunnery called Premy, near to the city of Cambray. When they had tarried there two or three days, they led the young man out of the nunnery by night, and most inhumanly murdered him, and threw him into a ditch full of water.—When he was dead, they drove a stake through his body, to fix it at the bottom of the ditch; and in this state was it found, some days after, by the servants and workmen of the nunnery. He was carried thence and interred in the consecrated ground of the church, where, afterward, was performed a most solemn service for the salvation of his soul, at the expense of his friends, who made great clamours and lamentations when they heard of his fatal end. The Burgundians, having well secured their prize, lodged it in the house of an inhabitant of their acquaintance in Cambray, and set off from the Cambresis to other parts where they had business. On duke Louis receiving information of this exploit, he was in the utmost rage and grief, especially for the death of the young esquire, as well as for the loss of his other servants, and his effects, and made heavy complaints of it to the king, the duke of Aquitaine, and particularly to the duke of Burgundy, whose vassals the perpetrators said they were. The duke of Burgundy promised him the restitution of his valuables, and the punishment of the offenders; but, a few days after, duke Louis set out from the castle of Marcoussy, and was, by orders of the duke of Burgundy, escorted by the vidame of Amiens, with a considerable force, as far as the town of Valenciennes, where he staid a long time. At the end of six weeks, he learnt that the greater part of his effects were deposited in the town of Cambray: he therefore wrote to the magistrates, and caused letters also to be sent to duke William of Hainault, to whom he was related: in short, he made so much stir that his effects were restored to him, that is to say, all that had been deposited in Cambray. The then bishop of Cambray was master Peter d'Ailly, an excellent doctor of divinity: he was created cardinal by pope John XXIII. and took the title of Cardinal of Cambray. John de Gaures, son to the lord de Liquerque, master of arts, who was at that time with the court of Rome, succeeded to this bishopric. At this period, Henry king of England caused it to be proclaimed by sound of trumpet in Calais, and in all the places bordering on France, that none of his subjects, of whatever rank, should any way interfere between the two factions in France, nor go into France to serve either of them by arms or otherwise, under pain of death and confiscation of fortune.

CHAPTER LXxxix.--THE KING OF SICILY LEAVES PARIS.—TIIE SIEGE OF DOMFRONT.--THE BATTLE of saint REMY DU PLAIN.—THE SIEGE of BELLESME,-AND OTHER EVENTS OF THE YEAR.

ON Tuesday the 20th day of April of this year, the king of Sicily, by order of the king

and council, marched his men-at-arms out of Paris in handsome array. He was escorted

out of the town by the duke of Burgundy, the provost of Paris, and a very great number of

noblemen and others. He hastened to Angers, and to his possessions in the county of Maine,

to defend them against the counts d'Alençon and de Richemont, who harassed them much

by an incessant warfare. On his arrival at Angers, he summoned all his vassals, as well knights and esquires as those who were accustomed to bear arms, and sent them to garrison all his towns which were near to those of the enemy. Shortly after, sir Anthony de Craon, the borgne de la Heuse, knight, and other captains, were sent by the king to the county of Alençon, to subject it to his obedience. They gained the town of Domfront, but failed in taking the castle; for it was very strong in itself, and well garrisoned and provided with all necessary stores. They remained, however, before it, annoying the garrison to the utmost of their ability. The garrison sent to the count d'Alençon to require instant succours: he was much grieved at the loss of the town of Domfront, but answered by one of his heralds, that he would very shortly come and give the enemy battle, if they would wait for him there. Sir Anthony de Craon and the other captains, hearing this, despatched messengers to the king of France for reinforcements. The king sent instant orders to the constable and marshal of France, who were at Vernon with a great armament, to advance to Domfront. This they obeyed,—and the king of Sicily also sent thither large reinforcements. But on the day fixed for the battle, the count d'Alençon neither came himself nor sent any forces. The constable and the other commanders having waited under arms the whole of that day, seeing no signs of their adversaries coming, erected a strong bulwark against the castle, in which they left a numerous garrison, to keep it in check, and to oppose any attempts to relieve it, and then departed. The constable marched to besiege the town of St. Remy du Plain, and sent sir Anthony de Craon, with a large force to Vernon, to escort the cannons, bombards, and other military engines, to St. Remy. There were in company with the constable, his nephew John of Luxembourg, sir Philip de Harcourt and his brother sir James, the lord de Beausault, the vidame of Amiens, the lord d'Offemont", the lord de Canny, the borgne de la Heuse, Roux de Nesle, Raoul son to the vidame of Amiens, the lord de Lovroy, le Galois de Renty+, sir Bort Queret, the lord de Herbainnes, the lord de Saine, and many noble knights and esquires, to the number of twelve hundred helmets, and a large body of archers. They quartered themselves within the town of St. Remy, and around the castle, which was tolerably strong and well garrisoned with men at arms, and summoned it to surrender to the king's obedience; but on a refusal, some engines were pointed against the walls, which did them much damage. During this time, the lord de Gaucourt, sir John de Dreues, sir Jean de Guarenchieres, Guillaume Batillier, the lord d'Argiellieres, John de Falloise, with other captains of the Orleans and Alençon party, assembled a considerable body of combatants, with the intent of making an unexpected attack on the constable and taking him by surprise. In consequence, they marched on the 10th day of May from their place of rendezvous, and, riding all night, cathe towards the end of it very near their adversaries. The latter were, however, day and night on their guard, and had spies and scouts dispersed over the country. Morlet de Mons, Galien bastard of Auxi, and others, were on guard when the Armagnacs approached. They made Morlet de Mons and Galien prisoners; but the rest escaped, and, galloping as fast as their horses could carry them to the main army, shouted out, “To arms, to arms!" adding, that the Armagnacs were advancing in battle-array toward the camp, and had already made prisoners of Morlet and Galien, with some others. The constable, hearing the noise, ordered his men to arm without delay, and despatched the lord de St. Legier and the lord de Drucat, two well experienced knights, to examine and report the truth of this alarm. They had not gone far before they saw the enemy advancing, as had been said, on which they returned to inform the constable of it. He immediately caused his banner to be displayed, and his trumpets sounded, and, sallying out of his tent with a part of his men, drew them up in battle-array to receive the enemy, and urged the remainder of his men to make haste to join him. When he had mounted his horse, he rode along the line, to post his army most advantageously, and exhorted the whole, in the kindest manner, to combat boldly the enemies of the king and crown of France. By the advice of the most experienced, his carts and baggage were disposed of in the rear of his army, with varlets to guard them. On each wing of the men-at-arms were posted the archers and cross

