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those who guard him, as is done to common prisoners in many cases. This is matter of as serious grief to him and to my said lords, thus to be deprived of the conversation and sight of their sovereign lord on earth, as it would be to be debarred the vision of God in another life.—Item, they complain, that since these events, letters have been sent by the town of Paris to the aforesaid lords, and to others, and also to the chief towns in the kingdom, to declare that these arrests, imprisonments, and executions, have taken place with the approbation of the duke of Aquitaine. They therefore lament such letters being sent; for none but the princes of the blood ought to be made acquainted with the acts of government, or with such charges as are made against different lords. There was, beside, no pretence for these letters, for no one had ever interfered with the government of the duke of Aquitaine ; and it should seem to have been done solely with a view to inflame and instigate the people to some acts prejudicial to the king, to my lord of Aquitaine, his whole family, and even against these lords now present. “They also complain, that through the importunity of these same Parisians, orders have been sent to their barons, knights, esquires, and vassals, not to obey any summons they may receive from them, but to remain at home until the constable, or some other of the lords within Paris, shall send for them; and at this grievance they feel very indignant, for they have never done anything, or had intentions of so acting, as to deserve to be deprived of the service of their vassals; and when the king should have occasion for them, they should have served in their company, &c.—Item, they likewise complain of many expressions, and other orders, by which several officers take possession of castles and forts, and place in them new governors, dismissing very able captains, noble and valiant knights, who have loyally served their whole life without reproach, and still intend to serve the king. “These things are very unusual and extraordinary, and create much uneasiness, by the bad example they afford as well to the head as the other members, to the producing of subversion and total ruin. This good kingdom has long been prosperously governed, chiefly by its regular police and strict justice, which are founded on three things, and have caused it to excel all other kingdoms.-Firstly, by its great learning, by which the Christian faith has been defended, and justice and equity maintained.—Secondly, by its noble and gallant chivalry, by which not only this kingdom, but the whole of the faith has been supported and encouraged.—Thirdly, by the numbers of loyal subjects, who, by their subordination and obedience, have given strength to the government. “But now these three things, by the present perverse mode of acting, will be completely overturned; for all seems running to disorder, and one fills an office suited to another, so that the feet which ought to support the body, head, and arms, now want to take the place of the head; and thus everything will fall into confusion, and all the members quit the situations they were naturally designed for, as the civil law says, “Rerum commixtione turbantur officia.” For these reasons, my lords have sent us to supplicate the king, the queen, and my lord of Aquitaine, and to request of you, our very dear and redoubted lords, and of you gentlemen of the great council of the king and the duke of Aquitaine now present, that each of you would, according to the exigence of the case, apply a sufficient remedy. It seems to my lords, that, according to the opinion of physicians, abstinence is the grand preservative of the body natural from sickness: we therefore pray you, that all such acts as have lately taken place may be put an end to, and that all extraordinary commissions may cease; that honour and justice may have due attention paid to them, and that liberty and the accustomed prerogatives be restored to the king and the duke of Aquitaine, as to the eyes of justice; aud that they may be preserved from all offence from churchmen, mobility, and people, as the body, the arms, and the legs are bound to guard and defend the head; for this will be the only and secure means of establishing peace, and as the Psalmist says, “Quia justicia et pax osculatae sunt.' “St. Augustin declares, that every one wishes for Peace in his house; but Justice, who is her sister, lodges in the house of another; and all who wish for true Peace must have also her sister Justice. Should any one say, that abstinence would be dangerous from fear of two different things, such as war and rigorous justice, we reply, in the name of our lords, that they will eschew both to the utmost of their power, and will employ themselves heartily in following this abstinence, and in the expulsion of all such men at arms as shall injure the country by every means they can use. In regard to rigorous justice, they intend to follow in this the manner of all princes, keeping in mind the sentence of Plato, that when a prince is cruel to the commonwealth, he resembles the guardian who unwisely chastises his ward, whom he had undertaken to watch over and defend. They will carefully imitate the conduct of their predecessors of the most noble house of France, who have been accustomed to show nothing but good humour and kindness, laying aside