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This letter was carried to the king of England by a herald of count Waleran; and thereto the king, Henry, made answer, that he held his menaces cheap, and that it was his will that count Waleran should enjoy his country and his subjects.

The count de St. Pol, having sent this challenge, made preparations to begin the war against the king of England and his allies. He also caused to be made, in his castle of Bohain, a figure to represent the earl of Rutland *, with an emblazoned coat of arms, and a portable gibbet, which he got secretly conveyed to one of his forts in the country of the Boulonois; and thence he caused them to be carried by Robinet de Robretanges, Aliaume de Biurtin, and other experienced warriors, to the gates of Calais. There the gibbet was erected, and the figure of the earl of Rutland hung on it by the feet; and when this was done, the above persons returned to their fort. When the English garrison in Calais saw this spectacle in the morning, they were much surprised thereat, and without delay cut the figure down, and carried it into the town. After that time, they were more inclined than ever to do mischief to the count Waleran and his subjects.


IN this year, sir James de Bourbonţ, count de la Marche, accompanied by his two brothers, Louis; and Jean $, with twelve hundred knights and esquires, were sent, by orders from the king of France, to the port of Brest, in Brittany, thence to embark for Wales, to the succour of the Welsh against the English. They found there a fleet of transports ready provided with all necessaries, on board of which they embarked, intending to land at Dartmouth, but the wind proved contrary. Having noticed seven sail of merchantmen coming out of this har. bour, fully laden, making sail for Plymouth, they chased them so successfully that their sailors abandoned their ships, and, taking to their boats, made their escape as well as they could. The count de la Marche took possession of the vessels and all they contained, and then entered Plymouth harbour, which they destroyed with fire and sword. Thence he sailed to a small island, called Sallemuel ; and having treated it in the same manner as Plymouth, he created some new knights, among whom were his two brothers, Louis count

de Vendôme, and Jean de Bourbon his youngest brother, and many of their companions."

When the count de la Marche had tarried there for three days, suspecting that the English would collect a superior force to offer him battle, he set sail for France; but shortly after a tempest arose that lasted for three days, in which twelve of his ships and all on board perished. With much difficulty the count reached the port of St. Malo with the remainder, and thence went to Paris to wait on the king of France. This same year, duke Philip of Burgundy made grand feasts for the solemnization of the marriage of his second son Anthony, count of Rethel, who was afterwards duke of Brabant, with the only daughter of Waleran count of St. Pol,-which daughter he had by the countess Maud, his first wife, sister to king Richard of England. These feasts were very magnificent, and well attended by many princes and princesses, with a noble chivalry; and they were all supported at the sole expense of the duke of Burgundy. * Edward duke of Aumerle and earl of Rutland, son to + James II., count de la Marche, great chamberlain of Edmund duke of York, and cousin-german both to Richard France, succeeded to his father John in 1393, died 1438.

II. and Henry IV. The reason of the personal hatred of f Louis, count of Vendôme (the inheritance of his the count de St. Pol against this prince, appears to be his mother) second son of John count de la Marche, died 1446.

having deserted and betrayed the conspirators at Windsor. § John, lord of Clarency, third son of John count de la The discovery of that plot probably hastened the death of Marche, died 1458. Richard II. | Sallemue. Q. Saltash P

[A. D. 1403.]

IN the beginning of this year, the admiral of Brittany, the lord de Penhors, the lord du Chastel", the lord du Boys, with many other knights and esquires of Brittany, to the amount of twelve hundred men at arms, assembled at Morlenst, and embarked on board thirty vessels at a port called Chastel-Poli, to engage the English, who had a large fleet at sea on the look-out for merchantmen like pirates. On the following Wednesday, as the English were cruising before a port called St. Matthieu ş, the Bretons came up with them, and chased them until sun-rise the ensuing morning, when they engaged in battle. It lasted for three hours; but the Bretons at last gained the victory, and took two thousand prisoners, with forty vessels with sails, and a carrack. The greater part of the prisoners were thrown overboard and drowned, but some escaped by promising punctual payment of their ransom.

About this same time, an esquire, named Gilbert de Fretun, a native of the country of Guisnes, sent his challenge to the king of England, to avoid paying him his homage; and in consequence, this Gilbert collected many men at arms, and made such exertions that he provided himself with two vessels well equipped, and carried on a destructive war against the king as long as the truces between the kings of France and England were broken, from which event great evils ensued.


