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king were his eldest son Louis, duke of Aquitaine, the dukes of Orleans, of Bourbon, of Bar, and of Bavaria, the counts of Vertus, of Alençon, of Richemont, of Vendôme, of Auxerre, of la Marche, of la Marle, of Eu, of Roussy, the archbishop of Sens, the bishop of Laon, and the count of Armagnac. The lord Charles d'Albreth, constable of France, was also with the king, and some other knights and esquires of the van division, consisting of three thousand men-at-arms at least, without including archers, so that the whole of the royal army may be estimated at about two hundred thousand persons of all sorts. The king's quarters at Vailly were in a house which had belonged to the Templars, about a cannon-shot from the town, and the duke of Aquitaine was lodged very near him. Soon after, the duke of Bourbon and others of the van division made an entrance early in the morning into the suburbs of Vaudemont, and there established themselves, in spite of the resistance from Arras, but it was not without a severe conflict. On another day, the duke of Bar, the count de Marle, and the count d'Armagnac, with the rear division, made good a lodgement on the opposite side, in the suburbs of Belle-mocte, so that the city of Arras was now so completely surrounded that scarcely a single person could venture out without being taken, although, during the siege, there were daily sallies made from the town, sometimes on foot, at others on horseback. The besieged often made sallies from two and even three gates within an hour's time, and on these occasions, as it was afterwards known, they gained more than they lost; for, during the siege, they brought into the place upward of twelve score prisoners, and great numbers were in these sallies always left dead on the field. One particular skirmish took place near the river Scarpe, between the suburbs of Bellemocte and the postern of Arras, which was very fatal to the besiegers. A party from the vanguard had crossed the river on a plank, one at a time, to the number of six or seven score, purposing to make an attack on the postern; but the besieged instantly sallied forth to combat them, and drove them back to the plank, when they, finding they could not repass without much danger, rallied and forced their enemies to retreat to the postern. At length, by the valour of a man-at-arms called Perceval le Grand, who was the leader of the townsmen, they were again forced to the water's edge, and so vigorously attacked that fifty at least were killed on the spot, or made prisoners: from fifteen to twenty were drowned in attempting to cross the river, whose bodies, in armour, were dragged out on the following day. About twenty of the besieged were killed or taken in their various sallies. Among those of name made prisoners, were Baugeois de la Beauvriere, the bastard de Belle, the Bastard Dembrine, and some other gentlemen from Burgundy; but they lost the greater part of their best horses in these skirmishes. The castle of Belle-mocte, situated near to Arras, remained, during the siege, steady to the Burgundy party. The guard of it was given to sir Fleurant d'Ancre and sir Symon de Behaignon: with them was a man-at-arms called Jean Rose, who was strongly suspected of wishing to betray the castle for money, and on that account was made prisoner and his effects confiscated. This fortress was well defended by the said knights for the duke of Burgundy, although the king's army took great pains to conquer it. To speak of all the different expeditions and incursions the king's troops made during this siege into Artois, Ternois, and other parts, would make too long a narrative; but I shall notice that which took effect under one of the bastards of Bourbon, and other captains, with about one thousand combatants. They went on a foraging party into the county of St. Pol, from which they gained an immense booty, in peasants, horses, cattle, sheep, and other things: they even advanced to the town of St. Pol, in which were count Waleran, styling himself constable of France, and the countess his wife, sister to the duke of Bar. They treated count Waleran with much abusive language, and said that he only pretended to be ill to avoid serving the king, his sovereign lord; and that he had manifested his warm affection to the duke of Burgundy by sending his nephew sir John de Luxembourg, with the greater part of his vassals, to assist him. Notwithstanding the count heard all that was said, he would not suffer any of his men to sally out against them, for fear the king and his council should be more discontented with him, and allowed them to burn a considerable part of the suburbs of St. Pol: they then returned to the king's army before Arras with their plunder.

On another day, about twelve hundred combatants assembled, and advanced toward Lucheux”, ransacking the country as far as the town of Hesdint, and committing much destruction; but the garrisons of Hesdin and of other places in the interest of the duke of Burgundy, pursued them with such activity and vigour, that they not only recovered several whom they had captured, but made many of them prisoners. Thus at different times were excursions made by the king's forces on parts that held out for the duke of Burgundy, by which the poorer people were sorely oppressed and ruined.