all rancour against the good city of Paris, and all other towns that may have been guilty of improper acts; and they supplicate the king, the queen, and my lord of Aquitaine, that an entire oblivion may be passed over what may have been done on one side as well as on the other. “My lords are particularly desirous that the king, the queen, and the duke of Aquitaine should have full liberty to make their residence at Rouen, Chartres, Melun, Montargis, or at any other place more suitable than Paris, for their loyal subjects to have access to them ; not through any malevolence toward this town, or against its inhabitants, but to avoid any sort of riot that might take place between their servants and some of the citizens. And I beg the lords now present to consider on the most secure means for the meeting of my lords with their majesties and the duke of Aquitaine, and to obviate all pretence of suspicion or alarm, when my lords shall attend at any proper place to provide for the better government of the kingdom, and for the establishment of a solid peace. Let this matter be well weighed, for our lords and ourselves are perfectly well inclined to attend to the honour and advantage of the head and of all its members. “Should I have said too little, my lords and companions will be eager to amend it; and should I have said too much, or anything that may have angered any of my lords here present, they will be pleased to attribute it to my simplicity and ignorance, and to the strong affection I bear to the king, and my earnestness that a firm and lasting peace may be concluded. I am naturally bound to this by my oath of fidelity, and also from the anxiety my lord the king of Sicily has to promote this desirable end. Should I therefore have said more than was necessary, you will not of course attribute it to any rashness, or disaffection that I may feel; for such has never entered my thoughts, or those of my lord of Sicily or his companions.” After this, several propositions for peace were made on each side, that tranquillity might be restored to the kingdom, and an end put to the present disorders. Some articles were drawn up, of the following tenor. “First, there shall be perfect union and love between the princes of the blood, which they will keep, and swear to observe, like affectionate relatives and friends, and shall mutually interchange letters to this purpose; and, for a greater confirmation of the above, the principal officers and servants of each lord shall do the same.—Item, the princes of the blood who have sent ambassadors will cease from all acts of warfare, and will not summon any more men-at-arms; and if any summonses should have been issued, they will instantly annul them. – Item, they will do everything in their power to recal those who form the companies of Clugnet, Louis Bourdon, and others their adherents, by every possible means. Should these companies refuse to comply, these lords would then unite themselves with the king's forces, and compel them to obedience, or destroy them, and all others the king's enemies, who might wage war against him or his kingdom.—Item, they will promise that they will not bear any malice or revenge for whatever things may have been done in the city of Paris, nor do by themselves or others any mischief to that town, or its inhabitants, under pretext of justice, or any other cause whatever; and should any security be required for the observance of this article, they shall suffer it to be given, and even afford every assistance thereto to the utmost of their power.—Item, these princes will make oath upon the true cross of God, on the holy evangelists, and on the word of honour of a prince, that they will strictly observe every article of this treaty, without any fraud or subterfuge, and will give to the king letters containing the above oath, signed with their seals.-Item, on the accomplishment of the above, the ambassadors from the aforesaid princes require, that the king would be pleased to annul and revoke all his summonses for assembling men-at-arms, and order all warfare to cease in the realm, except against the above-mentioned companies.—Item, he will also revoke all orders lately issued, to take possession of different castles and forts, and to dismiss from them the governors appointed by the princes, placing others in their room; and all such castles and forts shall be delivered up in the same state in which they were taken possession of; and, after a certain time, all who for any act by them committed, in opposition to the king's ministers, may have been imprisoned or banished, shall have their liberties, and be recalled home; and this shall take place in the course of the king's ordinary justice, without any commissioners being appointed, or interfering therein.