At this period, when the university of Paris was making its annual processions, much dissention arose between some of its members, as they were near to St. Catherine du Val des Escoliers, and the grooms of sir Charles de Savoisy, chamberlain || to the king of France, who were leading their horses to drink in the river Seine. The cause of the quarrel was owing to some of the grooms riding their horses against the procession, and wounding some of the scholars, who, displeased at such conduct, attacked them with stones, and knocked some of the riders off their horses. The grooms, on this, returned to the hôtel de Savoisy, but soon came back armed with bows and arrows, and accompanied by others of their fellowservants, when they renewed the attack against the scholars, wounding many with their arrows and staves even when in the church. This caused a great riot. In the end, however, the great number of scholars overpowered them, and drove them back, after several of them had been soundly beaten and badly wounded.

When the procession was concluded, the members of the university waited on the king, to make complaints of the insult offered them, and demanded, by the mouth of their rector, that instant reparation should be made them for the offence which had been committed, such as the case required,—declaring, at the same time, that if it were not done, they would all quit the town of Paris, and fix their residence in some other place, where they might be in safety. The king made answer, that such punishment should be inflicted on the offenders as that they should be satisfied there with. In short, after many conferences, in which the members of the university urged their complaints to the king, as well as to the princes of the blood who composed his council, it was ordered by the king, to appease them, that the lord Charles de Savoisy, in reparation for the offence committed by his servants, should be banished from the king's household, and from those of the princes of the blood, and should be deprived of all his offices. His hôtel was demolished, and razed to the ground; and he was besides condemned to found two chapelries of one hundred livres each, which were to be in the gift of the university. After this sentence had been executed, sir Charles de Savoisy quitted France, and lived for some time greatly dispirited in foreign countries, where, however, he conducted himself so temperately and honourably *, that at length, principally through the queen of France and some great lords, he made his peace with the university, and, with their approbation, returned again to the king's household. Not long after this event, sir William de Tigouvillet, provost of Paris, caused two clerks of the university to be executed: the one named Legier de Montthilier, a Norman, and the other Olivier Bourgeois, a Breton, accused of having committed divers felonies. For this reason, notwithstanding they were clerks, they were led to execution, and, although they loudly claimed their privileges, as of the clergy, in hopes of being rescued, they were hung on the gibbet. The university, however, caused the provost to be deprived of his office, and to be sentenced to erect a large and high cross of freestone, near the gibbet on the road leading to Paris, on which the figures of the two clerks were carved. They caused him also to have their bodies taken down from the gibbet, and placed in a cart, covered with black cloth; and thus accompanied by him and his sergeants, with others bearing lighted torches of wax, were they carried to the church of St. Mathurin, and there delivered by the provost to the rector of the university, who had them honourably interred in the cloisters of this church; and an epitaph was placed over them, to their perpetual remembrance.

* Chastel, the name of a noble house in Brittany. Tan- † Chastel-Pol. Q. St. Pol de Leon? neguy, so often mentioned hereafter, was of the same § At the entrance of Brest harbour. family. | In 1383, he was appointed to the office of grand trea

f Morlens. Q. Morlaix * suici.


IN this same year, an enterprise of arms was undertaken by the gallant seneschal of Hainault, in the presence of the king of Arragon f.

The combatants were to be four against four, and their arms battle-axes, swords and daggers: the combat was to be for life or death, subject, however, to the will of the judge of the field. The companions of the seneschal were, sir James de Montenay, a knight of Normandy, sir Tanneguy du Chastel, from the duchy of Brittany, and a notable esquire called Jean Carmen Ş. Their adversaries were from the kingdom of Arragon, and their chief was named Tollemache de Sainte Coulonne, of the king of Arragon's household, and much beloved by him : the second, sir Pierre de Monstarde|: the third, Proton de Sainte Coulonne ; and the fourth, Bernard de Buef.