On the other hand, the garrisons of the duke of Burgundy, in his towns of Douay, Lens:, Hesdin, Maizerolless, and others, made continual excursions and ambuscades against the foragers of the royal forces, and likewise against those who brought provisions to the army from Amiens, Corbie, and other parts, whom they generally robbed, killed, or made prisoners. Hector de Saveuses, a very renowned man-at-arms, was particularly active in this kind of warfare: he usually collected from two to three hundred combatants under his banner, and, by secretly leading them against the king's forces, acquired much fame, and was greatly in the good graces of his lord, the duke of Burgundy; his companions were usually Philippe and Louis de Wargis, Lamon de Launoy, and other expert men-at-arms. The duke of Burgundy having resolved to relieve Arras, sent for all his captains, and, having consulted them, ordered, that on a fixed day they should make an attack on the king's army at Vaudemont, where the van division was quartered, under the command of the duke of Bourbon; and the garrison was to make a sally to support them, of which they were to be timely informed. These captains assembled a force of about four thousand combatants, whose commanders were the lord de Croy, the lord de Fosseux, the lord de Jumont, the lord de Chalons, sir Gautier de Ruppes, and some others, who marched their men to within about four leagues of Arras, and thence sent their scouts forward. The names of these scouts were Actis, Jacques de Breumeur, brother to Louis de Bussy, and others, whose names I have forgotten; but they were all taken by the king's army, and carried to the head-quarters. The duke of Burgundy's captains hearing of this, and supposing their intended attack would be known, were much troubled, and, without doing anything, returned to their garrisons, to the great displeasure of the duke.

During the time the king lay before Arras, his men took the fortress of Avénes-le-Comte, belonging to the duke of Burgundy, and Willers-le-Châtel from the lord de Gournay, both four leagues distant from Arras. They were regarrisoned with a considerable force, who much harassed the adjacent country, and gave the army intelligence of all assemblies of the enemy. All this time the town of Arras was constantly attacked by the cannons, veuglaires, bricolles, and other engines, to the great annoyance of its inhabitants, more especially on the side toward Vaudemont, and, moreover, several mines were made under the walls. Gne was particularly directed on this side, with the intent of forming a secret entrance to the city, but it was discovered by a counter-mine of the besieged, and a vigorous skirmish took place within it, each party being armed with lances. The count d'Eu fought with sir John de Meschastel, lord de Montagu, very valiantly, considering his youth : he had been knighted on this occasion by his brother-in-law the duke of Bourbon. When this skirmish had lasted some time, both parties retreated to their main army. Sir Louis Bourdon and others were quartered during the siege in the abbey of Mount-St.-Eloy, two leagues off Arras: it was surrounded by a strong wall, and consisted of handsome buildings, the whole, or the greater part of which, were destroyed by them, the gratings, iron, lead, bells, and everything portable being carried away. Thus at this time was the county of Artois most severely oppressed by the army of the king of France.

* Lucheux,−a town in Picardy, election of Peronne. * Lens,—a town in Artois, on the confincs of Flanders.

t Hesdin, -a strong town in Artois, on the Canche, § Maizerolles,-a village in Artois. thirteen leagues from Arras.

CHAPTER CXXV.--THE DUKE OF BRABANT AND THE COUNTESS OF HAINAULT VISIT THE KING OF FRANCE WHEN BEFORE ARRAS, AND NEGOTIATE A PEACE FOR THEIR BROTHER THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY AND HIS ALLIES.

ON the morrow of St. John the Baptist's day, the duke of Brabant, the countess of Hainault, and some deputies from the three estates of Flanders, came to the king to negotiate a peace between him and the duke of Aquitaine, and their brother and lord the duke of Burgundy. They arrived about two o'clock in the morning, and were graciously received by the king, the duke of Aquitaine, and others. Prior to the negotiation, an armistice was agreed on between the besiegers and besieged, which lasted until the treaty was concluded. This treaty of peace was publicly proclaimed, by sound of trumpet, in front of the king's tent, at eight o'clock in the evening of Tuesday the 4th day of September; and it was strictly ordered, that all persons, under heavy penalties, should lay aside their badges, whether of the party of the king or of the duke of Burgundy, who had worn a St. Andrew's cross, which was instantly done.