* Guy de Nesle. Wide p. 173, ante. * f Renty was the name of a considerable family in Artois. I can find nothing about any of the others.

bows, as far as they could be extended. When every arrangement was made, and the enemy was in sight, several new knights were created, as well by the constable as by others present, namely, John of Luxembourg, John de Beausault, Raoul son to the vidame of Amiens, Alard de Herbainnes, le Brun de Saine, Roux de Nesle, Raillers de Fransseurs, Regnault d'Azincourt, and many more. This done, the constable dismounted and posted himself under his banner, when instantly after the Armagnacs entered the town, full gallop, thinking to surprise their adversaries. On perceiving they were prepared for them, they charged the division of archers and cross-bows with great shoutings, and at the first shock killed about twelve: the rest posted themselves very advantageously on the other side of a ditch, whence they made such good use of their bows and cross-bows that they routed the horses, which were unable to withstand the sharpness of their arrows, and flung down many of their riders. The constable then advanced his main battalion, and cried out to them, “Here, you scoundrels' here I am whom you are seeking for: come to me!” but their ranks were so broken, chiefly by the bowmen, that they could not rally, and, consequently, betook themselves to flight. The army of the constable, noticing this, fell on them lustily, shouting their cries, and killed numbers: the archers, being lightly armed, pursued them vigorously, and put many to a cruel death. There was near the field of battle a fish-pond, into which many horses ran with their riders, and both were drowned. A valiant man of arms from Brittany attacked these archers with great gallantry, expecting to be supported by his companions, but he was soon pulled from his horse and slain. The constable, seeing the defeat of his enemies, mounted several on the fleetest horses, that they might attack them in their flight, and very many were indeed slain and taken : the remnant fled for refuge to Alençon and other towns belonging to their party. More than fourscore prisoners were brought to the constable, who was with his knights, rejoicing on the victory they had gained; and in the number were the lord d'Anieres, knight, and sir Jaunet de Guarochieres, son to the lord de Croisy, who was with the constable. When he thus perceived his son led prisoner, he was so exasperated against him that he would have killed him had he not been withheld. Those who had made this attack on the constable had brought with them a multitude of peasants, in the expectation of destroying him and his army, but the reverse happened, for upwards of four hundred of them were killed in the field, and from six to eight score made prisoners. Shortly after, the constable returned into the town of St. Remy du Plain, whence he had dislodged in the morning; and this battle, ever since, has borne the name of St. Remy. He then made preparations to storm the castle; but the garrison, seeing no chance of further relief, surrendered it, and were, by the constable, received to the obedience of the king. The king of Sicily had about eight hundred chosen men-at-arms in the county of Alençon, —and when he heard that the Armagnacs had collected a large force to march to raise the siege of St. Remy, he sent fourscore of his men to reinforce the constable, who arrived at St. Remy four hours after the action was over. They were overjoyed at the victory, and the surrender of the castle, both of which they were ignorant of; and having thanked God for this good fortune, and congratulated the constable thereon, they returned to the king of Sicily. The constable advanced to Bellême with his army, accompanied by the marshal of France and sir Anthony de Craon; and on their arrival, they were soon joined by the king of Sicily, with archers, cross-bows, and other implements of war. They instantly formed the siege of the castle, the king of Sicily investing it on one side, and the constable and marshal on the other. Their attacks were so severe and incessant that the garrison could not withstand them, but surrendered on terms. Having placed a new garrison there in the king's name, the constable marched away toward Paris; the marshal returned to Dreux; and the king of Sicily and his men went for Mans, to guard his territories of Anjou. On the constable's arrival at Paris, he was magnificently feasted by the king, and the dukes of Aquitaine and Burgundy, as well for the victory he had gained at St. Itemy as for other matters, which, during his expedition, he had brought to an honourable conclusion; and a sum of money was instantly ordered him, for the payment of his men-at-arms. Splendid presents were also made him by the king and the duke of Burgundy.

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