—Item, when all these things shall have been done, the king, the queen, and my lord of Aquitaine shall, on an appointed day, come out of Paris to a fixed place of meeting, where the princes of either party shall meet, to confirm the good union among them, and to advise on the necessary business for the welfare of the king and his realm ; and should any one suspect that these princes, or any of their party, have the intention of instigating the king, the queen, or my lord of Aquitaine, to take vengeance on the town of Paris, or, in revenge to any of its inhabitants, seize on the government, or to carry off the king and my lord of Aquitaine, or that this meeting was proposed with any evil design, they are willing to give whatever security may be thought advisable.” These propositions having been reduced to writing, and agreed to by the different lords who had been commissioned for that purpose, each party returned to the places they had come from. The dukes of Berry and Burgundy, with their companions, reported to the king the points of their embassy, as contained in the memorial which had been drawn up for the good of the kingdom. When this matter had been well considered, in a council to which the members of the university and of the municipality of Paris had been admitted, it was agreed on by the king and the duke of Aquitaine, that what had been settled by the commissioners on each side should be confirmed. In consequence, various ordinances were drawn up, to be transmitted to the bailiwicks and seneschalships in the realm, in order to their promulgation at the usual places, of which copies follow underneath. During this melancholy time, Clugnet de Brabant, sir Louis de Bourdon, and other captains of that party, advanced with sixteen thousand combatants, wasting and despoiling the country of the Gâtinois, and giving out that they were on their march to make war on the Parisians. These latter were much angered thereat, and despatched sir Elyon de Jacqueville with sixteen hundred helmets, and a large body of other combatants, to meet them as far as Montereau-faut-Yonne; but the two armies did not meet,-and that of the Parisians was disbanded without fighting. At this time, the constable and admiral of France were, with the bishop of Tournay, sent by the king to Boulogne-sur-mer, to meet ambassadors from the king of England, namely, the earl of Warwick, the bishop of St. Davids, and others, who had arrived at Calais. They met at Leulinghen, and, after some negotiations, agreed on a truce between the two kingdoms, to last until the ensuing Easter, which was proclaimed throughout both realms. Here follows a copy of those royal ordinances before mentioned. “Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, and to each of the inhabitants of that town, greeting.—We make known to you, that on account of the improper and unjust imprisonment of our very dear and well-beloved cousin and brother-inlaw, the dukes of Bar and of Bavaria, with other of our officers, as well as of the households of our dear companion the queen, and of our well-beloved son the duke of Aquitaine, and other ladies and damsels attached to them ; our very dear cousin and nephew, the king of Sicily, the duke of Bourbon, the counts of Alençon and of Eu, have made heavy complaints, as well respecting the manner in which these imprisonments were made, as likewise regarding the disgust which these events, and others that have taken place in our good town of Paris, have caused to our very dear son; and on this occasion the disaffected princes have lately come to the town of Werneuil, whither we sent, on our part, properly-instructed ambassadors, and also with them our very dear uncles the dukes of Berry and of Burgundy. “Some of the inhabitants of Paris went by our orders to Pontoise; and our aforesaid cousin and nephews the king of Sicily, the dukes of Orleans, of Bourbon, and the counts d'Alençon and d'Eu, came to the town of Vernon, and thence sent their ambassadors to explain and signify to our aforesaid uncle and cousin the dukes of Berry and of Burgundy, and to our ambassadors, the cause of their complaints, and to remonstrate on the perils of the war that would speedily ensue unless their grievances were redressed. “These matters having been fully discussed, proposals of peace and union between all parties were brought forward, to avoid the miseries of a civil war. Many articles were agreed on : the first was, that a solid peace should be established between the princes of the blood-royal, which they were solemnly to swear to observe, and mutually to exchange deeds to this effect; but every one was to have the same liberty as before of declaring his opinion. The whole of the articles seemed very reasonable to the members of the university of Paris and of our court of parliament, as well as to many of the good citizens of our town of Paris, who were ready to examine them more fully, and report their opinion to us on the Thursday following. But notwithstanding this approbation, there were some of low degree and narrow minds, who by their own authority had seized on the government of the city of Paris, and who have been the cause of the war continuing so long, in order the better to keep their authority. These persons excited some of the princes of the blood and others to war by their false machinations, with the hope that their murders and robberies would remain unpunished, and that they should escape the vengeance due to their crimes. In consequence, by persevering in their wickedness, they practised so effectually that the meeting which had been appointed for Thursday was put off to Saturday the 5th of the month, in the expectation that they should before that day be enabled, by their base intrigues, to prevent peace from being agreed to, -the truth of which, under the pleasure of God, shall shortly be made public. But through the grace of God, the university of Paris, our chambers. of parliament and of accounts, the different religious orders, and the principal inhabitants of Paris assembled,—and having many fears of the