On the conclusion of the peace, some lords, who were suffering under a flux, left the king's army, namely, Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen, the lord Charles d'Albreth, constable of France, and several more. Sir Aymé de Sellebruche, and an infinite number of others, had died of this disorder; and it was this sickness that had caused the king and the princes to listen to terms of peace, that they might return to France.

Provost of ARRAs presenting the Krys of for City to the I. iNg. Designed from contemporary authorities.

When the peace had been signed, the duke of Brabant and the countess of Hainault presented to the king, in the name of the duke of Burgundy, the keys of the town of Arras, promising at the same time that all the towns and castles of the duke within the realm of France should submit themselves to the obedience of the king. It was ordered by the king and council, that the count de Vendôme, grand-master of the household, should enter the city of Arras, to receive the homage of the inhabitants. On his entrance, he had the king's banners placed over the gates; and having received the oaths of the townsmen, by which they promised henceforth to be good and loyal subjects to the king, he appointed the lord de Quesnes, viscount de Poix *, governor of the place, saving and reserving to the duke of Burgundy the revenues, and rights of administering justice. The king commanded, by the advice of his council, the duke of Brabant, the countess of Hainault, and the deputies from the three estates of Flanders, to appear on a certain day, which had been agreed on, before him and his council at Senlis, to fulfil the covenants and ratify the peace that had been made by them in the name of the duke of Burgundy.

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On Wednesday the 5th day of September, some wicked person set fire to the tents of the lord d'Alençon, about twelve o'clock at night, and the flames spread so rapidly that with much difficulty he escaped to the tents of the king. The count d'Armagnac, seeing the flames, caused his trumpet to be sounded, and ordered the rear division to stand to their arms, who, with the duke of Bar, marched out of their quarters in handsome array, and, having set fire to them, drew up in order of battle in different detachments; one in front of the gate of St. Michael, another before that of St. Nicholas, another in front of the gate of Haisernes, that the enemy might not take advantage of the fire and make a sally—for though a treaty of peace had been concluded, they had not any great confidence in it. The fire spread with such violence from quarter to quarter that it gained that of the king, and other divisions of the army, so that his majesty and the duke of Aquitaine were forced, within one quarter of an hour from its commencement, to escape in a disorderly manner, leaving behind many prisoners and sick persons, who were burnt to death. Several warlike engines, tents, military stores, and many tuns of wine, were all, or the greater part, consumed.

The duke of Bourbon marched away from Vaudemont in a very orderly manner, with the van division of the army; and that same morning, very early, several of the lower ranks in the garrison of the town sallied forth, and seized whatever they could lay hands on which had belonged to the army, and even robbed many tradesmen, in spite of the orders that had been given to the contrary. Those troops who had come from Burgundy were particularly active, and, quitting the town in large parties, plundered many of the king's army. In this manner did Charles king of France march from Arras to Bapaume : he thence went to Peronne, Noyon, Compiegne, and Senlis, where he and his princes remained the whole of the month of September.

The peace that had been agreed to before Arras, by the interference of the duke of Brabant, the countess of Hainault, and the deputies from Flanders, for the duke of Burgundy, was finally concluded at Senlis, through the means of Louis duke of Aquitaine, who had married the daughter of the duke of Burgundy, notwithstanding the duke had been the cause of those riots in Paris, when the duke of Bar and others, his servants, had been arrested against his will. The Orleans party had indeed treated him in the same way, by depriving him of his confidential servants, and doing other things which were displeasing to him. He was therefore very anxious that everything of the sort should be forgotten, and that henceforward the king and himself should be served and obeyed with unanimity by those of their blood and lineage, although he was often remonstrated with on the acts which the duke of Burgundy had committed prior to the king's leaving Paris; but he frankly replied that he would put an end to the war, for he saw plainly, that otherwise the king and kingdom were on the road to perdition. The peace, therefore, was concluded on the terms recited in the ensuing chapter.