When the appointed day approached, the king had the lists magnificently prepared near to his palace in the town of Valencia. The king came to the seat allotted for him, attended by the duke de Caudie", and the counts de Sardonne” and d'Aviemiełł, and a numerous train of his nobility. All round the lists scaffolds were erected, on which were seated the nobles of the country, the ladies and damsels, as well as the principal citizens of both sexes. Forty men at arms, richly dressed, were ordered by the king to keep the lists clear; and between their barriers was the constable of Arragon, with a large company of men at arms, brilliantly equipped, according to the custom of the country. Within the field of combat were two small pavilions for the champions, who were much adorned with the emblazonry of their arms, to repose in, and shelter themselves from the heat of the sun. On the arrival of the king, he made known to the seneschal, by one of his knights, that he and his companions should advance first into the field, since it had been so ordered, as the Arragonians were the appellants. The seneschal and his companions, on receiving this summons, instantly armed themselves, and mounted their coursers, which were all alike ornamented with crimson silk trappings that swept the ground, over which were besprinkled many escutcheons of their arms. Thus nobly equipped, they left their lodgings, and advanced toward the barriers of the lists. The before-named esquire marched first, followed by sir Tanneguy and sir James de Montenay; and last of all, the seneschal, conducted by the seneschal du Chut; when, having entered the lists, they made their reverences on horseback to king Martin of Arragon, who paid them great honour. They then retired to their tents, and waited an hour and a half for their opponents, who arrived, like the others, in a body on horseback. Their horses' trappings were of white silk, ornamented with escutcheons of their arms. When they had made their reverences to the king, they retired also to their tents, which were pitched on the right, where they all remained for full five hours thus armed. The cause of this delay was owing to the king and his council wishing to accommodate the matter, and prevent the combat. To effectuate this, many messages were sent from the king to the seneschal, proposing that he should not proceed farther; but he prudently made answer, that this enterprise had been undertaken at the request of Tollemache, and that he and his companions had come from a far country, and at great trouble and expense, to gratify his wish, which he and his companions were determined upon doing. At length, after much discussion on each side, it was concluded that the combat should take place. The usual proclamations were then made in the king's name; and the king at arms of Arragon, cried out loudly and clearly, that the champions must do their duty. Both parties instantly issued forth of their tents, holding their battle-axes in their hands, and marched proudly towards each other. The Arragonians had settled among themselves that two of them should fall on the seneschal, in the hope of striking him down: both parties were on foot, and they expected he would be at one of the ends of the lists above the others, but he was in the middle part. When they approached, the seneschal stepped forward three or four paces before his companions, and attacked Tollemache, who had that day been made a knight by the king's hand, and gave him so severe a blow with his battle-axe, on the side of his helmet, as made him reel and turn half round. The others made a gallant fight with their opponents; but sir James de Montenay, throwing down his battle-axe, seized sir James * de Monstarde with one of his hands under his legs, and, raising him up with his dagger in the other, was prepared to stab him; but, as the affair on all sides seemed to be carried on in earnest, the king put an end to the combat. According to appearances, the Arragonians would have had the worst of it had the combat been carried to extremities; for the seneschal and those with him were all four very powerful in bodily strength, well experienced in all warlike exercises, and equal to the accomplishment of any enterprise in arms that might be demanded from them. When the champions were retired to their tents, the king descended from his seat into the lists, and requested of the seneschal and Tollemache, in a kind manner, that the remaining deeds of arms might be referred to him and his council, and he would so act that they should all be satisfied. The seneschal, then falling on one knee, humbly entreated the king that he would consent that the challenge should be completed according to the request of Tollemache. The king replied, by again requiring that the completion of the combat should be referred to his judgment; which being granted, he took the seneschal by the hand, and placed him above himself, and Tollemache on the other side. IIe thus led them out of the lists, when each returned to his hôtel and disarmed. The king sent his principal knights to seek the seneschal and his companions, whom, for three days, he entertained at his palace, and paid them as much honour as if they had been his own brothers. When he had reconciled them with their opponents, he made them fresh presents; and they departed thence on their return to France, and the seneschal to Hainault.


* He is said, during his exile, to have signalized himself, crown. The right to the crown, both by the general law

like a true knight, in combating the Saracens, of whom he
brought back to France so many prisoners, that he con-
structed his magnificent castle of Seignelay without the aid
of other labourers.-Paradin, cited by Moreri, Art. “Sa-
t William de Tignonville. The event here recorded,
happened in 1408. After the bodies were taken down from
the gibbets, he was compelled to kiss them on the mouths.
: John, king of Arragon, was killed in 1395, by a fall
from his horse while hunting. By Matthea of Armagnac,
his queen, he had two daughters, of whom the eldest was
married to Matthew, viscount de Chateaubon and count of
Foix, who claimed the crown in right of his wife, and in-
vaded Arragon in support of his pretensions. But the
principal nobility having, in the mean time, called over
Martin, king of Sicily, brother of John, to be his successor,
a bloody war ensucci, which terminated only with the death
of the count de Foix. After that event (which took place
in 1398), Martin remained in peaceable possession of the