ill-intentioned preventing that peace which they most earnestly wished for, by every attempt to obstruct so great a blessing as peace and union throughout the kingdom, came to us at our hotel of St. Pol in the afternoon, and desired an audience for the purpose of remonstrating on the happy effects that would ensue from the establishment of peace. They demonstrated the blessings of peace and the evils of war, and the necessity there was for proceeding instantly to the completion of the articles that had been agreed to by the ambassadors on each side,-and demanded, that the Saturday which had been fixed on should be anticipated, by naming the ensuing Friday, and that proper regulations should be made for the security of the city. “On the Friday, those who were desirous of peace went to the town-house in the Grève, thinking to meet their friends, and come with them to us in our hôtel of St. Pol; but they were prevented by those ill inclined to peace, who, though of low degree, had before come to our said hotel, and with them some varlets, all armed under authority of the government which they had usurped over the city of Paris.-On this account, therefore, these prudent wellwishers to peace assembled in the square of St. Germain de l'Auxerrois in Paris, and in other places, in great numbers and with firm courage; and though the others did everything in their power to throw obstacles in their way, in all their attempts they were baffled. “This assembly, on breaking up, left St. Germain in regular order, as they had determined on ; and on appearing in our presence, as well as in the presence of our son, our uncle and cousins, the dukes of Aquitaine, Berry, and Burgundy, with others of our council, a peace was agreed on, and the articles ordered to be carried into execution. Punishment was at the same time, to the great joy of the sober citizens, ordered to be inflicted, according to reason and justice, on all who had any way attempted to prevent a peace being made. Immediately after this had been done, and our will declared, our son, our uncle and our cousin aforesaid, mounted their horses, and, went to set at liberty our cousin and brotherin-law the dukes of Bar and of Bavaria, who had for a long time been confined in the Louvre, and also many other knights and officers of our own and our son's households, who had been imprisoned for some time in the dungeons of the Palace and of the Châtelet, by force of the aforesaid evil-minded and low persons, who, now perceiving that good government was likely to be restored, according to reason and justice, hid themselves like foxes, or fled, —and since that time, it has not been known where they may be found or arrested. This inclines us to fear that they may seduce others to follow their wicked example, by their WOL. I. s

dangerous and false lies, as they have before done, and that events more pernicious may ensure than what we have lately experienced, and which it concerns every one, through the grace of God, to prevent with all diligence. “This peace is considered so advantageous to all parties that the king of Sicily, the dukes of Orleans, of Bourbon, and the counts of Alençon and of Eu, have since sent their ambassadors to Paris, who daily attend to the due execution of all the articles of it, having fully approved of it and of everything that has been done by us; and the rupture of this peace at this moment would cause the destruction of us, our kingdom, and of all our faithful and good subjects. For this cause, we expressly enjoin and command you not to give credence to anything you may hear to the contrary, for what we have assured you above is the real truth, by any of these evil-minded persons who are inimical to the peace, nor to show them any manner of favour, -but, on the contrary, to throw them into prison, and send them to us, that we may inflict such punishment on them as the heinousness of the case may require. And you, bailiff, will cause the above to be proclaimed in all the considerable towns and villages within your jurisdiction; and you will also require from the clergy of the different churches, collegiate and others, within your bailiwick, that they do make processions, and offer up devout prayers to Heaven, for the effecting of the above peace, and that our Lord through his grace, would incline to make it perpetual. You will also personally be careful that there be no failing on your part in the due execution of this our will and pleasure. “Given at Paris the 12th day of August, in the year of Grace 1413, and of our reign the 33d." Signed by the king and his council, present the dukes of Aquitaine, of Berry, and of Burgundy, the marshal Longny.—“FERRON.”

St. GERMAIN-l'Auxerrois, PARIs.—From an original drawing.

Another edict was published by the king against men-at-arms and other warriors, and to secure the people against their inroads, which was sent to all the bailiwicks and seneschalships in the kingdom, of the following tenour.

“Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

“It has come to our knowledge, that within a short time many men-at-arms, archers and cross-bowmen, and other warriors, without any license from us given, either by written orders or otherwise, have unlawfully assembled, and continue so to do, in very many places and towns of our kingdom, with the intent of marching toward our good city of Paris, and

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