* This nobleman was a descendant of Walter Tyrrel, Quesnes. He died in 1400, and left one son, John W., who killed William Rufus in the New Forest. John the viscount de Poix here mentioned. He was a counTyrrel, third of the name, lord of Poix and Mareuil, sellor and chamberlain of the king, and was killed at married Margaret de Châtillon, daughter to the lord de Azincourt. Dampierre. John IV., his eldest son, married Jane des

chapter crxvi.-The TREATY of PEACE CONCLUDED AT ARRAs, which was THE FIFTH, IS READ IN THE PRESENCE OF THE DUKE OF AQUITAINE AND SEVERAL OTHER PRINCEs of THE Blood Roy AL, AND THE oATHS THAT were TAKEN IN conSEQUENCE.

THE articles of the treaty of peace which had been humbly solicited from the king, on the part of the duke of Burgundy, by the duke of Brabant, the countess of Hainault, and the deputies from Flanders, properly authorised by him, were read in the presence of the duke of Aquitaine and the members of the king's grand council, and were as follow. “Whereas many mischiefs have been, from time to time, committed against the realm of France, and contrary to the good pleasure and commands of the king, and of his eldest son, the duke of Aquitaine, the aforesaid commissioners, duly authorised by the duke of Burgundy, do most humbly solicit and supplicate, in the name of the said duke, that all things wherein the duke of Burgundy may have failed, or done wrong since the peace of Pontoise, and in opposition to the will and pleasure of the king and the duke of Aquitaine, may be pardoned, and that they would, out of their goodness, receive him again to their graces and favour. The said commissioners will deliver to the king, the duke of Aquitaine, or to any person or persons they may please to nominate, the keys of the city of Arras, and of all the towns and fortified places belonging to the said duke of Burgundy within the realm of France, to which the king or his son may appoint governors, or other officers, according to their pleasure, and for so long a time as they may choose, without any way infringing the said peace. The duke of Burgundy will surrender to the king, or to his commissioner, the castle of Crotoy, and replace it in his hands. “Item, the duke of Burgundy binds himself to dismiss from his family all who have in any way incurred the indignation of the king or the duke of Aquitaine, and no longer to support them within his territories; of which due notice shall be given them in writing. —Item, all the lands or possessions that may have been seized by the king from the vassals, subjects, well-wishers, or partisans, of the duke of Burgundy, of whatever kind they may have been, on account of this war, shall be faithfully restored to them. In like manner, all sentences of banishment that have been issued for the aforesaid cause shall be annulled; and if the duke of Burgundy have seized and kept possession of any lands or possessions of the king's subjects, well-wishers, or of those who may have served the king in this present year, they shall be wholly and completely restored.—Item, notwithstanding the duke's commissioners have affirmed to the king and the duke of Aquitaine that he had not entered into any confederation or alliance with the English,_that all suspicions may cease on that head, they now promise for the duke of Burgundy, that he will not henceforth form any alliance with the English except with the permission and consent of the king and the duke of Aquitaine. “Item, in regard to the reparation of the duke of Burgundy's honour, which the said commissioners think has been much tarnished by expressions made use of, and published throughout the realm and elsewhere, in different letters-patent and ordinances,—when the peace shall be fully established and the king is returned to Paris he will consult with his own council, and with such persons as the duke may think proper to send thither, on the best means of reparation, saving the king's honour.—Item, the duke of Burgundy shall engage, on his word, that he will not, by himself or others, prosecute or wrong any person who may in this quarrel have served the king personally, or under different captains, nor any burghers of Paris, or other inhabitants, by secret or open means, nor procure it to be done.—Item, the king wills and ordains, that his subjects remain in such lawful obedience as they are bound to by the treaty of Chartres, or other treaties which may have been afterwards made ; and should such treaties require any amendment, he orders it to be done, and that they be faithfully observed without the smallest infringement. “Item, for the better security of the observance of these articles by the duke of Burgundy, the said duke of Brabant, the countess of Hainault and the aforesaid deputies, shall swear, as well in their own names and persons as on the part of the prelates, churchmen, nobility,

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