of succession, and by virtue of the marriage-contract, appears
to have been in the countess of Foix; but the states of the
kingdom here, as in some other instances, seem to have
assumed a controlling elective power. This authority, pro-
bably inherent in the constitution, was more signally exer-
ciscd on the death of Martin without issue, in the year 1410.
§ Jean Carmen. Q. Carmaing?
|| Pierre de Monstarde. Q. Peter de Monçada, the name
of an illustrious family in Arragon 2
* Duke de Caudie. Q. Duke of Gandia? Don Al-
phonso, a prince of the house of Arragon, was honoured with
that title by Martin on his accession.
** De Sardonne. Q. Count of Cardona 2 He was one
of the deputies from the states to don Martin, on the death
of John.
++ D'Aviemie. Q. Count of Ampurias 2 This nobleman
was another descendant of the house of Arragon. He
cspoused, at first, the party of Foix, but soon reconciled
himself to Martin.

* Before called Peter.

About this time the admiral of Brittany, the lord du Chastel, and many other knights and esquires of Brittany and Normandy, to the amount of twelve hundred or more, embarked on board several vessels at St. Malo, and put to sea, intending to land at Dartmouth. Notwithstanding the admiral and some others were adverse to going ashore there, the lord du Chastel and some others made their landing good, thinking they would be followed by the rest, which was not the case. They attacked the English, who were assembled in a large body; but, though the combat lasted some time, the Bretons and Normans were defeated, and the lord du Chastel slain,_with him two brothers, sir John Martiel, a Norman knight, and many more. About one hundred prisoners were made,-among whom was the lord de Bacqueville, who afterward ransomed himself by dint of money. The admiral and those that had remained with him, or were wounded, returned to their country, afflicted and disconsolate at their loss *.


NEARLY at this time, the marshal of France and the master of the cross-bowst, by orders from the king of France, and at his expense, collected twelve hundred fighting men. They marched to Brest, in Brittany, to embark them, for the assistance of the Welsh against the English, on board of six score vessels with sails, which were lying there. As the wind was contrary, they there remained fifteen days; but when it became favourable, they steered for the port of Haverfordwest,-which place they took, slaying all the inhabitants but such as had fled. They wasted the country round, and then advanced to the castle of Haverford, wherein was the earl of Arundel, with many other men at arms and soldiers. Having burnt the town and suburbs under the castle, they marched away, destroying the whole country with fire and sword. They came to a town called Tenby, situated eighteen miles off, where they found the prince of Wales:, with ten thousand combatants, waiting for them, and thence marched together to Carmarthen, twelve miles from Tenby. .

Thence they marched into the country of Linorquieś, went to the Round Table ||, which is a noble abbey, and then took the road to Worcester, where they burnt the suburbs and adjoining country. Three leagues beyond Worcester, they met the king of England, who was marching a large army against them. Each party drew up in order of battle on two eminences, having a valley between them, and each waiting for the attack of its opponent. This contest, who should commence the battle, lasted for eight days; and they were regularly every morning drawn up in battle array, and remained in this state until evening, during which time there were many skirmishes between the two parties, when upwards of two hundred of either side were slain, and more wounded. On the side of France, three knights were slain, namely, sir Patroullars de Tries, brother to the marshal of France", the lord de Martelonne, and the lord de la Valle. The French and Welsh were also much oppressed by famine and other inconveniences; for with great difficulty could they gain any provision, as the English had strongly guarded all the passes.

At length, on the eighth day that these two armies had been looking at each other, the king of England, seeing the enemy were not afraid of him, retreated in the evening to Worcester, but was pursued by some French and Welsh, who seized on eighteen carts laden

* Of this invasion, Stowe gives the following brief | Round Table. Q. Caerleon near Newport, in Monaccount: “The lord of Cassels, in Brytaine, arrived at mouthshire, one of Arthur's seats? Blackepoole, two miles out of Dartmouth, with a great navy, * Regnault de Trie, lord of Fontenay, was admiral of where, of the rustical people, whom he ever despised, he was France on the death of the lord de Vienne, killed at Nicoslaine.” polis. He resigned, in 1405, in favour of Peter de Breban,

+ John de Hangest, lord de Huqueville. lord of Landreville, surnamed Clugnet, and hereafter men

* Owen Glend wer. § Linorquie. Q. Glamorgan 2 tioned, but incorrectly, by the name of Clugnet de Brabant.

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